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Biol. Life Sci. Forum, 2023, Foods 2023

The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods

Online | 15–30 October 2023

Volume Editor:
Arun K. Bhunia, Purdue University, USA

Number of Papers: 125
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Cover Story (view full-size image): This volume proudly presents the remarkable contributions made to the 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods that was held virtually on 15–30 October 2023. This conference provided a [...] Read more.
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534 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Potential Antimicrobial Activity of Weak Acids in Combination with pH and Temperature on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris
by Alessandro De Santis, Barbara Speranza and Maria Rosaria Corbo
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15092 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 306
Abstract
Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris causes spoilage in fruit juices. This research investigated the effects of organic acids on the growth of two strains of A. acidoterrestris at different pH values and temperatures over 2, 7 and 14 days. The results show different impacts of weak [...] Read more.
Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris causes spoilage in fruit juices. This research investigated the effects of organic acids on the growth of two strains of A. acidoterrestris at different pH values and temperatures over 2, 7 and 14 days. The results show different impacts of weak acids on A. acidoterrestris’s growth and survival. Ascorbic and malic acids have the highest antimicrobial activity; also, pH played a crucial role. Moreover, the results suggest a possible activity of acids on outgrowing spores rather than on spores. Understanding the organic acids interactions with A. acidoterrestris is crucial for implementing strategies to ensure quality and reduce spoilage incidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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686 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluating the Impact of Argan Oil, Sugar, and Peptone Concentrations on the Survival of Escherichia coli
by Youssef Ezzaky, Mariem Zanzan, Ahmed Elidrissi, Kaoutar Boussif and Fouad Achemchem
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15005 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 384
Abstract
This study developed a predictive model for Escherichia coli survival in Amlou, a Moroccan almond–honey–argan oil spread, focusing on argan oil, sugar, and peptone concentrations. Based on the Doehlert matrix design, relationships were established between these ingredients and the death rate (DR) and [...] Read more.
This study developed a predictive model for Escherichia coli survival in Amlou, a Moroccan almond–honey–argan oil spread, focusing on argan oil, sugar, and peptone concentrations. Based on the Doehlert matrix design, relationships were established between these ingredients and the death rate (DR) and survival period (SP). Sugar affected the DR, while argan oil and peptone influenced the SP. The DR model demonstrated an RMSE of 0.0095 and SEP of 22.22%, confirming its accuracy. This work offers valuable insights for food producers about E. coli’s behavior in Amlou-like foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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239 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Fish Hydrolysate and Sodium Chloride on the Colour of Quinoa Flour Fermented by Monascus purpureus
by Franz Tucta-Huillca, Evelyn Quispe-Rivera, Ursula Gonzales-Barron, Vasco Cadavez and Marcial Silva-Jaimes
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15086 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 299
Abstract
Monascus purpureus is a red pigment-producing fungus. In the present study, the effect of fish hydrolysate and sodium chloride on the colour of quinoa flour fermented with M. purpureus was analysed. The colour of each sample was evaluated in CIELAB space (L*, a*, [...] Read more.
Monascus purpureus is a red pigment-producing fungus. In the present study, the effect of fish hydrolysate and sodium chloride on the colour of quinoa flour fermented with M. purpureus was analysed. The colour of each sample was evaluated in CIELAB space (L*, a*, b*), in addition to the C:N ratio. The minimum fermentation time was eight days and the values of L* (44.66 ± 0.532), a* (20.27 ± 0.323), b*(17.89 ± 1.342) and a C:N ratio of 11.05 ± 0.240 were obtained. Therefore, there is an effect of supplementation on increasing the red colour of the meal. This work opened up the possibility that red quinoa flour could be used as a raw material in the production of other food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
1795 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Tourism-Related Food Waste: Opportunities and Challenges
by Nezha Mejjad, Meryem Moustakim and Samira El Aouidi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15080 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 688
Abstract
Food waste is seen as a societal, economic, and environmental challenge, threatening food security and causing natural resource overconsumption and nutrition loss. There is inequality in the distribution of food resources around the world and many countries have been suffering from hunger while [...] Read more.
Food waste is seen as a societal, economic, and environmental challenge, threatening food security and causing natural resource overconsumption and nutrition loss. There is inequality in the distribution of food resources around the world and many countries have been suffering from hunger while others have excess food that goes to waste. Indeed, the Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that we entered 2022 with 828 million hungry people, the majority of whom are women and children suffering from malnutrition, wasting, and stunting. Moreover, the UNEP Food Waste Index 2021 indicated that nearly 931 million tons of food waste were produced in 2019, of which 61% originated from households, 26% from restaurants and food service, and 13% from retail. This, of course, hinders the achievement of the zero hunger goal by 2030. In this context, we analyze the main challenges and opportunities of using food waste produced by tourism activities using an S (Strengths), W (Weaknesses), O (Opportunities), and T (threats) analysis. The analysis shows that the challenges could be a source of important opportunities. We recommend enhancing the awareness of restaurants and food business owners about the impacts of increasing food waste on the economy and environment, and about the importance of waste selection and adopting the circular bioeconomy concept for the sustainable development of their businesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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555 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Factors Influencing Bioactive Constituents in Desi Chickpeas: Variety, Location, and Season
by Joel B. Johnson and Mani Naiker
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-14994 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a significant pulse crop in Australia, with an industry value of over AUD 1.3 billion. However, there are few studies investigating the levels of health-benefiting constituents in desi chickpeas and the impacts of variety, growing location, and [...] Read more.
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a significant pulse crop in Australia, with an industry value of over AUD 1.3 billion. However, there are few studies investigating the levels of health-benefiting constituents in desi chickpeas and the impacts of variety, growing location, and season on these constituents. This study aimed to study the levels of health-benefiting constituents in desi chickpeas, including 97 samples of Australian desi chickpeas, comprising 18 varieties, grown in a range of field trials across four Victorian locations and three growing seasons. Various physical characteristics and phytochemical compositions were determined in the samples, including 100-seed weight, colour, moisture content, total phenolic content (TPC), ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), cupric-reducing antioxidant potential (CUPRAC), and total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMAC). The screening results showed a significant difference in TPC, TMAC, and FRAP among different desi varieties, suggesting there may be variation in their potential health benefits. Furthermore, the growing location and growing season significantly impacted all analytes. Correlation analysis revealed a number of significant correlations, including a moderate positive correlation between the b* colour and the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. This work provides the first detailed insight into the range of phenolic and antioxidant contents found in Australian desi chickpeas and the impact that genotype, location, and season can have. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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1467 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Biomass Production and Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii in a Beverage for Athletes
by Alessandra Accettulli, Milena Sinigaglia and Angela Racioppo
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15108 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii is the only yeast indicated as a probiotic. In recent decades, sports drinks have become very popular due to their characteristic of providing health benefits. The main topic of this work was to study the effects of adding two [...] Read more.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii is the only yeast indicated as a probiotic. In recent decades, sports drinks have become very popular due to their characteristic of providing health benefits. The main topic of this work was to study the effects of adding two commercial strains of S. boulardii to a beverage intended for athletes, focusing on viability and consumer preference; as a preliminary step for biomass production, the effects of pH, glucose concentration and temperature were studied through Central Composite Design methodology. The results of this research suggest that the probiotic microorganism/food interaction needs to be carefully evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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1438 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Flours from Durum Wheat Varieties
by Ioanna S. Kosma, Afroditi Michalaki, Ioannis Geraris Kartelias and Haralabos C. Karantonis
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-14997 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Antioxidants are known to play a crucial role in maintaining cellular health by neutralizing harmful free radicals. Among various dietary sources of antioxidants, wheat-based products, particularly flours, have gained significant attention due to their potential health benefits. Durum wheat, a widely cultivated species, [...] Read more.
Antioxidants are known to play a crucial role in maintaining cellular health by neutralizing harmful free radicals. Among various dietary sources of antioxidants, wheat-based products, particularly flours, have gained significant attention due to their potential health benefits. Durum wheat, a widely cultivated species, serves as a primary ingredient in numerous food products. However, limited research has been conducted to assess the antioxidant activity of flours obtained from durum wheat varieties. In this study, we aimed to comparatively evaluate the antioxidant and antiplatelet potential of flours from 22 selected durum wheat varieties cultivated in Greece. We focused on three major parameters for antioxidant activity measurement: total phenolic content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The total phenolic content was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method, while DPPH and FRAP assays were employed to assess the ability of flours to scavenge free radicals and reduce ferric ions, respectively. The antiplatelet activity was evaluated using a platelet-activating factor inhibition assay (PAF) in platelet-rich plasma. Analysis of the data revealed notable differences in the total phenolics and antioxidant and antiplatelet activities among the tested samples. The total phenolic content ranged from 624.0 ± 3.5 to 950.0 ± 5.3 μg of gallic acid equivalent/g flour with the variety Zeta E having the highest content. The antioxidant activities based on the DPPH and FRAP assays ranged from 0.56 ± 0.02 to 2.26 ± 0.08 and 1.93 ± 0.02 to 3.65 ± 0.03 μmol of Trolox equivalent/g flour, respectively, with the varieties Marco Aurelio and Zeta E exerting the highest antioxidant activities in the DPPH and FRAP tests, respectively. In addition, the IC50 values for the antiplatelet activity ranged from 0.72 ± 0.21 to 3.06 ± 0.17 in mg of flour, with the variety of Zoi exhibiting the highest antiplatelet activity. Overall, this comparative evaluation highlights the differences in the antioxidant and antiplatelet activities among flours obtained from 22 different durum wheat varieties cultivated in Greece. The results from this study aid in the selection of wheat varieties with superior antioxidant and antiplatelet capacities for use in bakery food formulation and dietary recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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283 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Rosemary Essential Oil Extraction and Residue Valorization by Means of Polyphenol Recovery
by Filomena Monica Vella and Bruna Laratta
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15024 - 14 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 890
Abstract
The increasing demand for natural bioactive ingredients extracted from Aromatic and Medicinal Plants (AMPs) has produced disposal problems associated with residual solid waste. One of the main sectors interested in the exploitation of AMPs is the Essential Oils (EOs) industry. Despite EOs being [...] Read more.
The increasing demand for natural bioactive ingredients extracted from Aromatic and Medicinal Plants (AMPs) has produced disposal problems associated with residual solid waste. One of the main sectors interested in the exploitation of AMPs is the Essential Oils (EOs) industry. Despite EOs being the main commodity in the EOs industry, they only represent a small part of AMPs, generally less than 5% (w/w). This results in the production of a remarkable quantity of biomass that has no apparent commercial value and is therefore underestimated and underutilized by the EOs industry. Among AMPs, Rosmarinus officinalis L., commonly known as rosemary and belonging to the Lamiaceae family, is an aromatic plant endemic to the coastal area of the Mediterranean region but spread worldwide. Rosemary can be cultivated or grow wild as an ornamental evergreen shrub. Their leaves are usually used fresh or dried to flavor foods, mostly in traditional Mediterranean gastronomy, and recently, rosemary extracts were approved for use as food additives in Europe. The antioxidant activity of rosemary leaves has been acknowledged and is ascribed to EOs and polyphenolic compounds. To the best of our knowledge, the optimization of polyphenol recovery from rosemary residues after EO extraction has not yet been investigated. Hence, for the present study, EO extraction from rosemary leaves was performed using the hydro-distillation method, and the antioxidant (EC50) and sun-protective (measured in SPF) activities were evaluated. The polyphenolic fraction was extracted from the rosemary residue under specific experimental variables. In particular, tests were conducted at different extraction times (15 min, 30 min, and 60 min), temperatures (25 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, and 70 °C), and ethanol concentrations (50%, 60%, 70%, and 80%). In this study, an EO yield of 1.57% was obtained, and the EO had an EC50 value of 240.39 µL/mL and a SPF of 2.55. The maximum amount of polyphenols extracted from the rosemary residue was 24.14 mg GAE/g DW, achieved by using an 80% ethanolic solution at 70 °C for 60 min. This preliminary study reveals how the exploitation and consequential valorization of AMP solid waste may represent new answers for circular economy strategies adopted by European countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
577 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Supply Chain for Farmers in an Unprecedented Second Wave of COVID-19
by Jose Swaminathan, Kamal Varma, Siddhant Kumar, Nakul Wason, Eduar Bayona-Ibáñez, Yurley Medina-Cárdenas and Dewar Rico-Bautista
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15047 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 305
Abstract
The outbreak of COVID-19 challenged the sustainability of global agri-food markets. Through this research, the authors have made sincere efforts to recognize and remove/improve the potential factors that contribute towards an inefficient agro-based supply chain. COVID-19 has created much urgency to evaluate the [...] Read more.
The outbreak of COVID-19 challenged the sustainability of global agri-food markets. Through this research, the authors have made sincere efforts to recognize and remove/improve the potential factors that contribute towards an inefficient agro-based supply chain. COVID-19 has created much urgency to evaluate the existing supply chain and to propose a valid solution. In this particular research, the involvement of intermediaries is the point of focus. In addition, the profit margins for the farmer are hugely affected due to intermediaries. The current supply chain must be optimized, and this will lead to easier flows between each phase of the supply chain. Surveys were conducted and the farmers’ problems and expected solutions are highlighted in this research. Farmers in the northern states of India experienced more significant disruptions than those in other states because of a decreased availability of foods due to lack of diversity in crops. This research examines the existing supply chain for wheat crops and presents an optimization of the respective supply chain to save farmers more revenue. Through this research, the authors have attempted to observe and explore the problems faced by farmers and consumers due to the inefficient supply chain infrastructure prevalent in India because of the onslaught of COVID-19 and find an efficient solution. Due to the lack of adequate infrastructure, storage facilities, and old food-processing and supply chain technology almost 30–35% of the agricultural produce in India is wasted. A scientific solution to the existing problems is also presented after analyzing the existing supply chain and crop selection of farmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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1336 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of Nutritional Properties of Valerianella locusta Growing in Indoor Vertical Farms under Different Lighting Conditions
by Niki Mougiou, Spyros Didos, Konstantina Tsotsouli, Despoina Dafni Avgoustaki and Anagnostis Argiriou
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15040 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Vertical Farms (VFs) are controlled indoor growing systems that maximize crop production and land-use efficiency. The major disadvantage of VFs is the high energy demand for lighting, making it necessary to adopt light conditions that offer desirable traits to the plants under minimum [...] Read more.
Vertical Farms (VFs) are controlled indoor growing systems that maximize crop production and land-use efficiency. The major disadvantage of VFs is the high energy demand for lighting, making it necessary to adopt light conditions that offer desirable traits to the plants under minimum energy consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional factors of corn salad plants under different lighting conditions. Two different light qualities were tested, white and blue-red-near-infrared parts of the spectrum under three different daily light integrals, DLI, each. The optimal biochemical characteristics of the plants were observed under the most energy efficient lighting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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252 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Potential Implications of Elevated CO2 on Physiochemical Parameters in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotypes
by Nicola Novello, Joel B. Johnson, Kerry B. Walsh, Haydee Laza and Mani Naiker
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15115 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 284
Abstract
Three peanut genotypes were cultivated under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions. Elevated CO2 treatment was associated with higher total phenolic content (TPC) values in the shoots and roots of all genotypes. Seeds showed lower levels of TPC compared to the other [...] Read more.
Three peanut genotypes were cultivated under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions. Elevated CO2 treatment was associated with higher total phenolic content (TPC) values in the shoots and roots of all genotypes. Seeds showed lower levels of TPC compared to the other plant tissue, showing a decline in all three genotypes, and no differences between the CO2 treatments were observed. The Crude Protein (CP) content in seeds varied significantly among the genotypes, and elevated CO2 treatment was associated with mild increases (not significant) in CP of 4 and 6% in Holt and Alloway cultivars, respectively. It is worth mentioning that Kairi contained the highest CP content under elevated CO2 (29%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
239 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Assessment of the Bioactive Compounds and the Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antidiabetic Potential of Hydro-Methanolic Extracts Derived from Fresh Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Fruits Growing in Sri Lanka
by Haththotuwa Gamage Amal Sudaraka Samarasinghe, Dona Chamara Kumari Illeperuma and Katugampalage Don Prasanna Priyantha Gunathilake
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15095 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Morinda citrifolia L., or Noni, thrives in tropical and sub-tropical regions globally, garnering interest as a bioactive source. Despite Sri Lanka’s myths, Noni’s potential remains underutilized. The United States commercialized Noni products in the early 1990s, introducing Noni juice as a wellness drink [...] Read more.
Morinda citrifolia L., or Noni, thrives in tropical and sub-tropical regions globally, garnering interest as a bioactive source. Despite Sri Lanka’s myths, Noni’s potential remains underutilized. The United States commercialized Noni products in the early 1990s, introducing Noni juice as a wellness drink in 1996. In this study, we assessed Sri Lankan Noni fruit’s functional properties through methanolic extraction and various assays, revealing its notable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic potential. Methanolic-extracted fresh Noni fruits may serve as natural sources of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents. Exploring specific bioactive compounds could yield innovative treatments for oxidative stress, inflammation, and diabetes-related conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
455 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Exploring the Bioactive Potential of Gracilaria gracilis: An Extraction Optimization Study Using Response Surface Methodology
by Cátia Neves, Stephanie Morais, Tiago Vale, Cristina Soares, Clara Grosso, Valentina F. Domingues, Mónica Vieira and Cristina Delerue-Matos
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15026 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 335
Abstract
The extraction of bioactive compounds from the seaweed Gracilaria gracilis was optimized for food use using a Response Surface Methodology. Two designs, Central Composite Face-centered (CCD) and Box-Behnken (BBD) assessed the effects of extraction time, temperature, and seaweed-to-solvent ratio using water as the [...] Read more.
The extraction of bioactive compounds from the seaweed Gracilaria gracilis was optimized for food use using a Response Surface Methodology. Two designs, Central Composite Face-centered (CCD) and Box-Behnken (BBD) assessed the effects of extraction time, temperature, and seaweed-to-solvent ratio using water as the solvent. The extraction yield was assessed by Total Phenolic Content (TPC). BBD’s best model was a Reduced Quadratic (R2 = 0.9356), predicting 3.336 mg GAE/L at 74 °C in 1.4 h with a 1:75 ratio. CCD’s top was Reduced Cubic (R2 = 0.9091), forecasting 4.278 mg GAE/L at 46 °C in 1.1 h, the same ratio. The actual obtained TPC values were 4.35 mg GAE/L for BBD and 4.25 mg GAE/L for CCD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
2049 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Recovering Antioxidant Compounds from the Juçara Residue Using a Green Approach
by Matheus da Silva Lima, Ravena Rodrigues Pereira da Silva, Alex Aguiar Novo, Claudete Norie Kunigami, Eliane Przytyk Jung and Leilson de Oliveira Ribeiro
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15120 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 266
Abstract
Juçara (Euterpe edulis) is a Brazilian Atlantic Forest palm that produces phenolic-rich fruits used for pulp preparation. The pulp refining produces antioxidant and lipid-rich residue. This study applied glycerol as a green solvent for the microwave-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from [...] Read more.
Juçara (Euterpe edulis) is a Brazilian Atlantic Forest palm that produces phenolic-rich fruits used for pulp preparation. The pulp refining produces antioxidant and lipid-rich residue. This study applied glycerol as a green solvent for the microwave-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from residue. The variables included glycerol concentration (0–100%), microwave time (2–18 min), and temperature (53–187 °C). The total phenolic compounds (TPC) and DPPH antioxidant capacity were influenced by glycerol concentration and temperature (p < 0.05). TPC ranged from 1052 to 5329 mg GAE/100g and antioxidant capacity from 29 to 191 µmol Trolox/g. The highest values were at 187 °C, using 50% glycerol for 10 min. All models were significant, with R2 above 0.95. Glycerol, as a green solvent in microwave-assisted extraction, improves antioxidant compound recovery from juçara residue, presenting itself as a sustainable approach for adding value to the fruit production chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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1458 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Food 3D Printing Process on the Rheological Properties of Rice Protein Printing Inks
by Yeison Fernando Barrios-Rodríguez, Marta Igual-Ramo, Javier Martínez-Monzó and Purificación García-Segovia
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15061 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Different statistical approaches were used to analyze the rheological properties of a rice-protein-based product before and after printing. The printing ink was composed of 30% rice protein and 70% water, with the addition of 0.5% xanthan gum. Printing parameters: The layer height (1 [...] Read more.
Different statistical approaches were used to analyze the rheological properties of a rice-protein-based product before and after printing. The printing ink was composed of 30% rice protein and 70% water, with the addition of 0.5% xanthan gum. Printing parameters: The layer height (1 and 1.5 mm), printing speed (50 and 35 mm/s), and nozzle diameter (1.2 and 1.7 mm) were evaluated. Rheological properties were determined before and after printing using an oscillatory test from 0.1 to 10 Hz at 1 Pa. The decomposition of the curves into principal components helped us better understand the variations of the rheological properties along the frequency, differentiating the samples before and after printing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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755 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
From Forest to Table: Optimizing the Nutritional Value of Acorns through Effective Tannin Extraction
by Vanessa Monteiro, Cristina Soares, Clara Grosso, Cristina Delerue-Matos and Maria João Ramalhosa
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15036 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 414
Abstract
The acorn, a fruit of the Quercus genus, is abundant in Portugal and offers a high nutritional content, including essential minerals and vitamins, unsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive compounds like tannins, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. Despite their antioxidant properties, excessive consumption of tannins [...] Read more.
The acorn, a fruit of the Quercus genus, is abundant in Portugal and offers a high nutritional content, including essential minerals and vitamins, unsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive compounds like tannins, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. Despite their antioxidant properties, excessive consumption of tannins can cause health problems due to their effect on protein bioavailability. This study evaluated two extraction techniques, water immersion at room temperature for seven days and thermal hydrolysis via boiling for 30 min, and their effects on acorns’ tannin and mineral content. The results reveal that both extraction methods are viable options for extracting tannins, although they also reduce some important minerals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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245 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Functional Foods or Over-Hyped? Observations on the Antioxidant and Phenolic Content of Australian Foodstuffs
by Joel B. Johnson, Janice S. Mani, Ryan J. Batley, Beatriz E. Hoyos, Nicola Novello, Parbat Raj Thani, Charitha Priyadarshani Ekanayake Arachchige, Pasmita Neupane and Mani Naiker
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15085 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Consumers are showing increasing awareness of the concept of ‘functional foods’: foods that can provide health benefits in addition to their nutritional value. There is particular demand for foods with a high antioxidant and phenolic content, which may improve cardiovascular health, reduce inflammation, [...] Read more.
Consumers are showing increasing awareness of the concept of ‘functional foods’: foods that can provide health benefits in addition to their nutritional value. There is particular demand for foods with a high antioxidant and phenolic content, which may improve cardiovascular health, reduce inflammation, and slow or prevent the onset of chronic, non-communicable diseases. However, there is a lack of comprehensive databases using consistent analytical protocols to analyze the antioxidant and phenolic content of different food types, particularly in regional areas such as Australia. Over the past four years, our laboratory has analyzed over 1000 food-related samples using several antioxidant capacity assays (ferric reducing antioxidant power—FRAP—and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity—CUPRAC), as well as the total phenolic content (TPC) using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Here, we provide a summary of these data by different food types to inform researchers, policy planners, nutritionists, and consumers about the typical levels of antioxidants and total phenolics found across a range of Australian foodstuffs, particularly grains. The highest antioxidant and phenolic contents were typically found in native Australian fruits, while grains, nuts, and non-native fruits showed lower antioxidant and phenolic contents. Spices, processed foodstuffs, and non-fruit native Australian foods showed an intermediate content. Furthermore, medicinally used plants showed a much higher phenolic content and antioxidant capacity compared to non-medicinal plants. Finally, we present correlations between the various analytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
231 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of COVID-19 Lockdowns on Food Security, Sustainable Food Supply, and Health in Italy: Insights from a Study on Eating Habits and Physical Activity
by Mauro Lombardo, Elena Guseva, Marco Alfonso Perrone, Gianluca Rizzo and Elvira Padua
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15007 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 271
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has notably influenced eating and lifestyle behaviors, prompting shifts in dietary habits. This study examines lockdown effects on eating patterns and health risks. Lazio, Italy, faced multiple lockdown phases, impacting activities and prompting containment. Studies revealed mixed diet changes during [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has notably influenced eating and lifestyle behaviors, prompting shifts in dietary habits. This study examines lockdown effects on eating patterns and health risks. Lazio, Italy, faced multiple lockdown phases, impacting activities and prompting containment. Studies revealed mixed diet changes during short-term lockdowns, yet long-term impacts remain understudied. The study aims to assess lockdown effects on eating habits and health risks through pre- and post-lockdown questionnaires. Data on eating behaviors, food habits, and taste were gathered pre- and post-lockdowns from a Rome obesity center. Ethical standards were followed, and 1256 individuals participated. All participants were contacted between May and July 2021, with the request to repeat the same online test. In total, 118 participants agreed and were included in this study. A structured questionnaire covered meals, food groups, favorite dishes, and activity. Dietary history and body composition assessments were performed. Analysis demonstrated significant shifts in food consumption patterns. Cereals and raw vegetable intake rose, while legume consumption decreased. Drinking habits changed, but alcohol intake remained steady. The study highlighted changes in diet and lifestyle, including reduced eating out and sleep disturbances. Physical activity remained stable, with more morning sports. The study uncovers COVID-19 lockdowns’ impacts on eating habits and health risks, enriching our understanding of prolonged quarantine effects on food supply and security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
6 pages, 647 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Dietary Consumption of Edible Mushrooms for Disease Prevention: A Literature Overview
by Michele Antonelli and Davide Donelli
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15049 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Edible mushrooms have played a significant role in dietary habits, culinary traditions, folk medicine, myths, and culture since ancient times. This study aims to understand if the regular consumption of edible mushrooms as part of a balanced diet can have some specific beneficial [...] Read more.
Edible mushrooms have played a significant role in dietary habits, culinary traditions, folk medicine, myths, and culture since ancient times. This study aims to understand if the regular consumption of edible mushrooms as part of a balanced diet can have some specific beneficial effects on health, especially in preventive medicine. PubMed and Google Scholar were screened for relevant literature reviews, and five articles were included in this work. Overall, mushroom dietary intake was associated with reduced neoplasm incidence, particularly breast cancer, and improved glucose, lipid, and vitamin D levels. However, changes in cholesterol levels were not detected in all studies, and no significant effect was shown for modifications in blood pressure and body weight. In conclusion, the evidence available suggests that a balanced diet including a serving of edible mushrooms at least two-to-three times a week may decrease cancer and metabolic risk in the long run, thus contributing to reducing all-cause mortality risk. The quality of mushrooms and their nutritional characteristics is fundamental to ensure consumer product safety. Further studies should investigate in more depth the effects on health of different mushroom species consumed regularly and the exact minimum amount associated with significant benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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229 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) and Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Ethanolic Extracts: Inhibitory Effects on Pancreatic Lipase and Antioxidant Activity
by Rosa Tundis, Anna Rita Cappello and Monica Rosa Loizzo
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15065 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruits, rich sources of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, have been shown to possess promising biological properties. Herein, both fruits from southern Italy have been extracted by maceration by using ethanol as the [...] Read more.
Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruits, rich sources of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, have been shown to possess promising biological properties. Herein, both fruits from southern Italy have been extracted by maceration by using ethanol as the solvent and investigated for their potential pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity. The radical scavenging effects were also analysed by using the 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) tests. Our study showed that the extracts of both blackcurrant and raspberry have significant inhibitory activity against lipase with IC50 of 5.1 and 30.2 μg/mL, respectively, better than the positive control orlistat (IC50 of 37.1 μg/mL). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
246 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluating the Potential of Using Plant-Based Milk Substitutes in Ice Cream Production
by Tansu Taspinar, Gamze Nil Yazici and Mehmet Güven
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15011 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 922
Abstract
In recent years, the different dietary needs of consumers due to their health problems, such as food allergies and lactose intolerance, or lifestyle changes, well-being trends, and increasing awareness about environmental concerns, causes an increment in consumers’ demand to have more plant-based foods [...] Read more.
In recent years, the different dietary needs of consumers due to their health problems, such as food allergies and lactose intolerance, or lifestyle changes, well-being trends, and increasing awareness about environmental concerns, causes an increment in consumers’ demand to have more plant-based foods in the diet. In this regard, more sustainable alternatives for different food systems come into prominence, and the market size for new plant-based alternatives, especially for dairy products, is ever-increasing. Ice cream is a complex colloidal structure and is defined as a frozen foam that is considered a suitable matrix for plant-based milk substitutes. Although it is hard to obtain a stable colloidal ice cream structure when replacing cow’s milk with plant-based alternatives, the coconut-based, soy-based, and almond-based milk alternatives are regarded as some of the most suitable choices for ice cream production. According to studies, coconut milk’s fat and protein content helps the formation of emulsion and stabilization of the foam system. Also, it is indicated that soy-based ice cream is a good carrier for probiotics, has a better melting resistance, and has comparable sensorial properties with dairy ice cream when used together with milk alternative combinations. However, some technological, microbiological, and sensorial properties of plant-based ice creams were not similar to ice cream made with cow’s milk. Eventually, innovative approaches to producing ice cream with different milk alternatives could be promising and beneficial for the sustainable food industry and should continue to be developed to meet the current needs and interests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
246 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Potential Use of Synbiotic Combinations in Bread—A Review
by Gamze Nil Yazici, Ozum Ozoglu, Tansu Taspinar, Isilay Yilmaz and Mehmet Sertac Ozer
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15081 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 443
Abstract
To date, the most commonly used probiotics in the potential synbiotic combinations (SC) in breads belong to the family of Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae. However, Bacillus coagulans as a heat-resistant bacteria, and Saccharomyces boulardii, as a probiotic yeast, could be promising for use [...] Read more.
To date, the most commonly used probiotics in the potential synbiotic combinations (SC) in breads belong to the family of Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae. However, Bacillus coagulans as a heat-resistant bacteria, and Saccharomyces boulardii, as a probiotic yeast, could be promising for use in SC bread. Inulin is the most commonly directly used prebiotic source in formulations of potential SC bread. Moreover, co-encapsulations of probiotics with prebiotics, mainly including different hydrocolloids, could be beneficial. Although the consumption of potential SC in bread, generally including Lactobacillus sporogenes and inulin, by diabetics had some health benefits, there is a need for more comprehensive clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
238 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Overview of Algerian Food Quality Legislation, Regulation and Control Authorities
by Mimoune Souna and Choukri Tefiani
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-14998 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Consumers are faced with a multitude of hazards that may be present in the foodstuffs they consume. Legislation in the agri-food industry is a set of strict rules to be followed at every step in the process of releasing products. Quality assurance in [...] Read more.
Consumers are faced with a multitude of hazards that may be present in the foodstuffs they consume. Legislation in the agri-food industry is a set of strict rules to be followed at every step in the process of releasing products. Quality assurance in Algeria is essentially based on legislation framed by the law on fraud repression and consumer protection, together with health law, phytosanitary law and veterinary law. This is in accordance with international standards, such as the Codex Alimentarius, the ISO standards and international legislation, including the Basic General Food Law (EC 178/2002) and the Hygiene Package, as well as HACCP requirements. Public authorities must take all necessary measures to guarantee safe and healthy food products. The State, through its services, is the guarantor of public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
663 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Improvement of Tenebrio molitor Larvae Farming and Fatty Acid Composition by Supplementation with Vegetable Waste
by Gloria López-Gámez, Raquel del Pino-García, Andrea Justicia-Rueda, Claudia Delgado-Vicedo and José Luis Quiles-Morales
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15109 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 323
Abstract
T. molitor larvae were fed with wheat bran (W) and supplemented (1:1) with cucumber (C + W) or tomato (T + W) agricultural wastes, from conventional or ecological farming, for 6 weeks. Weekly and fortnightly measurements of larvae weight/tray and length were taken, [...] Read more.
T. molitor larvae were fed with wheat bran (W) and supplemented (1:1) with cucumber (C + W) or tomato (T + W) agricultural wastes, from conventional or ecological farming, for 6 weeks. Weekly and fortnightly measurements of larvae weight/tray and length were taken, respectively. At the end of the study, the fatty acid composition of the larvae was analyzed using GC-MS. On day 43, the weight of larvae supplemented with wastes almost doubled that reached by the control larvae (647–720 vs. 370 g/tray), which were 15% smaller. Supplementation decreased the larval fat content and increased the polyunsaturated fatty acids between 22–37%, with linoleic acid being the most abundant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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846 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optimization of Enzymatic Extraction of Melanoidins from Bread by-Products: Bioactivity and Microbiota Modulation
by Virginia Temiño, Gisela Gerardi, Monica Cavia-Saiz, Pilar Muñiz and Gonzalo Salazar
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15102 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 294
Abstract
The bakery industry generates substantial food waste, leading to global environment pollution and economic losses. However, these by-products contain valuable bioactive compounds, such as melanoidins, which are brown pigmented compounds with significant antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, making them ideal functional ingredient. This [...] Read more.
The bakery industry generates substantial food waste, leading to global environment pollution and economic losses. However, these by-products contain valuable bioactive compounds, such as melanoidins, which are brown pigmented compounds with significant antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, making them ideal functional ingredient. This study aimed to evaluate the optimal enzymatic extraction of melanoidins from bread crust using different proteolytic enzymes: pronase E, serine-endo-protease (SP), metalloenzyme protease (MP) and endoprotease papain enzyme (EP). While the yield of melanoidins from MP and EP was lower than that of pronase E, SP yield was significantly higher. No cytotoxicity of bioaccessible, gastrointestinal and colonic fractions was observed in the cell lines Caco-2, HUVEC and SHSY5Y. The antioxidant properties and ability to stabilize the hydroxyl radical were characterized in bioaccessible fractions of the four melanoidins extracts. Moreover, melanoidins positively influenced the intestinal microbiota by increasing beneficial bacteria like Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, while reducing non-beneficial bacteria such as Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium leptum, with particularly significant results for SP and EP enzyme extracts. In conclusion, SP and EP enzymes appear to be viable alternatives to pronase E for obtaining melanoidin extracts as functional ingredients. These enzymes offer potential cost advantages and contribute to the sustainable utilization of bakery by-product melanoidins in various food applications. Implementing these alternatives could help to reduce food waste, environmental pollution and economic losses in the bakery industry while promoting the use of valuable bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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1121 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Use of a Combined Autochthonous Starter to Ferment Peranzana Alta Daunia Table Olives
by Angela Guerrieri, Angela Racioppo and Barbara Speranza
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15107 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 231
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the use of a multiple-strain cocktail (Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Candida norvegica, and Wickeramomyces anomalus) as a starter culture for “Peranzana Alta Daunia” olives. The effect of the veraison degree of drupes (violet or green) and brine salt [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the use of a multiple-strain cocktail (Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Candida norvegica, and Wickeramomyces anomalus) as a starter culture for “Peranzana Alta Daunia” olives. The effect of the veraison degree of drupes (violet or green) and brine salt concentration (6 or 8%) on the acidification kinetics was analysed by using a 2k Factorial Design. The acidification was affected by all the variables tested with the veraison degree as the most significant one; in fact, neither salt concentration nor the presence of the starter was able to improve the acidification kinetics when unripe fruits were used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Chinese Medicinal Plants with Antiviral Activities for Treatment of the Common Cold and Flu
by Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian and Wenli Sun
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15058 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have been considered an important source of curative remedy for many years due to their potential chemical components which can promote health and prevent diseases. According to TCM, influenza is differentiated into two kinds, namely, wind-cold syndrome and wind-heat [...] Read more.
Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have been considered an important source of curative remedy for many years due to their potential chemical components which can promote health and prevent diseases. According to TCM, influenza is differentiated into two kinds, namely, wind-cold syndrome and wind-heat syndrome. Many traditional Chinese medicinal plants have been found to exert impacts against both cold and influenza viruses. This article included randomized control experiments, observational and analytical designs, and review articles which have been searched in Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The most important antiviral herbs for cold and flu are honey-suckle flowers (Lonicera periclymenum L.), thyme leaf (Thymus vulgaris L.), green chireta (Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. Ex Nees), Calendula (Calendua officinalis L.), and peppermints leaf and oil (Mentha piperita L.). The most notable expectorant herbs for cold and flu are snake root (Ageratina altissima (L.) R.King & H.Rob), tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum L.), licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl) and marshmallow osha root (Althea officinalis L.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry), and sage leaf (Salvia officinalis L.). Immunostimulant herbs for cold and flu are eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globuls Labill), Echinacea root (Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey), garlic (Allium sativum L.), marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.), Isatis root (Isatis tinctoria L.), ginger root (Zingiber officinale Rosc), and myrrh resin (Commiphora myrrha (T.Nees) Engl.). The most famous and practical herbal prescriptions from China are Jinchai, Rorrico, Ge Gen Decoction, Gegen Qinlian Decoction, Xin-Jia-Xiang-Ru-Yin, Yi-Zhi-Hao pellet, IMOD, and Arbidol combinations. Traditional Chinese medicinal plants and herbs with antiviral activities and prescriptions which are common in China can be considered for prevention and treatment of influenza and cold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
208 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Beneficial Effects of Traditional Iranian Medicine for Cancer Therapy
by Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian, Nazanin Shahrajabian and Wenli Sun
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15067 - 14 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 491
Abstract
Traditionally, Middle Eastern herbal medicines, especially traditional Iranian medicines (TIM), have been used by cancer patients both during and after active cancer treatments. Medicinal plants and herbs which are common in traditional Iranian medicine are considered to be less toxic and less expensive [...] Read more.
Traditionally, Middle Eastern herbal medicines, especially traditional Iranian medicines (TIM), have been used by cancer patients both during and after active cancer treatments. Medicinal plants and herbs which are common in traditional Iranian medicine are considered to be less toxic and less expensive than chemical drugs. Alkaloid anti-cancer compounds are pyrrolidine, tropane, pyridine, piperidine, quinolizidine, pyrrolizidine, isoquinoline, indolizidine, isoxazaole, oxazole, quinoline, quinazoline, purine, indole serin, colchicine, β-phenylethylamine, abornin, benzylamine, narciclasine, and pancratistatin. Anticancer terpenoids compounds from medicinal plants and herbs are alpha-hederin, isoprene, galanal A, galanal B, oleanane, carnosol, and xanthorrhizol. Anticancer phenolic compounds from medicinal plants are kaempferol, flavones, flavonol, curcumin, luteoline, chalcone, apigenin, and cafesterol. All relevant papers in the English language from different research using the keywords traditional Persian medicine, traditional Iranian medicine, natural products, and cancer were collected from PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct. Some of the most important medicinal plants and herbs in the middle east, especially in Iran, with anti-caner activities are Acorus calamus, Aracia seyal, Allium ascalonicum, Allium cepa, Agaricus campestris, Aloe vera, Allium sativum, Apium graveolens, Anethum graveolens, Arum palaestinum, Artemisia absinthium, Beta vulgaris, Astoma seselifolium, Brassica oleraceae, Brassica nigra, Boswellia carterii, Capparis spinosa, Bryonia syriaca, Ceterach officinarum, Cassia senna, Cichorium intybus, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Citrullus colocynthis, Cinnamomum camphora, Crataegus azarolus, Crocus sativus, Cucumis melo, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Peganum harmala, Punica granatum, Pistacia lentiscus, Zingiber officinale, Thymus vulgaris, Vitis vinifera, Viscum cruciatum, and Urtica pilulifera. Iranian medicinal plants and herbs should be considered more as a notable and great potential source of novel chemical ingredients with anti-cancer activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
865 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of a Functional Product Derived from Beet Molasses Vinasse on Blood Pressure and Endothelial Function in Hypertensive Rats
by Gisela Gerardi, Mónica Cavia-Saiz, Pilar Muñiz, Gloria López-Gámez, María Asunción López-Bascón and Raquel Del Pino-García
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15018 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 338
Abstract
A functional product obtained from beet molasses vinasse (V) was supplemented to hypertensive rats (SHR) to assess its preventive effects against high blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction. Fifteen potential bioactive compounds (including phenolic acids, flavonoids and terpenoids, and glycosylated compounds) were identified and [...] Read more.
A functional product obtained from beet molasses vinasse (V) was supplemented to hypertensive rats (SHR) to assess its preventive effects against high blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction. Fifteen potential bioactive compounds (including phenolic acids, flavonoids and terpenoids, and glycosylated compounds) were identified and quantified in V by HPLC-MS. The most notable finding of the study was that the blood pressure values remained similar to those at the beginning of the study in the SHR+V group. At the same time, they increased progressively in the SHR control group, reaching a significant difference of 16% (p < 0.05) after 5 weeks of supplementation. Quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses of the aorta demonstrated that V ingestion by hypertensive rats led to decreased ACE mRNA levels and higher SOD2 and eNOS gene expression via promotion of Nrf2 transcriptional activity and down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway. These results are associated with an increased antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and vasodilatory response. In conclusion, the intake of vinasse-derived products could mitigate hypertension and associated endothelial dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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1127 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction with Probe or Bath on Total Phenolics from Tomato and Lemon By-Products
by Laleh Mozafari, Marina Cano-Lamadrid, Lorena Martínez-Zamora, Rosa Zapata and Francisco Artés-Hernández
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15006 - 13 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 273
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) with probe (USAE-P) and USAE with bath (USAE-B), using different solvents (ethanol:water), on the extraction of total phenolic compounds (TPC) from tomato pomace and lemon peel by-products. The TPC after USAE with [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) with probe (USAE-P) and USAE with bath (USAE-B), using different solvents (ethanol:water), on the extraction of total phenolic compounds (TPC) from tomato pomace and lemon peel by-products. The TPC after USAE with probe ranged from 1.2- to 3.1-fold and from 1.1- to 2.0-fold more than USAE with a bath in tomato and lemon by-products, respectively. The solvent with the highest extraction of TPC from tomato pomace was 100% ethanol (between 1.2- and 2.6-fold more than the other solvents) while the best solvent in lemon peel was 100% water (between 1.1- and 2.0-fold more). USAE with probe demonstrated to be a clean, efficient, and a green technology for the extraction of TPC from tomato and citrus by-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
White Wine Pomace Mitigates Hyperglycemia-Induced Cell Damage and Oxidative Stress in Caco-2 Cells
by Víctor Gutiérrez-González, Gisela Gerardi, Pilar Muñiz and Mónica Cavia-Saiz
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15000 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Hyperglycemia is a significant risk factor in metabolic syndrome, contributing to the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycemia increases ROS (reactive oxygen species) production via glucose oxidation and protein glycosylation, leading to cell damage. Our previous studies have highlighted the antioxidant [...] Read more.
Hyperglycemia is a significant risk factor in metabolic syndrome, contributing to the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycemia increases ROS (reactive oxygen species) production via glucose oxidation and protein glycosylation, leading to cell damage. Our previous studies have highlighted the antioxidant properties of wine pomace products (wWPPs), a co-product of winemaking, and their ability to modulate oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of wWPPs against oxidative stress in hyperglycemic Caco-2 cells. They were treated with 1.5 μg GAE/mL of wWPP bioaccessible fractions, obtained from gastrointestinal digestion (WPGI) and colonic fermentation (WPF), under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic (35 mM glucose) conditions. After 24 h of treatment, cell viability, oxidative stress biomarkers and the expression of transcription factors and enzymes involved in cellular oxidation balance were evaluated. Hyperglycemia induced a 30% reduction in cell viability, which was restored to normoglycemic levels by WPF treatment. The bioaccessible fractions were able to counteract hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in intestinal cells, as evidenced by significant decreases in carbonyl groups and MDA levels (10 and 40%, respectively). Furthermore, hyperglycemia-induced NF-κB overexpression was also significantly reduced by WPGI and WPF pre-treatment (between 15 and 53%), modulating the redox activity. In conclusion, the bioaccessible fractions of wWPP, particularly WPF, demonstrated significant potential in mitigating hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and enhancing cell viability in Caco-2 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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509 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Effect of Adding Degreased Flaxseeds on the Quality of Pates
by Anna Florowska, Tomasz Florowski, Monika Krajewska and Adonis Hilal
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15014 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 251
Abstract
The aim of this research was to determine the effects of the addition of defatted flaxseeds (3.0%, 6.0%, 9.0%, 12.0%, and 15.0%) on the selected quality features of liver pates. The quality of pates was characterized on the basis of sensory assessment and [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to determine the effects of the addition of defatted flaxseeds (3.0%, 6.0%, 9.0%, 12.0%, and 15.0%) on the selected quality features of liver pates. The quality of pates was characterized on the basis of sensory assessment and pH, water activity, water-holding capacity, drip loss during refrigerated storage, color and texture parameters. Results of the analysis showed that degreased flaxseed addition at a level of 3% had no significant impact on most of the analyzed physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the pate. It was found that a higher level (especially 12–15%) of flaxseeds reduced pates’ sensory quality, mainly by increasing the intensity of the taste of the seeds. The largest tested addition of flaxseeds to the stuffing of pates resulted also in a change in color parameters by the seeds lowering the lightness (L*) and increasing the yellowness (higher +b* value), as well as increasing the penetration force and hardness and lowering the cohesiveness of the products. The positive effect of the addition of degreased flaxseeds, besides adding to the health value of pate, was also the improved water-holding capacity and reduced mass loss during refrigerated storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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266 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Exploring the Antiradical Potential of Species from Lamiaceae Family: Implications for Functional Food Development in the Context of Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Diseases
by Ana Campinho, Joana Alves, Rosário Martins, Mónica Vieira, Clara Grosso and Cristina Delerue-Matos
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15493 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases have become highly significant in Western societies. Unfortunately, these diseases currently lack a cure, and existing treatments merely manage the symptoms. Thus, it is imperative to explore new alternatives for either preventing these disorders or treating them effectively. One [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases have become highly significant in Western societies. Unfortunately, these diseases currently lack a cure, and existing treatments merely manage the symptoms. Thus, it is imperative to explore new alternatives for either preventing these disorders or treating them effectively. One promising avenue for prevention lies in the development of neuroprotective and antioxidant functional foods. To this end, a study focused on ten species from the Lamiaceae family, which have attracted attention due to their well-known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and anti-cancer properties, among others. The interest in their pharmacological applications has grown significantly in recent years. In order to uncover the biological potential of these species, the study involved performing decoctions and evaluating both the total phenolic content (TPC) and antiradical activity. The results revealed that TPC values ranged from 59.97 ± 6.18 (Ocimum basilicum L. var minimum) to 374.0 ± 16.9 (Salvia officinalis L.) mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of dry extract (dw). Additionally, the IC50 values for DPPH and ABTS•+ scavenging activities varied between 21.55 ± 1.18 (Origanum vulgare L.) and 132.0 ± 15.3 μg/mL (O. basilicum var minimum), and from 14.79 ± 0.50 (O. vulgare) to 44.65 ± 2.34 μg/mL (O. basilicum), respectively. The observed strong antiradical activity holds great promise for the future development of functional foods aimed at combating the oxidative stress implicated in these diseases and promoting overall brain health. By harnessing the potential of these species from Lamiaceae family, we may pave the way for innovative approaches to tackle neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
861 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Yoghurt-Like Drink Enriched with Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria
by Annalisa d’Amelio, Clelia Altieri and Daniela Campaniello
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15099 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 331
Abstract
To develop an enriched fermented milk, an experimental design was used in the first step by combining Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (isolated from oenological matrix) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains, at different inoculum levels (4, 5 and 6 log CFU/mL) and temperatures (30, 35 [...] Read more.
To develop an enriched fermented milk, an experimental design was used in the first step by combining Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (isolated from oenological matrix) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains, at different inoculum levels (4, 5 and 6 log CFU/mL) and temperatures (30, 35 and 40 °C) to study the effects on the acidification. Then, for the realization of the yoghurt-like drink, 5 log CFU/mL of both strains was inoculated in milk + 10% honey at 35 °C for 24 h; the fermented milk was stored at 4 °C for 50 days. The microbial concentrations were always >8 log CFU/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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225 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Vertical Farming as a Sustainable Alternative for Agriculture: The Italian Consumer Point of View
by Alessandro Celestre, Giorgio Mina, Luigi Bollani, Giovanni Peira and Alessandro Bonadonna
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15088 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Despite innovative approaches to urban food production, skepticism towards vertical crops remains widespread, posing profitability risks for agricultural enterprises. To overcome these challenges and develop successful business models, identifying consumer acceptance barriers is crucial for engaging stakeholders, investors, and farmers in local food [...] Read more.
Despite innovative approaches to urban food production, skepticism towards vertical crops remains widespread, posing profitability risks for agricultural enterprises. To overcome these challenges and develop successful business models, identifying consumer acceptance barriers is crucial for engaging stakeholders, investors, and farmers in local food production. When introducing innovative food production methods, like vertical farming, it is essential to gain public approval. However, recent technological advancements, such as genetically modified crops and artificial radiation, have been met with doubt, leaving overall consumer opinions about vertical farming uncertain. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to analyze Italian consumers’ acceptance of vertical farming systems and products, aiming to understand the main drivers that influence their desire to purchase such products. The research, conducted in Italy from April to May 2023, gathered qualitative and quantitative data through an anonymous online questionnaire that was completed by potential consumers. A total of 258 respondents were eligible for data analysis. The survey assessed participants’ knowledge, attitudes towards agriculture and food, and perceptions of vertical farming using Likert scale evaluations. The findings showed that, although a large proportion of respondents expressed interest in purchasing vertical farming products, concerns related to cost, authenticity, and environmental sustainability pose challenges. The evidence that emerged provides a series of indications for understanding consumer preferences more in-depth and useful suggestions for companies that need to expand the vertical farming products market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Effects of Multisensory Contexts on Tofu and Soy Sauce Evaluation and Consumption
by Haruka Hiraguchi, Erik van der Burg, Ivo V. Stuldreher, Alexander Toet, Sebastien Velut, Elizabeth H. Zandstra, Demi van Os, Maarten A. Hogervorst, Jan B. F. van Erp and Anne-Marie Brouwer
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15059 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 346
Abstract
We examined the effects of an informative pitch and multisensory contexts as potential factors influencing individuals’ experience of tofu with soy sauce and the amount consumed outside the lab. Two hundred and sixteen participants watched one of two pitches (promoting either vegetarian diets [...] Read more.
We examined the effects of an informative pitch and multisensory contexts as potential factors influencing individuals’ experience of tofu with soy sauce and the amount consumed outside the lab. Two hundred and sixteen participants watched one of two pitches (promoting either vegetarian diets or exercise) and were guided into one of three multisensory contexts (‘sustainable’, ‘meat’, or ‘neutral’ theme). Participants rated the aroma and appearance of soy sauce and the taste of tofu dipped in it using the intuitive ‘one touch’ EmojiGrid valence and arousal measuring tool. Our results showed that the ‘meat’ context increased arousal ratings for soy sauce and the tendency to consume more tofu relative to the other contexts. Pitch did not influence affective ratings or amounts consumed. We conclude that the multisensory context has the potential to positively affect peoples’ choices and perceptions of plant-based and sustainable food and promote its consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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612 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Extract of Rosemary as Food Additive: The Landmark Patents
by Reda El Boukhari and Ahmed Fatimi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15062 - 14 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 705
Abstract
Food additives are substances of natural origin or obtained by chemical synthesis. Among these additives, food antioxidants play an essential role in preserving food quality by neutralizing free radicals and inhibiting oxidation reactions, which helps prevent food spoilage and maintain its freshness, taste, [...] Read more.
Food additives are substances of natural origin or obtained by chemical synthesis. Among these additives, food antioxidants play an essential role in preserving food quality by neutralizing free radicals and inhibiting oxidation reactions, which helps prevent food spoilage and maintain its freshness, taste, and nutritional value. In addition, dietary antioxidants may also be beneficial to health. This is particularly the perception that consumers have in relation to antioxidants of natural origin, such as plant extracts. In this paper, we focused on the case of rosemary extract as a food additive which is authorized in many countries, including the United States and Europe, under the code E392. Through the examination of patent documents available in specialized databases and using appropriate keywords, our research made it possible to go back in time to first show the uses of rosemary extract and then specify the exploitation of rosemary extract in the field of food. We selected 411 relevant documents (granted patents and patent applications), almost 40% of which were filed in China. The first patent found was published in 1984, and it concerned a method to obtain a highly effective antioxidant from rosemary suitable for preventing the oxidation of food. This patent was followed by others which claimed, among others, more effective methods of making rosemary extract. More recently, innovations have focused on the synergistic effect of rosemary extract with other compounds, particularly for the antimicrobial action of food preservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Multi-Bioactive Potential of a Rye Protein Isolate Hydrolysate by Enzymatic Processes
by Desiree Islas-Martínez, Yair Noé Ávila-Vargas, Gabriela Mariana Rodríguez-Serrano, Luis Guillermo González-Olivares, Jesús Guadalupe Pérez-Flores, Elizabeth Contreras-López, Enrique J. Olloqui and Emmanuel Pérez-Escalante
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15037 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Foods based on plant proteins have increased in recent years. Thus, this study aimed to establish the potential of rye protein hydrolysates to release bioactive peptides to treat non-communicable diseases. Rye protein isolate was obtained using the solubilization–precipitation method and hydrolyzed with alcalase [...] Read more.
Foods based on plant proteins have increased in recent years. Thus, this study aimed to establish the potential of rye protein hydrolysates to release bioactive peptides to treat non-communicable diseases. Rye protein isolate was obtained using the solubilization–precipitation method and hydrolyzed with alcalase and flavourzyme. Hydrolysates were assessed for antioxidant, antihypertensive, and anti-diabetic properties. The rye protein isolate showed a protein content of 51.06 ± 1.15%, and its hydrolysates showed antioxidant, antihypertensive, and anti-diabetic capacities of 34.77 ± 0.59, 86.15 ± 1.15, and 40.62 ± 2.61% for flavourzyme, while for alcalase they were 78.58 ± 1.04, 86.76 ± 2.02, and 63.70 ± 1.27%. Hydrolysis with alcalase was the greatest, and the multifunctionality obtained was better than in similar studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Molecular Identification and Phylogenetic Inference of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Goat’s Raw Milk Cheese
by Laís Carvalho, Nathália Fernandes, Beatriz Nunes Silva, Ursula Gonzales-Barron and Vasco Cadavez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15103 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a vast genetic potential and are used in food production. The aims of this work were to identify forty-six 16S ribosomal gene sequences of LAB isolated from goat’s raw milk cheeses and to evaluate the phylogenetic relationship between [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a vast genetic potential and are used in food production. The aims of this work were to identify forty-six 16S ribosomal gene sequences of LAB isolated from goat’s raw milk cheeses and to evaluate the phylogenetic relationship between the sequences. Using Sanger sequencing and the BLAST algorithm, the species were identified. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out using the R 4.3.0 software, and the genetic distance was calculated using the MEGA 11 software. The phylogenetic tree revealed variability between sequences of the same species, which may have implications for the technological capabilities of LAB sought for the production of cheeses of standardized quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Social Research: How People Receive Information Related to Sustainability/Circular Economy, Their Perception, and Purchase Options: A Survey Based on the Island of Lemnos
by Georgios Kiouranakis, Zacharias Ioannou, Seraphim Papanikolaou and Dimitris Sarris
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15030 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Agro-industrial waste biotechnology refers to applications of biotechnological processes and techniques to convert agricultural/agro-industrial waste into valuable products. The food and agricultural industries generate significant amounts of waste during processing and production, including by-products from crops, fruits, vegetables, and other agricultural products. By [...] Read more.
Agro-industrial waste biotechnology refers to applications of biotechnological processes and techniques to convert agricultural/agro-industrial waste into valuable products. The food and agricultural industries generate significant amounts of waste during processing and production, including by-products from crops, fruits, vegetables, and other agricultural products. By using biotechnological techniques such as fermentation, enzymatic conversion, and microbial processes, it is possible to convert these waste materials into various useful products. But how do people receive this information (and others generated from this field of science) in their daily lives? This study aims to cover this topic and provide an approach to how it ultimately relates to people’s purchasing options. A total of 120 people (37.5% men, 62.5% women) from six different parts of Greece (34.2% from Lemnos) took part in this survey. The key result of the survey was that 85.0% of respondents responded positively to their awareness of sustainability/circular economy. In addition, 64.6% of participants answered negatively when asked (whether they thought the information they received from the media and public bodies on the topic of sustainability/circular economy was sufficient for them. Some 36.7% of participants responded that they would be willing to pay 20% more to purchase a product that itself (or a component of it) is produced through biotechnological applications, and 46.7% responded that they would be happy to pay more, but that cost coverage is important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Willingness to Adopt E-Commerce by Farmers in Naic, Cavite, as a Means for Sales during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Dave Joseph S. Oblena and Gerieka R. Anapi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15021 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1205
Abstract
Various strategies to contain the spread of COVID-19, including trade restrictions and lockdowns, challenged the movement of produce from farm-to-fork. Business closures reduced demand for produce, which affects Filipino farmers. As an alternative, e-commerce surged as a safer way to shop for [...] Read more.
Various strategies to contain the spread of COVID-19, including trade restrictions and lockdowns, challenged the movement of produce from farm-to-fork. Business closures reduced demand for produce, which affects Filipino farmers. As an alternative, e-commerce surged as a safer way to shop for produce. This study aimed to assess the willingness of Filipino farmers to adopt e-commerce using an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to measure their perceived innovativeness (PI), perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived cost (PC), information awareness (IA), and social influence (SI). Using Spearman’s rho, it was found that PI (p = 0.001), PU (p < 0.001), IA (p < 0.001), SI (p < 0.001), and monthly internet data allocation (p = 0.001) were all correlated to farmers’ willingness to adopt (WTA) e-commerce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Development of an Emotion Lexicon in Greek for the Self-Report and Measurement of Emotions Elicited by Foods
by Malamatenia Panagiotou and Konstantinos Gkatzionis
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15090 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Sensory linguistics and food science meet in the field of consumer studies. Glossaries of emotions and tools for measuring feelings related to food consumption are being developed in order to understand consumer preferences, and to gain insight to be used in consumer-focused product [...] Read more.
Sensory linguistics and food science meet in the field of consumer studies. Glossaries of emotions and tools for measuring feelings related to food consumption are being developed in order to understand consumer preferences, and to gain insight to be used in consumer-focused product development and marketing. Although there are lexicons and tools for measuring emotions in various languages, there are none in Greek, leading to reduced competitiveness of Greek products and companies. As is the trend in cross-cultural studies, for the present study, an English emotion measurement tool was translated into Greek. The consumers with whom the translated tool was tested reported that many of the emotions contained were inappropriate for the task. Thus, the need to develop a lexicon in Greek from scratch was identified. Following the methodology for the development of the EsSense Profile an established commercial measurement tool, input from consumers was collected using questionnaires of various forms and for a variety of foods and beverages. Additionally, language sources were used for the development of the new Greek tool. The World Wide Web and Instagram were also used as linguistic resources, a practice that does not belong to standard methodology but follows the current literature. The new emotion lexicon was used as a measurement tool and compared with a broadly used measurement tool that contains emojis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Production of Protein Hydrolysates from Spent Coffee Grounds via Microwave, Enzymatic, and Subcritical Water Extractions and Their Combination
by Panusorn Hunsub, Somkiat Ngamprasertsith, Nattapong Prichapan, Winatta Sakdasri, Aphichart Karnchanatat and Ruengwit Sawangkeaw
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15029 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 535
Abstract
Spent coffee grounds (SCGs) are currently considered abandoned landfill waste despite retaining valuable organic compounds, especially with a high protein content of 16.64 ± 0.13 g/g dried SCGs and a high oil content of 15.48 ± 0.17 g/g dried SCGs. As a result, [...] Read more.
Spent coffee grounds (SCGs) are currently considered abandoned landfill waste despite retaining valuable organic compounds, especially with a high protein content of 16.64 ± 0.13 g/g dried SCGs and a high oil content of 15.48 ± 0.17 g/g dried SCGs. As a result, SCGs could serve as a potential source of valuable ingredients. However, utilizing a single technical strategy of alternative green extractions was insufficient for extracting the target compounds and hydrolyzing proteins. This work aimed to optimize the operating parameters of enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and subcritical water extraction (SWE) using a response surface methodology. The results showed that EAE, at a papain-to-substrate ratio (E/S) of 0.5 and a duration of 15 min, generated a %DH of 93.39% and provided a water soluble protein concentration (WSPC) in the range of 400 to 800 µg/mL. Moreover, MAE provided a maximum %DH of 9.72% at 600 watts and 10 min, while SWE produced a maximum %DH of 13.41% at 160 °C in 17.5 min. However, the WSPCs of MAE and SWE extracts were comparable at ~250 µg/mL. The combination MAE−SWE enhanced the %DH of hydrolysates by more than the combined SWE−MAE, SWE, and MAE. However, the effects of differential hydrolysis on bioactivity are not directly correlated with %DH. In this study, the highest antioxidant activity was found at an E/S of 0.5 and in 15 min for EAE, at 350 W and in 10 min for MAE, and at 160 °C and in 30 min for SWE. This work demonstrated that the valorization of SCGs not only reduces the amount of waste but also yields functional cosmeceutical and nutraceutical ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Effect of Drying Methods and Storage Conditions on Quality of Purple Sweet Potato Leaves
by Ngo Van Tai, Vo Thi Ngoc Tran and Le Thi Kim Loan
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15093 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Purple sweet potato has been gradually increasing in terms of planting and consumption but, after harvesting, the leaves of the sweet potato are often discarded as waste or used for animal feed. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of [...] Read more.
Purple sweet potato has been gradually increasing in terms of planting and consumption but, after harvesting, the leaves of the sweet potato are often discarded as waste or used for animal feed. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of drying methods on the quality of sweet potato leaf powder and its storage capacity. The nutritional and antioxidant properties of powder were analyzed. The results showed that hot air-drying could preserve the antioxidant properties more than the sun-drying method. Both methods could produce a product with high nutritional value, especially a high amount of protein and fiber. This could be considered as a supplementation ingredient for the food industry. Moreover, after storage at room temperature for 12 weeks, a slight increase in moisture content and decrease in antioxidant properties were found. Further, the application of this ingredient should be further investigated in food application to improve the income for local farmers as well as reduce the environmentally harmful waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Investigating the Inhibitory Effect of Lactic Acid on Biofilm Production by Raw Chicken Meat Campylobacter spp. Isolates in Pure and Mixed Cultures
by Dimitra Kostoglou, Athina Vass and Efstathios Giaouris
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15078 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 292
Abstract
Campylobacter spp. are the main cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, and the biofilm growth mode seems to play a key role in their prevalence. In this work, the effect of lactic acid (LA) on planktonic growth and biofilm production by eight Campylobacter spp. [...] Read more.
Campylobacter spp. are the main cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, and the biofilm growth mode seems to play a key role in their prevalence. In this work, the effect of lactic acid (LA) on planktonic growth and biofilm production by eight Campylobacter spp. raw chicken meat isolates was investigated using polystyrene and stainless steel as the abiotic substrata. Results revealed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) values of LA against the Campylobacter isolates ranged from 1024 to 4096 μg/mL depending on the isolate, mode of growth (planktonic vs. biofilm; single vs. mixed culture), and the growth medium. Overall, the results of this work offer insights into the biofilm control of a pathogen of public health importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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238 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Colorimetric Evaluation of Quinoa Flour Fermented by Monascus purpureus Enriched with Monosodium Glutamate and Sodium Chloride
by Evelyn Quispe-Rivera, Franz Tucta-Huillca, Vasco Cadavez, Ursula Gonzales-Barron and Marcial Silva-Jaimes
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15082 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 277
Abstract
In the present study, the colour and C:N ratio of quinoa flours pigmented with M. purpureus supplemented with monosodium glutamate and sodium chloride were evaluated during 14 days of fermentation. The best values of L*, a* and b* corresponded to the eighth day. [...] Read more.
In the present study, the colour and C:N ratio of quinoa flours pigmented with M. purpureus supplemented with monosodium glutamate and sodium chloride were evaluated during 14 days of fermentation. The best values of L*, a* and b* corresponded to the eighth day. This research showed that the pigmented flour produced by solid state fermentation of quinoa by M. purpureus showing variations in the colour red along with the C:N ratio during the fermentation time, resulting in a product with good visual sensory attributes that can be used to develop new naturally pigmented products with potential functional characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Describing the Fate of Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria in Artisanal Goat’s Raw Milk Cheeses during Storage: An Omnibus Modelling Approach
by Olga María Bonilla-Luque, Arícia Possas, Úrsula Gonzales-Barron, Vasco Cadavez, Youssef Ezzaky and Antonio Valero
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15100 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Artisanal fermented products constitute a worthwhile source of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with biopreservative, technological and organoleptic potential. This study aimed to characterize the fate of autochthonous LAB in artisanal goat’s raw milk fresh cheeses at different temperatures by using an omnibus [...] Read more.
Artisanal fermented products constitute a worthwhile source of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with biopreservative, technological and organoleptic potential. This study aimed to characterize the fate of autochthonous LAB in artisanal goat’s raw milk fresh cheeses at different temperatures by using an omnibus (one-step) modeling strategy. Lab-scale cheese prototypes (10 g) were artisanally elaborated from goat’s raw milk and stored at 4, 12, 18 and 25 °C. LAB were enumerated (ISO:15214) during cheeses shelf-life. Growth models were fitted to the data, producing maximum growth rates averaging 0.345 ± 0.162 and 3.338 ± 0.907 ln CFU/g/d at 4 and 25 °C, respectively, and population increases averaged 3.388 ± 0.203 and 7.877 ± 1.480 ln CFU/g. The omnibus modeling approach allowed for the definition of a general model that describes autochthonous LAB growth with a correlation coefficient of 0.991 between experimental and estimated data. These results contribute to the better understanding of autochthonous LAB in artisanal cheeses for their further use as potential new-generation biopreservatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Effect of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose, Xanthan Gum, and Psyllium in the Formulation of Gluten-Free Bread for the Improvement of Organoleptic Quality
by Ramón Torres-Perez, Elena Martínez-García, Marta Igual, Javier Martínez-Monzó and Purificación García-Segovia
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15053 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 388
Abstract
Gluten-free bread is a new option for a population unable to digest gliadins and glutenins. This study compared the texture and color of four formulations, each containing varying amounts of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), psyllium, xanthan gum, and water. It was found that removing [...] Read more.
Gluten-free bread is a new option for a population unable to digest gliadins and glutenins. This study compared the texture and color of four formulations, each containing varying amounts of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), psyllium, xanthan gum, and water. It was found that removing xanthan gum reduced the hardness and gumminess of the breadcrumbs. Increasing the amount of psyllium increased gumminess and redness. Interestingly, increasing the amount of HPMC in the formulation did not show significant differences. This suggests that HPMC may not have a pronounced effect on texture and color compared to the control formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Characterization of Functional Proteins from Edible Bird’s Nest Using Proteomic Techniques in Combination with Bioinformatics Analyses
by Chia Hau Lee, Norfadilah Hamdan, Bemgba Bevan Nyakuma, Haryati Jamaluddin, Syie Luing Wong, Keng Yinn Wong and Ting Hun Lee
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15008 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is a valuable and nutritious food tonic made from the saliva of swiftlet birds. EBN has been consumed for centuries due to its high nutritional value. Proteins are the main nutrient in EBN. However, studies investigating the functional proteins [...] Read more.
Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is a valuable and nutritious food tonic made from the saliva of swiftlet birds. EBN has been consumed for centuries due to its high nutritional value. Proteins are the main nutrient in EBN. However, studies investigating the functional proteins in EBN are still limited. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the functional proteins from EBN using proteomic-based techniques. In addition, the molecular characteristics of the functional proteins were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed that 0.951 ± 0.03 mg/mL of functional proteins were successfully extracted from the EBN. Several distinct protein bands in the range of 35–135 kDa were profiled from the EBN. Using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS-MS), a total of 51 proteins were identified from the EBN. The protein sequences were processed in the BIOPEP database to predict the potential biological activity of EBN proteins. The prediction results suggest that EBN proteins potentially possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, antiamnestic, antihypertensive (angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors), antidiabetic (alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, alpha-amylase inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors), and antithrombotic properties. The antioxidant properties (DPPH-scavenging activity (20.84% ± 3.43) and ABTS-scavenging activity (31.49% ± 1.66)) and anti-inflammatory properties (inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production (21.30% ± 4.41) and inhibition of albumin denaturation (25.30% ± 0.32)) were experimentally validated. In conclusion, the results suggest that functional proteins from EBN are potentially functional ingredients in the nutraceutical and food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Comparison of Health-Benefiting Phytoconstituents in the Seeds of Australian-Grown Nigella sativa Genotypes
by Parbat Raj Thani, Janice Mani, Joel B. Johnson, Surya Bhattarai, Tieneke Trotter, Kerry Walsh and Mani Naiker
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15009 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 590
Abstract
Nigella sativa, an annual herbaceous flowering plant of the Ranunculaceae family, is considered an important medicinal plant due to the presence of several bioactive compounds in its seeds, including both volatile and non-volatile compounds. The cultivation of numerous genotypes of N. sativa [...] Read more.
Nigella sativa, an annual herbaceous flowering plant of the Ranunculaceae family, is considered an important medicinal plant due to the presence of several bioactive compounds in its seeds, including both volatile and non-volatile compounds. The cultivation of numerous genotypes of N. sativa is seen in different parts of the world with varying compositions of such chemical compounds. Since the variation in composition determines the quality grade of the seeds, this study was carried out to explore the compositional variation of twelve different genotypes of N. sativa cultivated in Central Queensland, Australia. The results showed total phenolic content (TPC), FRAP and CUPRAC (antioxidants), and thymoquinone in the range of 291–529 mg GAE/100 g DW, 703–966 mg TE/100 g DW, 2533–3416 mg TE/100 g DW, and 219–349 mg/100 g DW, respectively. The highest values of TPC, thymoquinone, FRAP, and CUPRAC were observed in genotypes AVTKS#E, AVTKS#F, AVTKS#4, and AVTKS#D, respectively. The lowest values of TPC and FRAP were observed in genotype AVTKS#24, and the CUPRAC and thymoquinone were lowest in genotype AVTKS#23 and AVTKS#1, respectively. Monomeric anthocyanins were absent in the methanolic seed extracts of all nigella genotypes. There was a strong positive correlation among the TPC, CUPRAC, and FRAP. However, despite thymoquinone being reported as a strong antioxidant in the literature, there was no significant correlation of thymoquinone with TPC or CUPRAC, and only a weak positive correlation with FRAP. Overall, the genotypes with comparatively higher values of thymoquinone, TPC, and antioxidant capacity (both FRAP and CUPRAC) showed particular potential for breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Valorization of Bioactive Compounds from Shrimp Shells: Comparison between Ultrasound-Assisted and Subcritical-Water Extractions
by Manuela M. Moreira, Flávia Gonçalves, Inês S. Marques, Andreia F. Peixoto and Cristina Delerue-Matos
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15122 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 279
Abstract
In recent years, shrimp consumption has increased, resulting in massive amounts of waste. In this study, different extraction techniques, namely, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), subcritical-water extraction (SWE) and conventional extraction (CE), were tested to evaluate their efficiency in recovering bioactive compounds from shrimp shells. [...] Read more.
In recent years, shrimp consumption has increased, resulting in massive amounts of waste. In this study, different extraction techniques, namely, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), subcritical-water extraction (SWE) and conventional extraction (CE), were tested to evaluate their efficiency in recovering bioactive compounds from shrimp shells. SWE performed at 200 °C was the extraction technique that allowed for the highest recovery of polyphenolic and carotenoid compounds (5.43 ± 0.17 mgGAE/g dw and 59.9 ± 1.0 μg carotenoids/g dw) as well as the highest antioxidant activity in ABTS and FRAP assays (7.93 ± 0.01 and 4.35 ± 0.31 mgAAE/g dw). These results demonstrate the potential of shrimp shells, which can be further incorporated into other products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
A Comparison of Green Extraction Techniques for the Recovery of Bioactive Compounds from Grapevine By-Products
by Eduarda Ferreira, Cristina Soares, Cristina Delerue-Matos and Manuela M. Moreira
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15050 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 239
Abstract
Different extraction techniques, namely ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), subcritical water extraction (SWE), and conventional extraction (CE), were tested to evaluate their efficiency in recovering bioactive compounds from grapevine by-products. SWE was the extraction technique that allowed for the highest recovery of [...] Read more.
Different extraction techniques, namely ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), subcritical water extraction (SWE), and conventional extraction (CE), were tested to evaluate their efficiency in recovering bioactive compounds from grapevine by-products. SWE was the extraction technique that allowed for the highest recovery of polyphenolic compounds, while grape stalk from the Cerceal Branco variety obtained using SWE at 150 °C had the highest TPC (17.0 ± 0.2 mgGAE/g fw) as well as the highest antioxidant activity from ABTS and FRAP assays (19.9 ± 0.3 and 13.0 ± 0.3 mgAAE/g fw). The phenolic composition revealed high amounts of catechin, epicatechin, chlorogenic, and neochlorogenic acids. SWE was demonstrated to be a powerful extraction technique for the recovery of polyphenols from grapevine by-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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887 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Geographical Differentiation of Honeys from Entre Ríos (Argentina) through Physicochemical Analysis: A Scientific Approach for the Characterization and Authentication of Regional Honeys
by Lucía Elisabet Brelis, Carolina Elizabeth Genevois, Daniel Primost and Verónica María Busch
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15075 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Argentina’s prominent global position in honey production is due to its extensive agroecological diversity. This study assessed the influence of geographical origin on the physicochemical properties of honeys from southeastern Entre Ríos. In total, 104 honey samples from Gualeguaychú (GU), Islas del Ibicuy [...] Read more.
Argentina’s prominent global position in honey production is due to its extensive agroecological diversity. This study assessed the influence of geographical origin on the physicochemical properties of honeys from southeastern Entre Ríos. In total, 104 honey samples from Gualeguaychú (GU), Islas del Ibicuy (II), and Concepción del Uruguay (CU) (2020–2022) were analyzed. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among districts: the II samples displayed the lowest values (color, conductivity, acidity, pH, and ash), the GU samples showed moderate values, and the CU samples exhibited the highest values, except for humidity. Chemometric analyses explained 75.5% of data variability (PCA) and successfully classified 85.3% of the samples by their origin (LDA). These findings bear implications for product differentiation and market value enhancement in Entre Ríos’ honey industry, serving as a foundation for future quality control and origin identification endeavors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Microwave-Assisted Ethanolic and Aqueous Extraction of Antioxidant Compounds from Pomegranate Peel and Broccoli Leaves By-Products
by Seyedehzeinab Hashemi, Lorena Martínez-Zamora, Marina Cano-Lamadrid, Elena Bello, Miguel Ayuso and Francisco Artés-Hernández
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15013 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 294
Abstract
The aim of the present work was to study the effect of solvent (50%:50% ethanol:water; 100% ethanol, and 100% water) on the extraction of total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAC) from pomegranate peel and broccoli leaves through microwave-assisted extraction (MWAE). [...] Read more.
The aim of the present work was to study the effect of solvent (50%:50% ethanol:water; 100% ethanol, and 100% water) on the extraction of total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAC) from pomegranate peel and broccoli leaves through microwave-assisted extraction (MWAE). In pomegranate peel, TPC after 100% aqueous MWAE (119.6 g GAE/kg dw) increased 1.6-fold more than 100% ethanolic extraction (74.2 g GAE/kg dw). Regarding broccoli leaves, TPC after 100% aqueous MWAE (28.4 g GAE/kg dw) increased 3.4-fold more than 100% ethanolic extraction (8.5 g GAE/kg dw). In this sense, TAC reported similar behavior in broccoli leaves’ extraction (DPPH and ABTS values ranged between 1.1–3.5 g TE/kg dw and 2.4–3.8 g TE/kg dw, respectively), while no great differences were found among solvents during the pomegranate peel extraction (DPPH and ABTS values ranged between 3.5–3.7 g TE/kg dw and 3.7–4.3 g TE/kg dw, respectively). Therefore, aqueous MWAE could be considered as a green technology to recover TPC from horticultural by-products. This could be of great interest for industry, and should contribute to the problem of food loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Valencian Paella: Synergistic Antioxidant Properties of a Complete Dish versus Its Isolated Ingredients
by Marta Cuenca-Ortolá, Amparo Alegría and Antonio Cilla
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15057 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 295
Abstract
The Mediterranean diet (MD) is rich in plant-based foods that provide antioxidants associated with a lower risk of chronic degenerative diseases, with Valencia’s paella being a representative dish. Antioxidants can be classified as extractable or non-extractable. Extractable antioxidants are easily extracted using aqueous [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean diet (MD) is rich in plant-based foods that provide antioxidants associated with a lower risk of chronic degenerative diseases, with Valencia’s paella being a representative dish. Antioxidants can be classified as extractable or non-extractable. Extractable antioxidants are easily extracted using aqueous and organic solvents. On the other hand, non-extractable antioxidants are those that are bound to the food’s cellular matrix and cannot be easily extracted. This study provides information on these properties in paella, evaluating total polyphenols (TP) (Folin-Ciocalteu method) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (TEAC and ORAC). Per 100 g, the total values ranged from 835.65 mg GAE/dry weight (DW) for TP to 1286.80 and 77,803.54 µM Trolox/DW for TEAC and ORAC (TAC), respectively. Approximately 82% of the TAC comes from non-extractable antioxidants. Furthermore, there is an antioxidant synergy in a portion of paella compared to the sum of its ingredients: TP (478.74 vs. 168.37), TEAC (2111.10 vs. 1669.98), and ORAC (127,642.42 vs. 47,023.59), respectively. The results can contribute to expanding the information present in TAC and total polyphenol databases, as there are few studies on complete dishes, and they tend to significantly underestimate the total values due to the lack of determination of non-extractable antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Preliminary Assessment of Microbiological and Physicochemical Properties of Artisanal “Chouriço de Carne” Fermented Sausages, Manufactured in Northern Portugal
by Ana Sofia Faria, Gisela Rodrigues, Rebeca Becker Miranda, Olga María Bonilla-Luque, Laís Carvalho, Nathália Fernandes, Miguel Angel Prieto, Vasco Cadavez and Ursula Gonzales-Barron
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15070 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 522
Abstract
“Chouriço de carne” is a Portuguese ready-to-eat dry fermented sausage which relies on effective spontaneous fermentation to ensure its microbial safety and desired organoleptic properties. This study aimed to assess selected microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of artisanal chouriço produced by 14 different regional [...] Read more.
“Chouriço de carne” is a Portuguese ready-to-eat dry fermented sausage which relies on effective spontaneous fermentation to ensure its microbial safety and desired organoleptic properties. This study aimed to assess selected microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of artisanal chouriço produced by 14 different regional producers. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium spp., Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp., in addition to pH, water activity and moisture, were evaluated for each of 70 samples. Principal Component Analysis of all these attributes was performed to build quality maps of the analyzed lots. The results showed great variability between sausages of different producers within the same geographic region, and S. aureus, Clostridium spp., Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were identified in sausages of several producers, highlighting the need for stricter microbiological control and standardization of production processes among artisanal producers of chouriço. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
A Dietary Supplement Containing Plant Sterols Exerts a Positive Effect on Inflammatory Markers in a Chronic Colitis Murine Model
by Mussa Makran, Rosa María Giner, Antonio Cilla, María Carmen Recio and Guadalupe Garcia-Llatas
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15158 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Plant sterols (PSs) have reported benefits in alleviating colitis in mice, but the mechanisms involved require further investigation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing PSs (PS-DS) on inflammation biomarkers in a mice model of chronic ulcerative colitis [...] Read more.
Plant sterols (PSs) have reported benefits in alleviating colitis in mice, but the mechanisms involved require further investigation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing PSs (PS-DS) on inflammation biomarkers in a mice model of chronic ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). C57BL/6J mice (n = 34) were exposed to 1.5% DSS in drinking water for three 5-day periods, with 10-day rest intervals in between. The mice received daily PS-DS (35 mg PS/kg) or placebo by oral gavage, either simultaneously (treatment) or 30 days prior (pre-treatment) to DSS exposition. After euthanasia, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the levels of pro- (TNF-α and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) in the colonic tissue were analyzed. PS-DS treatment reduced (vs. DSS + placebo) myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (2.6 ± 0.2 vs. 2.1 ± 0.1-fold change) and levels of TNF-α (85 ± 11 vs. 39 ± 7 pg/mg protein) and IL-6 (214 ± 26 vs. 128 ± 18 pg/mg protein), increasing the levels of IL-10 (46 ± 5 vs. 136 ± 16 pg/mg protein). PS-DS pre-treatment provided a greater inhibition (vs. treatment) of MPO activity (2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 1.3 ± 0.1-fold change) and a greater increase in IL-10 levels (50 ± 9 vs. 178 ± 30 pg/mg protein). These findings suggest that PS-DS has the potential to alleviate colitis in mice by modulating the inflammatory response and reducing oxidative stress. However, studies in humans are required to validate and fully understand its anti-inflammatory effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Sustainable Strategies to Increase the Content of Protein, Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Vitamins in Tenebrio molitor Larvae Flours through Vegetable Waste Supplementation
by Gloria López-Gámez, Raquel del Pino-García, María Asunción López-Bascón, Armando Lara-Cambil, Ana Vigil-Chacón and José Luis Quiles-Morales
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15110 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 297
Abstract
Tenebrio molitor larvae were fed with wheat bran and supplemented (1:1) with tomato or cucumber agricultural waste for 6 weeks. After supplementation, larvae were dried in a pilot-infrared oven (68 °C for 4 h) and ground to obtain the flours. The quality attributes [...] Read more.
Tenebrio molitor larvae were fed with wheat bran and supplemented (1:1) with tomato or cucumber agricultural waste for 6 weeks. After supplementation, larvae were dried in a pilot-infrared oven (68 °C for 4 h) and ground to obtain the flours. The quality attributes and nutritional value of insect flours differed based on the supplemented diet. Unsaturated fatty acids, proteins, starches and certain vitamins were enhanced in flours from supplemented larvae. Therefore, tomato and cucumber waste can be revalorised as supplements of T. molitors’ conventional diet to obtain insect flours with higher nutritional values and acceptable-quality attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Lead in Wild Edible Mushroom Species in Leicester, England
by Gurminderjeet S. Jagdev, Mark D. Evans, Tiziana Sgamma, María del Carmen Lobo-Bedmar and Antonio Peña-Fernández
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15035 - 14 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 266
Abstract
The aim was two-fold: to characterise the risks of lead (Pb) in Agaricus bitorquis collected in the city of Leicester (England), and to evaluate its presence in urban topsoils. Pb was monitored by ICP-MS in twenty-two homogenised mushroom samples (caps and stipes) mineralised [...] Read more.
The aim was two-fold: to characterise the risks of lead (Pb) in Agaricus bitorquis collected in the city of Leicester (England), and to evaluate its presence in urban topsoils. Pb was monitored by ICP-MS in twenty-two homogenised mushroom samples (caps and stipes) mineralised with HNO3/H2O2 [LoD = 0.872 mg/kg dry weight (dw)]. Moreover, 450 topsoil samples were collected from 18 urban parks across Leicester; Pb was also measured by ICP-MS after appropriate digestion (LoD = 0.698 mg/kg). Levels were significantly higher in the mushroom caps (p-value = 3 × 10−5); median and ranges are provided in mg/kg dw: 2.461 (1.806–6.664) vs. 1.579 (0.988–4.223). Concentrations were much higher than those reported in sixteen A. bisporus (median < 1.0 mg/kg DW) specifically cultivated in high-traffic areas in the inner city of Berlin, suggesting some contamination by Pb. All caps monitored exceeded the established maximum concentration limit for Pb in cultivated mushrooms in the European Union (3 mg/kg dw), in line with the high accumulative metal capability described in the literature for Agaricus spp. Although non-carcinogenic risks characterised for Pb were negligible in the monitored mushrooms, a high consumption of wild green edibles in Leicester’s city should be limited as there are multiple additional sources of Pb and other metals, and they should be substituted by cultivated edibles where possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
The Potential Use of Synbiotic Combinations in Cereal-Based Solid Food Products—A Review
by Gamze Nil Yazici, Ozum Ozoglu, Tansu Taspinar, Isilay Yilmaz and Mehmet Sertac Ozer
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15148 - 18 Oct 2023
Viewed by 355
Abstract
To date, the most commonly used probiotics in potential synbiotic combinations (SCs) in cereal-based solid food (CSF) products belong to the Lactobacillaceae family. On the other hand, Bacillus coagulans in pasta and Saccharomyces boulardii in cakes could be promising SCs in CSF. Inulin, [...] Read more.
To date, the most commonly used probiotics in potential synbiotic combinations (SCs) in cereal-based solid food (CSF) products belong to the Lactobacillaceae family. On the other hand, Bacillus coagulans in pasta and Saccharomyces boulardii in cakes could be promising SCs in CSF. Inulin, followed by β-glucan, is the most commonly directly used prebiotic source of SCs in CSF. Although there are some promising results regarding the hypocholesterolemic effect of SCs in CSF, there is a need for more comprehensive in vivo and in vitro studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
236 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Perspective of Applications of Wine Pomace in Flour-Containing Foods: A Mini-Review
by Nataliya Grevtseva and Sergey Gubsky
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15154 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 336
Abstract
Wine pomace, also mentioned as grape pomace (GP), is a byproduct of the wine industry, containing about 50% grape skins, 25% grape seeds and 25% stems. These wastes are of great value and great potential as a source of biologically active compounds. This [...] Read more.
Wine pomace, also mentioned as grape pomace (GP), is a byproduct of the wine industry, containing about 50% grape skins, 25% grape seeds and 25% stems. These wastes are of great value and great potential as a source of biologically active compounds. This opens up new prospects for the rational use of GP in the food industry. It is no coincidence that numerous new technologies for processing these byproducts have recently emerged to create a wide range of diverse new food products by enriching traditional foods with antioxidants, dietary fiber and mineral compounds. The most popular GP processing products are extracts and powders. Powders do not require special storage conditions, and they are highly adaptable, mixing well with other types of food raw materials, especially loose ones. Therefore, they are widely used in such products as bread, cookies, pasta, muffins, etc. Grape powders improve the structure of the dough, slow down the oxidation of fats, for example, in cookies, and increase the nutritional value of flour products. Finally, we will discuss these perspectives on the use of grape pomace as an ingredient in the formulation of flour-containing food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
871 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impregnation of Krill Oil Microcapsules into Golden Apple Slices’ Intercellular Tissue
by César Antonio Ortiz-Sánchez, Enrique Flores-Andrade, Marisol Castillo Morales, Rafael Uzárraga Salazar, Nayeli Gutiérrez Casiano, Francisco Erik González Jiménez and Ubaldo Richard Marín-Castro
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15155 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Krill oil (KO) and the impregnation process to enrich food matrices with bioactive compounds have become relevant. The impregnation process of KO microcapsules into Golden apple tissue was evaluated in this study. A KO emulsion was used at different temperatures to impregnate Golden [...] Read more.
Krill oil (KO) and the impregnation process to enrich food matrices with bioactive compounds have become relevant. The impregnation process of KO microcapsules into Golden apple tissue was evaluated in this study. A KO emulsion was used at different temperatures to impregnate Golden apple slices. The results show that an increase in temperature causes greater removal of water and penetration of the KO microcapsules. At 60 °C, the volume changes of the samples were evident, obtaining the highest concentration of astaxanthin. Through the impregnation process, it is possible to produce a new food product with potential functional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Bovine Whey Hydrolysis with Pancreatin Produces a Functional Ingredient for Developing Antihypertensive Beverages
by Daniela Alidee Tolentino-Barroso, Luis Guillermo González-Olivares, Jesús Guadalupe Pérez-Flores, Elizabeth Contreras-López, Laura Berenice Olvera-Rosales, Meyli Claudia Escobar-Ramírez, Enrique J. Olloqui and Emmanuel Pérez-Escalante
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15020 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Bovine whey remains a common pollutant from food, and diverse strategies to mitigate it have been formed. Therefore, this study aimed to generate a functional ingredient from whey hydrolysis to be incorporated into beverage formulations. Hydrolysis at pH = 8 for 7 h [...] Read more.
Bovine whey remains a common pollutant from food, and diverse strategies to mitigate it have been formed. Therefore, this study aimed to generate a functional ingredient from whey hydrolysis to be incorporated into beverage formulations. Hydrolysis at pH = 8 for 7 h was performed in order to determine the sample to be added to the beverage. It was elaborated according to a local producer, and its ACE inhibition capacity was tested. Kinetics showed that the degree of hydrolysis only significantly differed during the times of 0, 4, and 7 h. The exact times were submitted to the ACE inhibition test, but only 0 and 7 h showed higher activity (32.41 ± 0.63 and 29.63 ± 1.10%, respectively). As no statistical differences were found, both hydrolysates were incorporated into the beverage, expressing an antihypertensive capacity of 74.84 ± 1.39 and 78.76 ± 1.39%, respectively. A better sensorial profile was determined in the beverage made with 7 h hydrolysate, where a less salty taste was identified. Thus, pancreatin hydrolysis of whey was found to generate peptides with antihypertensive activity and improved acceptance characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
249 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Utilizing Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Discriminant Analysis of Goat Milk Composition across Diverse Breeds and Lactation Seasons
by Yllka Visoka, Mariem Majadi, Zoltan Kovacs and Rreze M. Gecaj
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15072 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 417
Abstract
Goat milk is a vital, sustainable dairy product source that contributes significantly to the global dairy market. Different goat breeds may produce milk with varying compositions during different lactation seasons. Therefore, milk composition and quality need to be monitored. As a versatile and [...] Read more.
Goat milk is a vital, sustainable dairy product source that contributes significantly to the global dairy market. Different goat breeds may produce milk with varying compositions during different lactation seasons. Therefore, milk composition and quality need to be monitored. As a versatile and non-destructive method, Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) offers the potential for evaluating various milk parameters. In this study, we aim to establish NIRS models for classifying goat’s milk samples between the native Red and Alpine Breed at first and fifth lactation season. Our objective is to assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of NIRS as a viable alternative to traditional laboratory techniques. Forty-five milk samples were collected from two breeds, French Alpine goats, and native Red goats. Within each breed, half of the samples originated from goats in their first lactation season and the other half from goats in their fifth lactation season. The NIRS measurements were conducted using homogenized, untreated, and diluted milk samples. The experiment was performed with a benchtop spectrophotometer (740–1700 nm). Qualitative analysis using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was conducted, demonstrating the feasibility of NIRS in effectively classifying samples. The achieved accuracy ranged between 67.19% to 100%, depending on the breed and lactation period. These findings underscore the potential of NIRS as a rapid, non-destructive analytical tool for quality monitoring and milk analysis. Its insights guide decision-making in nutrition, agriculture, food production, and public health. By exploiting on the distinct attributes of goat milk originating from various breeds at different lactation periods, we can offer a wide range of appropriate and varied food choices tailored to distinct population groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Promoting Legume Consumption: Strategies for Health, Nutrition, and Culinary Applications
by Mauro Lombardo, Angela Ascione, Alessandra Feraco, Elisabetta Camajani, Stefania Gorini, Andrea Armani, Massimiliano Caprio and Isaac Amoah
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15083 - 14 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 325
Abstract
Legumes, as functional foods, face barriers to consumption despite their undeniable benefits. The presentation exposes innovative strategies. Through methods such as soaking, sprouting and the application of advanced technologies, anti-nutrients are reduced, and digestibility is improved. Extrusion allows the creation of enriched functional [...] Read more.
Legumes, as functional foods, face barriers to consumption despite their undeniable benefits. The presentation exposes innovative strategies. Through methods such as soaking, sprouting and the application of advanced technologies, anti-nutrients are reduced, and digestibility is improved. Extrusion allows the creation of enriched functional foods. Culinary approaches, such as inclusion in salads and hummus, amplify palatability. Synergies with bioactive compounds are investigated for targeted results. These educational actions promote sustainable environmental choices. The combination of science, culinary and education promotes the acceptance and use of legumes, leading to improved quality of diet and health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Properties of Oil Extracted from Oat Grains before and after the Roasting Process Conducted under Different Conditions
by Bharani Kumar Palani, Joanna Bryś, Eliza Gruczyńska-Sękowska, Andrzej Bryś and Piotr Koczoń
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15044 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 328
Abstract
Oat (Avena sativa L.) grains are an important source of protein, minerals and oil. They contain at least twice as much fat as other common cereals, such as wheat, barley or rye, and the fat contained in oat grains significantly contributes to [...] Read more.
Oat (Avena sativa L.) grains are an important source of protein, minerals and oil. They contain at least twice as much fat as other common cereals, such as wheat, barley or rye, and the fat contained in oat grains significantly contributes to their properties, including improved calorific value and nutritional quality. Heat treatment, particularly roasting, has long been considered the essential method of processing grains, as roasting effectively extends shelf life, provides a pleasant roasted flavor and improves taste. The paper covers the improving effect of the roasting process of the whole oat grain on the quality of the oil contained in the grains. A differential scanning calorimeter coupled with a high-pressure cell has been used to determine the oxidative stability of oil. A calorimetric bomb was applied to determine the whole grain calorific value and GC (Gas Chromatography) determined the fatty acid composition of oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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491 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Potential of Onion Byproducts as a Sustainable Source of Dietary Fiber and Antioxidant Compounds for Its Application as a Functional Ingredient
by Jessica Báez, Gian Marra, Victoria Olt, Adriana Maite Fernández-Fernández and Alejandra Medrano
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15046 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 309
Abstract
Onion is one of the main crops in the world and there has been an increase in the demand for processed onion in the form of frozen and freeze-dried chopped onion in the last decade, with a detrimental impact on the environment. Onion [...] Read more.
Onion is one of the main crops in the world and there has been an increase in the demand for processed onion in the form of frozen and freeze-dried chopped onion in the last decade, with a detrimental impact on the environment. Onion byproducts (tops and bottoms of onion bulbs, onion skins, and undersized, malformed, diseased, or damaged bulbs) are a rich source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, representing a sustainable alternative to the use of traditional ingredients in the formulation of food products for the application of the circular economy concept. The aim of this work was to study the potential of onion byproducts as a functional ingredient by determining their in vitro bioactive properties. For the onion byproducts—skin (OS) and pulp with 9% of skin (OP)—proximal analysis was performed (AOAC, 1999): moisture, ash, proteins, fat, total dietary fiber (TDF) and total carbohydrates by difference. Bioactive properties were assessed by determining the total phenolic compounds (TPC, Folin–Ciocalteu method), antioxidant capacity (ABTS, ORAC-FL, and HORAC methods), and α-glucosidase inhibition capacity. Among the most relevant results of the proximate analysis, OS showed 70 ± 3% of TDF. OS showed the highest TPC (113 ± 7 mg GAE/g) and antioxidant capacity (699 ± 94 and 1782 ± 92 µmolTE/g for the ABTS and ORAC-FL methods, respectively, and 46 ± 2 mg chlorogenic acid/g for the HORAC method; p < 0.05), as well as the highest α-glucosidase inhibition capacity (lowest IC50, 447 ± 40 and 625 ± 58 µg/mL for OS and OP, respectively). In conclusion, onion byproducts present potential as a functional ingredient because of the evaluated health-promoting effects, with a subsequent positive environmental impact by applying the circular economy concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Effect of Nanofluids on Heat Transfer in Milk and Tomato Juice Production: An Optimization Study with ANCOVA
by Gamze Ozcakir
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-14963 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Recently, researchers have developed new heat transfer fluids that have high thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and low viscosity for food applications. Because the thermal conductivity of nanoparticles is higher than base fluids (water, ethylene glycol, and so on), nanofluids (NFs) are characterized by [...] Read more.
Recently, researchers have developed new heat transfer fluids that have high thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and low viscosity for food applications. Because the thermal conductivity of nanoparticles is higher than base fluids (water, ethylene glycol, and so on), nanofluids (NFs) are characterized by high performance in heat transfer operations. In this study, the aim was to determine the effect of NFs used in heat transfer equipment on the heat transfer coefficient using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), which is an optimization test. For heat transfer modeling of tomato juice, the effect of alumina content in NFs on Reynolds Number (Re) and overall heat transfer coefficient was evaluated. For heat transfer modeling of milk, the effect of carbon nanotube content in NFs on Peclet Number (Pe) and convective heat transfer coefficient was assessed. As a result, it was determined that Re and alumina content to be crucial in the heat transfer of tomato juice within their p-values. However, in milk production heat transfer, carbon nanotubes had no crucial importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Effect of Extrusion Compression Ratio and Particle Size of Rice on the Sectional Expansion Index of Third-Generation Snacks
by Diana Vicente-Jurado, Purificación García-Segovia, José Daniel Gutiérrez-Cano, Javier Martínez-Monzó, José Manuel Catalá-Civera and Marta Igual-Ramo
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15121 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Third-generation (3G) rice pellets were obtained using rice flour (RF) and rice grits (RG), raw materials of similar compositions but different particle sizes. The samples were mixed with water to 25% moisture and extruded using a laboratory single-screw extruder (Kompakt KE 19/25 extruder) [...] Read more.
Third-generation (3G) rice pellets were obtained using rice flour (RF) and rice grits (RG), raw materials of similar compositions but different particle sizes. The samples were mixed with water to 25% moisture and extruded using a laboratory single-screw extruder (Kompakt KE 19/25 extruder) and three compression ratios (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1). The pellets were expanded using a microwave oven subjected to 1000 W/g power. After evaluating the expansion kinetics and the sectional expansion index (SEI), it was observed that the 3:1 compression ratio allowed for greater expansion, while the particle difference showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the SEI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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249 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Unlocking the Secrets of Special Micronized Wholemeal Flours: A Comprehensive Characterization Study
by Agata Wojciechowicz-Budzisz, Pavel Skřivan, Marcela Sluková, Ivan Švec, Ewa Pejcz and Joanna Harasym
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15025 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 252
Abstract
This study aimed to characterize special micronized wholemeal flours with a fine granulation size of less than 160 μm. The flours under investigation included wheat, rye, spelt, barley, buckwheat, sorghum, and teff. Various parameters were investigated to characterize the flours, including moisture, energy [...] Read more.
This study aimed to characterize special micronized wholemeal flours with a fine granulation size of less than 160 μm. The flours under investigation included wheat, rye, spelt, barley, buckwheat, sorghum, and teff. Various parameters were investigated to characterize the flours, including moisture, energy value, fat, carbohydrates, sugars, total protein, ash, and total dietary fiber (TDF). The falling number of the flours was assessed using the Hagberg–Perten method. Furthermore, the pasting properties of tested flours were analyzed using an amylograph, and a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). The water absorption of the wholemeal flours was examined using a farinograph. Additionally, the technological quality of the tested material was assessed based on the water (WRC) and sodium carbonate Solvent Retention Capacity (SRC) profile. Among the analyzed micronized flours, special wheat flour (WWF) had the highest nutritional value, and rye flour (WRF) was characterized by the lowest nutrient content and the highest amylolytic activity. The lowest levels of water absorption were found in special teff flour (WTF). The lowest TDF content and amylolytic activity were found in special buckwheat flour (WBWF). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
611 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Water-Sorption Isotherms and Air-Drying-Kinetics Modelling of Andean Tubers and Tuberous Roots
by Liliana Acurio, Ariel Baquerizo, Alexandra Borja, Marcelo Vayas, Purificación García-Segovia, Javier Martínez-Monzó and Marta Igual
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15141 - 17 Oct 2023
Viewed by 398
Abstract
In recent years, scientific research has focused on studying Andean roots and tubers due to their attractive agricultural and nutritional qualities; however, as they contain a high level of moisture, it is imperative to dry them to extend their useful life. Likewise, analysing [...] Read more.
In recent years, scientific research has focused on studying Andean roots and tubers due to their attractive agricultural and nutritional qualities; however, as they contain a high level of moisture, it is imperative to dry them to extend their useful life. Likewise, analysing food-drying kinetics and food stability (regarding water activity) is essential to control moisture removal and the marketing progress. The drying process carried out in this study (65 °C for 8 h) showed three clear stages: adaptation, the drying period at a constant velocity, and a third stage with a gradual drop in the drying rate. The experimental data were satisfactorily adjusted to seven mathematical models, with the Page model highlighted since it presented higher coefficient-of-determination values. Likewise, this model estimated that the mean-error and percentage-of-relative-mean-deviation values were less than 1. The isotherms showed a type-II sigmoidal shape, showing that the samples were hygroscopic due to the structural changes undergone by the matrix during the process. Finally, the GAB model showed a higher coefficient of determination. All the Andean tubers and tuberous root flours must be dried until reaching a humidity below 10 gwater/gdry mass and stored in environments with a relative humidity lower than 60% to remain stable for longer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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799 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Pilot Study on Sensory Evaluation of Commercial Yogurt Products by Italian Middle School Pupils
by Alfonso Filippone, Emanuela Montepeloso and Antonio Bevilacqua
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15031 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 358
Abstract
This article reports on a pilot experiment conducted on STEM teaching (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) within the context of orientation teaching, wherein young pupils take on the role of “young researchers”. Twenty-six pupils participated in this research, and 18 of them evaluated [...] Read more.
This article reports on a pilot experiment conducted on STEM teaching (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) within the context of orientation teaching, wherein young pupils take on the role of “young researchers”. Twenty-six pupils participated in this research, and 18 of them evaluated 20 commercial yogurts (banana, vanilla, strawberry, and plain yogurt). They assessed acidity, sweetness, odor, texture, taste, and overall acceptability using a 5-point scale. Data were analyzed through non-parametric tests, box-whisker plots, and Principal Component Analysis. Statistics point out that for teenagers, overall acceptability was directly related to sweetness (0.695), odor (0.587), and taste (0.861), and indirectly related to acidity (−0.517). In addition, non-parametric tests show high variability within the dataset, with a non-normal distribution of sensory scores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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850 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Thermal Properties of Expanded Amaranth Seed Oil
by Ewa Ostrowska-Ligęza, Karolina Sidoruk, Magdalena Wirkowska-Wojdyła, Rita Brzezińska, Iga Piasecka and Agata Górska
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15101 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 264
Abstract
This study presents the results of an analysis of amaranth oil. The aim of this research was to determine the physicochemical properties of the oil, particularly its thermal properties. The oil obtained from expanded amaranth seeds was tested. The obtained results proved the [...] Read more.
This study presents the results of an analysis of amaranth oil. The aim of this research was to determine the physicochemical properties of the oil, particularly its thermal properties. The oil obtained from expanded amaranth seeds was tested. The obtained results proved the oil’s good resistance to oxidation. Three peaks present on the DSC melting curves of amaranth oil were associated with the presence of low-melting-point triacyloglicerols with polyunsaturated fatty acids (the first peak) and a medium-melting-point fraction rich in triacyloglicerols with monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids (the second and third peaks). The composition of fatty acids in the studied amaranth oil showed a high content of essential fatty acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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651 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Characterisation and Quantification of Phenolic Compounds in Honeys from Sierra Nevada (Granada)
by Marta Palma-Morales, Alessandro Balzani, Jesús R. Huertas, Laura Mercolini and Celia Rodríguez-Pérez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15513 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Some of the properties that have been attributed to honey are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects, especially due to its content of bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic compounds (PCs), whose content varies greatly depending on the variety, origin, agronomic conditions, harvest season, and climate. [...] Read more.
Some of the properties that have been attributed to honey are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects, especially due to its content of bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic compounds (PCs), whose content varies greatly depending on the variety, origin, agronomic conditions, harvest season, and climate. The aim of the present study is to characterise 21 honeys from Sierra Nevada (Granada). High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was used. Mass accuracy and true isotopic patterns in both MS and MS/MS spectra enabled the tentative identification of 58 PCs, including flavonoids, phenolic acids and derivatives. The average content of PCs was 83.01 ± 16.36 µg/g, with flavonoids accounting for more than 85%. The most abundant compounds were naringenin (16.88 ± 3.15 µg/g), pinocembrin (12.33 ± 2.92 µg/g), chrysin (12.21 ± 2.09 µg/g), carnosol (9.52 ± 2.90 µg/g), galangin (5.41 ± 1.68 µg/g), and apigenin (5.24 ± 0.89 µg/g). Due to this interesting composition, more studies are necessary to determine if the extreme environmental conditions of Sierra Nevada cause abiotic stress in the plants located there, fostering this concentration of PCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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338 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Polysaccharide Extraction from Defatted Rambutan Seeds with Hot Water and Subcritical Water Extractions
by Kamonthip Nilmat, Somkiat Ngamprasertsith, Winatta Sakdasri, Pinit Jirukkalul, Aphichart Karnchanatat, Sajee Noitang and Ruengwit Sawangkeaw
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15056 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 330
Abstract
Rambutan seeds (RS) are industrial waste often generated in the canned fruit industry. The aim of this study was to extract polysaccharides from defatted rambutan seeds or crude polysaccharides (POLS-DRSs) with subcritical water. Defatted seed powder (DRS) was extracted by hot-water extraction (HWE) [...] Read more.
Rambutan seeds (RS) are industrial waste often generated in the canned fruit industry. The aim of this study was to extract polysaccharides from defatted rambutan seeds or crude polysaccharides (POLS-DRSs) with subcritical water. Defatted seed powder (DRS) was extracted by hot-water extraction (HWE) at 100 °C as a reference condition. Subcritical water extraction (SWE) was performed at 120–140 °C and an initial pressure of 2 MPa. A sample-to-water ratio of 1:10 (w/w) and an extraction time of 15–60 min were used for both methods. The results show that gravimetric extraction yields of 53.01 g/100 g DRS and 7.71–41.70 g/100 g DRS were obtained from HWE and SWE, respectively. Additionally, HWE provided a total sugar content of 30.75 g/100 g POLS-DRSs, while SWE generated a total sugar content in the range of 27.00–49.76 g/100 POLS-DRSs. The antioxidant activities of POLS-DRSs were measured with a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. An amount of 40 mg of POLS-DRSs obtained at 120 °C after 60 min provided the highest DPPH activity of 82.93% inhibition. The POLS-DRSs were suitable for growing microorganisms because they had a high sugar content and a low total phenolic content. A prebiotic activity assay will be carried out in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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1407 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comprehensive Investigation of Antimicrobial and Antifungal Mechanistic Pathways of Bioactive Phytochemicals from Apple Pomace Using Molecular Docking
by Radu Tamaian, Corina-Teodora Ciucure and Elisabeta-Irina Geană
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15034 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 326
Abstract
The article focused on utilizing apple pomace waste for a circular economy. It explored bioactive compounds in apple pomace, their potential uses, and emphasized molecular docking’s role in understanding how these compounds act as antimicrobials and antifungals. The study highlighted the diversity of [...] Read more.
The article focused on utilizing apple pomace waste for a circular economy. It explored bioactive compounds in apple pomace, their potential uses, and emphasized molecular docking’s role in understanding how these compounds act as antimicrobials and antifungals. The study highlighted the diversity of bioactive phytochemicals, introduced molecular docking for studying their interactions with microbial proteins, and presented case studies demonstrating how this approach reveals mechanistic pathways of action. This research showcases how apple pomace can be repurposed for its valuable compounds and offers insights into its antimicrobial and antifungal properties through in silico techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Microwave-Assisted Solid–Liquid Extraction Using Propylene Glycol as a Solvent in the Recovery of Bioactive Compounds from Umbu Seeds
by Ester Fonseca da Conceição, Alex Aguiar Novo, Claudete Norie Kunigami, Eliane Przytyk Jung and Leilson de Oliveira Ribeiro
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15152 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Umbu (Spondias tuberosa) is a Brazilian Caatinga native fruit that has socioeconomic importance. Pulp is the main product of its agro-industrialization. However, de-pulping gives rise to about 25% residue. It is known that fruit peels and seeds are composed of macro [...] Read more.
Umbu (Spondias tuberosa) is a Brazilian Caatinga native fruit that has socioeconomic importance. Pulp is the main product of its agro-industrialization. However, de-pulping gives rise to about 25% residue. It is known that fruit peels and seeds are composed of macro and micronutrients as well as bioactive compounds, offering the umbu residue an opportunity to add value to the fruit agro-chain. As the recovery of bioactive compounds from umbu seeds has not yet been optimized, this work aimed to evaluate their recovery through a more sustainable approach, using propylene glycol as a solvent in microwave-assisted solid–liquid extraction. For that, an experimental design varying the propylene glycol percentage (15–85%) and temperature (59–201 °C) was adopted. The total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity according to DPPH were evaluated as responses. The highest values were found at 201 °C and 50% propylene glycol (3242 mg GAE/100 g and 162 µmol Trolox/g for TPC and DPPH, respectively). The values observed were, at least, 8 times higher than those obtained in the worst experimental condition (25% propylene glycol and 80 °C), showing that the independent variables had an effect on the evaluated responses (p < 0.05). All models were significant, displaying p value < 0.05, and no lack of fit was observed. High adjusted R2 values (>0.95) confirm the good fit of the data to the models. Thus, microwave-assisted extraction employing propylene glycol as a solvent could be a more sustainable method for the use of umbu seeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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282 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Pijuayo (Bactris gasipaes) Pulp and Peel Flours as Partial Substitutes for Animal Fat in Burgers: Physicochemical Properties
by Heiner Guzmán, Alex Y. Llatas, Hubert Arteaga, Erick Saldaña, Fernando Tello and Juan D. Rios-Mera
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15039 - 14 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 397
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the incorporation of peach palm (PP) pulp and peel flours as substitutes for animal fat (25 and 50% substitution) in beef-based burgers. Incorporation of PP flours reduced hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, fat, cooking losses, and diameter reduction. Burgers [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the incorporation of peach palm (PP) pulp and peel flours as substitutes for animal fat (25 and 50% substitution) in beef-based burgers. Incorporation of PP flours reduced hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, fat, cooking losses, and diameter reduction. Burgers made with PP peel flour stood out for having low values of lipid oxidation in the two levels of fat substitution (0.14–0.23 malondialdehyde/kg) (p < 0.05). PP fruit has the potential to be utilized as a new ingredient in burgers, but future studies are needed regarding detailed sensory trials and consumer acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
1668 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Survey on Acetic Acid Bacteria Levels and Volatile Acidity in Several Wines of the Republic of Moldova
by Dan Zgardan, Irina Mitina, Rodica Sturza, Valentin Mitin, Silvia Rubtov, Cristina Grajdieru, Emilia Behta, Fatih Inci and Nedim Haciosmanoglu
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15153 - 19 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 427
Abstract
Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous wine spoilage microorganisms causing significant economic damage to winemakers. Considering difficulties in their isolation through traditional microbiological methods, it would be advantageous to detect them using molecular methods at all stages of winemaking and, thus, prevent wine [...] Read more.
Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous wine spoilage microorganisms causing significant economic damage to winemakers. Considering difficulties in their isolation through traditional microbiological methods, it would be advantageous to detect them using molecular methods at all stages of winemaking and, thus, prevent wine spoilage. In this research, we analyzed wines, musts and grapes of 13 varieties grown in different regions of the Republic of Moldova. The DNA was extracted and analyzed via PCR using home-designed primers to detect Acetobacter aceti and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Generally, samples with no detectable amounts of AAB in either musts or wine had volatile acidity within the acceptable limits. Only one grape (Rara Neagra) had detectable amounts of AAB (A. pasteurianus) at all analyzed stages (grape, must, wine), and this sample had the highest amount of volatile acidity (2.11 g/L), exceeding the maximum acceptable limit for red wines of 1.2 g/L. A. pasteurianus was more common than A. aceti, both in musts and wines. Samples positive for AAB but containing low amounts of them in wine (Cq value > 35) did not have volatile acidity above the acceptable level. Samples that were wine-negative but must-positive for AAB had volatile acidity close to the acceptable limit. This study shows the utility of PCR diagnostics for predicting the risks of wine spoilage by AAB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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4255 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Bee Product Royal Jelly Suppress EMT and Invasiveness of HCT-116 Cells
by Milena Jovanović, Katarina Virijević, Dejan Arsenijević, Katarina Pecić and Dragana Šeklić
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15064 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 252
Abstract
The most frequent type of cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC), is widely recognized as the most common cause of death worldwide, due to the high invasive potential of cancer cells enabling metastasis. Cancer cells owe these properties to the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), which requires [...] Read more.
The most frequent type of cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC), is widely recognized as the most common cause of death worldwide, due to the high invasive potential of cancer cells enabling metastasis. Cancer cells owe these properties to the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), which requires the overexpressed markers Snail and vimentin. Considering that natural products have been intensively investigated from an anticancer point of view, we aimed to investigate the effects of royal jelly, a natural bee product, on the invasiveness of the colorectal cancer cell line HCT-116 and the expression of these two proinvasive/EMT markers. Our study reports on the inhibited expression of Snail and vimentin in tested cells, due to which suppressed aforementioned potential was detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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583 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
“Eating with Your Eyes First”: Cross-Cultural Evaluation of Visual Expectations Generated by High-End Pastry
by Jose Alba-Martínez, Pedro M. Rodrigues de Sousa, Javier Martínez-Monzó, Luís M. Cunha and Purificación García-Segovia
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15003 - 13 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 434
Abstract
Chefs often say, “You eat with your eyes first.” This means that, while taste, smell, and vision are distinct senses, visual stimuli generate expectations through learned associations, and these expectations exert cognitive top–down influences that can and sometimes do alter assessments of taste [...] Read more.
Chefs often say, “You eat with your eyes first.” This means that, while taste, smell, and vision are distinct senses, visual stimuli generate expectations through learned associations, and these expectations exert cognitive top–down influences that can and sometimes do alter assessments of taste and flavour. This study investigates the intangible values associated with the visual assessment of high-end pastry cakes among individuals from diverse food cultures. Using word association, the study explored the emotions, sensations, and impressions evoked by the visual representation of five high-end pastry cakes. Thematic content analysis was conducted to interpret and group the evoked words into dimensions. Across all cultures, “Organoleptic properties” emerged as the most highly rated dimension, aligning with expectations for food product visual assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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280 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development and Characterization of Rainbow Trout Pâté Supplemented with Serrano Chili Microcapsules
by César Antonio Ortiz-Sánchez, Marina Guevara-Valencia, Arturo Erick Figueiras-Carrillo, Katherine Bravo-Ariza, Areli Brenis-Dzul and Eduardo Hernández-Aguilar
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-14996 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Rainbow trout (O. mykiss) is rich in proteins and its production is high. Serrano chili peppers (C. annuum L.) contain capsaicinoids that participate in the prevention of different illnesses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of [...] Read more.
Rainbow trout (O. mykiss) is rich in proteins and its production is high. Serrano chili peppers (C. annuum L.) contain capsaicinoids that participate in the prevention of different illnesses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the addition of Serrano chili microcapsules on the physicochemical properties and sensory acceptance of rainbow trout pâté. Pâté with microcapsules had 23.16, 5.94, and 73.07% protein, fat, and moisture content, respectively. Color measurement showed a redness tendency (a* = 7.5 and b* = 22.3) with a luminosity of 78%. During sensory analysis, the pâté was rated positively, indicating a feasible acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
222 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of Manufacture and Digestion Process of Foods Enriched with Sesame Flour on the Antioxidant Response of Human Hepatocyte In Vitro
by Maria Eugenia Sabatino, Agustín Lucini Mas, Martin Gustavo Theumer, Marcela Martinez and Maria Verónica Baroni
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15113 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Bioactive compounds such as polyphenols are ubiquitous in many foods. However, their presence varies in structure, concentration, and action along food manufacturing and digestion. The simulated digestion assays allow for the estimation of variations in bioaccessibility and bioeffectiveness of polyphenols within foods. In [...] Read more.
Bioactive compounds such as polyphenols are ubiquitous in many foods. However, their presence varies in structure, concentration, and action along food manufacturing and digestion. The simulated digestion assays allow for the estimation of variations in bioaccessibility and bioeffectiveness of polyphenols within foods. In this study, a polyphenol-enriched food model was used: sweet cookies with 10% defatted sesame flour (DSF). Polyphenolic extracts were obtained from DSF, a base cookie formulation and cookies enriched with DSF. In addition, extracts of potentially bioaccessible polyphenols from digested cookies in vitro were collected. The HepG2 liver cell line was incubated with all these mentioned extracts and then injured with H2O2. The following parameters were analyzed: intracellular oxidative state and viability by flow cytometry, antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content, and oxidation of proteins and lipids by spectrophotometry. The results show that DSF may be considered for functional incorporation in foods, since it may promote antioxidant response, providing preventive benefits and protective action in an oxidative damage context. This study also demonstrates that DSF actions on redox state vary depending on the food matrix and its degree of digestion. Cookies with DSF presented a pro-oxidant effect that could enhance the antioxidant response. Furthermore, after digestion, these cookies continue to show biological activity, evidencing the possibility of advantages from the consumption of these foods. These data show the need to improve the knowledge of the biological actions carried out by certain metabolites present in food and the impact of their digestion over their effective role in health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
7 pages, 529 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Quality Assessment of Oils Obtained from Berry Fruit Seeds Using Pressurized Liquid Extraction
by Iga Piasecka, Agata Górska, Marko Obranović, Stanisław Kalisz, Ana Dobrinčić, Erika Dobroslavić, Ewa Ostrowska-Ligęza, Rita Brzezińska and Verica Dragović-Uzelac
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15138 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Berry fruit seeds should be treated as a valuable waste product of the fruit industry. In the following study, oils from cranberry, black currant, red currant, strawberry and chokeberry seeds were extracted by conventional and pressurized liquid extraction. The quality of oils was [...] Read more.
Berry fruit seeds should be treated as a valuable waste product of the fruit industry. In the following study, oils from cranberry, black currant, red currant, strawberry and chokeberry seeds were extracted by conventional and pressurized liquid extraction. The quality of oils was assessed by determining oxidative stability (onset and maximum time of induction) with the use of pressure differential scanning calorimetry, fatty acids composition by gas chromatography and health indices, such as atherogenicity, thrombogenicity and hypocholesterolemic indexes. Additionally, health-promoting index was calculated. It was found that the fatty acid profile was not affected when pressurized liquid extraction was used. The major fatty acids in the studied oils were linoleic acid ranging from 36% for cranberry seed oil to 69% for chokeberry seed oil, followed by α-linolenoic acid in the case of cranberry, strawberry and red currant seed oils or by oleic acid for chokeberry and black currant seed oils. The oxidative stability of fats extracted with the use of pressurized solvent was significantly lower compared to oils obtained using the conventional extraction process, e.g., the maximum induction time for conventionally extracted chokeberry seed oil was 40.74 ± 0.66 min and 9.24 ± 0.57 min when pressurized liquid extraction was applied. The studied oils had low values of atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes, which, when combined with high values of hypocholesterolemic index, qualifies them as high nutritional quality oils. However, further studies regarding the process optimization are needed in order to obtain oils with improved quality, especially better oxidative stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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795 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of the Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Food Hydrogels Obtained Using Pea Protein and Gellan Gum
by Adonis Hilal, Anna Florowska, Tomasz Florowski and Małgorzata Wroniak
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15112 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 276
Abstract
The aim of this research was to evaluate the physicochemical and textural properties of food hydrogels produced using pea protein and gellan gum. The obtained samples were analyzed in terms of their volumetric gelling index, microrheology, texture, physical stability, and color parameters. Most [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to evaluate the physicochemical and textural properties of food hydrogels produced using pea protein and gellan gum. The obtained samples were analyzed in terms of their volumetric gelling index, microrheology, texture, physical stability, and color parameters. Most of the obtained samples formed a gel structure. In the case of microrheology parameters, by combining PP and GG, the solid–liquid balance was shifted towards more solid-like properties, which was also observed while analyzing the elasticity index (EI) and the textural properties of the obtained hydrogels. Additionally, a color difference between the obtained samples was noticed. Depending on the properties that the final food product must exhibit, a binary protein–polysaccharide hydrogel can be used as a matrix to contribute to that product’s physicochemical and textural properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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252 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Risk to Humans Posed by Vanadium from Naturally Growing Edible Mushrooms and Topsoils across Leicestershire, UK
by Gurminderjeet S. Jagdev, María del Carmen Lobo-Bedmar, Tiziana Sgamma, Mark D. Evans and Antonio Peña-Fernández
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15219 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 234
Abstract
The aims were: (a) to biomonitor vanadium (V) in wild edible mushrooms collected from urban/rural areas across Leicestershire (England); (b) to characterise the risk to humans caused by its content in topsoils. Thirty-four mushrooms were collected: twenty-two Agaricus bitorquis from a green area [...] Read more.
The aims were: (a) to biomonitor vanadium (V) in wild edible mushrooms collected from urban/rural areas across Leicestershire (England); (b) to characterise the risk to humans caused by its content in topsoils. Thirty-four mushrooms were collected: twenty-two Agaricus bitorquis from a green area close to a busy traffic area; four Marasmius oreades from the NE; and eight Coprinus atramentarius from Bradgate Park, which is northwest of Leicester city. Moreover, 850 topsoil samples were collected and processed as composite samples (eighteen urban and eight rural), which were further processed in duplicate. The level of V was measured twice in each of the 52 composite samples and in the cleaned, dried and homogenised mushrooms by ICP-MS. Significant higher levels of V were found in C. atramentarius (0.856 (0.175–4.338)) than in the edible mushrooms collected in the urban areas (M. oreades, 0.305 (<LoD-0.852), and A. bitorquis, 0.078 (<LoD-0.187); the median and range are given in mg/kg dw). The health risk quotients calculated suggested a minimal risk to V if eaten. The presence of V in Leicestershire’s topsoils would also not represent a significant risk for the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
533 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of Colonic Fermentation of Plant Sterol-Enriched Rye Bread on Gut Microbiota and Metabolites
by Nerea Faubel, Virginia Blanco-Morales, Reyes Barberá and Guadalupe Garcia-Llatas
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15012 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Studies on the impact of colonic fermentation of plant sterol (PS)-enriched foods using dynamic in vitro models are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a 72-h dynamic in vitro digestion-colonic fermentation (using the simgi® system) of PS-enriched rye bread [...] Read more.
Studies on the impact of colonic fermentation of plant sterol (PS)-enriched foods using dynamic in vitro models are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a 72-h dynamic in vitro digestion-colonic fermentation (using the simgi® system) of PS-enriched rye bread on colonic microbial population and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and ammonium production. In all colon compartments (ascending colon (AC), transverse colon (TC), and descending colon (DC)) (72 vs. 0 h), a reduction in ammonium concentration (5.7- to 9.4-fold) and an increase in Staphylococcus spp. (1.4- to 2.1-fold), Lactobacillus spp. (1.5-fold), Bifidobacterium spp. (1.3- to 1.5-fold), and Enterococcus spp. (1.4- to 1.6-fold) were observed. In AC and TC, total SCFA decreased (4- and 1.3-fold, respectively), whereas it increased 1.4-fold in DC due to an increase in butyrate content from 4 to 45 mM. These results suggest that PS-enriched rye bread favors the growth of beneficial microbial species and the production of butyrate, a fuel source for enterocytes, thus promoting health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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274 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Application of Inulin in Pasta: The Influence on Technological and Nutritional Properties and on Human Health—A Review
by Gamze Nil Yazici, Isilay Yilmaz, Tansu Taspinar and Mehmet Sertac Ozer
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-14967 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Inulin is a molecule, namely, a functional dietary fiber from non-digestible carbohydrates, and is generally utilized in pasta production at concentrations or replacement ratios of 0.5–20%. As highlighted in this study, the optimum cooking time and swelling index of inulin-added pasta ranged between [...] Read more.
Inulin is a molecule, namely, a functional dietary fiber from non-digestible carbohydrates, and is generally utilized in pasta production at concentrations or replacement ratios of 0.5–20%. As highlighted in this study, the optimum cooking time and swelling index of inulin-added pasta ranged between 5.0–14.0 min and 1.5–2.6 g/g, respectively. The protein content generally decreased, whereas dietary fiber increased with the addition of inulin to pasta formulations. Therefore, lower starch hydrolysis and glycemic index could be achieved with inulin enrichment in pasta. However, more in vitro and in vivo digestion studies are still needed to evaluate its beneficial effects on human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
516 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Characterisation of the Fat Profile of Different Varieties of Hemp Seeds (Cannabis sativa L.) for Food Use
by David Gimeno-Martínez, Marta Igual, Purificación García-Segovia, Javier Martínez-Monzó and Juliana Navarro-Rocha
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15515 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Five varieties of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.; Futura 75, Futura 83, Felina 32, Earlina 08 FC and Henola) were planted to produce grain and then to study their potential as an alternative source of nutritional compounds due to their fat, carbohydrate [...] Read more.
Five varieties of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.; Futura 75, Futura 83, Felina 32, Earlina 08 FC and Henola) were planted to produce grain and then to study their potential as an alternative source of nutritional compounds due to their fat, carbohydrate and protein content. The lipid fraction can account for 35% of the total composition of hemp seeds; therefore, the aim of this study was to determine their fat content, focusing mainly on the characterisation of the fatty acid profile of the different varieties of hemp seeds through gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector for possible use of the whole grains or the oil extracted from them. The fat content of the seeds ranged between 23 and 31% of the total composition, with Earlina 08 FC significantly (p < 0.05) being the richest in fat content. We also found that 87% of the total fatty acids were unsaturated, being polyunsaturated acids the main group and linoleic acid the most abundant fatty acid. In addition, linoleic acid acts as a precursor of biologically active molecules involved in many physiological processes. Thus, hemp seeds may be considered a valuable source of healthy fatty acids to include in plant-based food formulation, regarding that further studies are being conducted to characterise other nutritional components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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652 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Developing a Nutrient-Rich Rice Protein Drink for Athletes Using Protease G6 Enzyme
by Sukan Braspaiboon, Sukhuntha Osiriphun, Prasit Peepathum, Witid Mitranun, Wachira Jirarattanarangsri, Suthat Surawang, Thunnop Laokuldilok and Nut Koonrungseesomboon
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15002 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 385
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the extraction of hydrolysate protein from waste materials (rice grain and rice beverages) in order to increase the value of domestic raw materials. The goal was to create protein beverage products containing rice protein hydrolysates [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine the extraction of hydrolysate protein from waste materials (rice grain and rice beverages) in order to increase the value of domestic raw materials. The goal was to create protein beverage products containing rice protein hydrolysates that are customized to the needs of athletes for post-workout muscle restoration. Carbohydrates were extracted from rice paste using an amylase enzyme, followed by protein extraction using the Protease G6 enzyme. The E/S SL ratio, temperature, and time were investigated, with the extraction taking place at a pH of 7.0. The Central Composite Design approach was used in the experimental design to change the extraction conditions. The protein concentration and the concentration levels were determined. The concentration data were then submitted to 95 percent confidence level Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to find significant differences. To visualize the relationship between protein concentration and the interaction between the E/S SL ratio, temperature, and extraction duration, a contour plot was generated. The results showed that increasing enzyme proportions and temperatures between 50 and 60 degrees Celsius boosted protein concentration. Lower E/S SL ratios and longer extraction times enhanced protein concentration. An E/S, SL ratio of 5%, a temperature of 52 degrees Celsius, and an extraction time of 180 min were shown to be ideal conditions for extracting protein from rice grains utilizing the Protease G6 enzyme. The final protein content was 3.14 g/100 mL. These findings suggested that Protease G6 can be a viable alternative for developing rice protein beverages for athletes and health-conscious individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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489 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Ex Vivo and In Vitro Antithrombotic Properties of Fermented Irish Ovine Yogurt Drink
by Sakshi Hans, Harishkumar Rajendran, Katie Shiels, Sushanta Kumar Saha, Alexandros Tsoupras, Ronan Lordan and Ioannis Zabetakis
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15054 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Platelet function is closely linked to cardiovascular health. Functional foods such as yogurt and oily fish are enriched in bioactive polar lipids, which can reduce platelet activation and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. This pilot project investigated the effect of fermented ovine yogurt [...] Read more.
Platelet function is closely linked to cardiovascular health. Functional foods such as yogurt and oily fish are enriched in bioactive polar lipids, which can reduce platelet activation and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. This pilot project investigated the effect of fermented ovine yogurt on platelet sensitivity in human plasma. Overall, in vitro studies established that yogurt lipid fractions inhibit platelet aggregation. Preliminary dietary intervention data indicate that yogurt intake may reduce platelet activation against the thrombin pathway, compared to the placebo. However, larger studies are required to robustly establish the effect of yogurt intake on platelet sensitivity, following this interim analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Insight into the Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory Potentials of Curcuma longa Methanolic Extracts and Phytochemicals: An In Vitro and In Silico Study
by Ada-Jesus Mercy Okechukwu, Emmanuel Sunday Okeke, Kingsley Nnaechetam Eze, Wisdom Favour Chinedu Ezeorba and Timothy Prince Chidike Ezeorba
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15514 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Diabetes is a metabolic disease of global concern, causing death due to triggered oxidative and inflammatory complications. Alpha-glucosidase has become a popular drug target for managing diabetes. This study, therefore, investigated the potential of Curcuma longa (Tumeric) rhizome methanolic extract (MECL) to inhibit [...] Read more.
Diabetes is a metabolic disease of global concern, causing death due to triggered oxidative and inflammatory complications. Alpha-glucosidase has become a popular drug target for managing diabetes. This study, therefore, investigated the potential of Curcuma longa (Tumeric) rhizome methanolic extract (MECL) to inhibit alpha-glucosidase and screened its phytochemical library through molecular biology docking for potential new drug candidates. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of MECL showed that the plant extract was abundant with phenols (790.32 ± 129.20 mg/100 g), alkaloids (494.99 ± 1.27 mg/100 g), flavonoids (171.08 ± 0.04 mg/100 g), and terpenoids (131.99 ± 6.59 mg/100 g). Moreover, in vitro inhibitory studies showed a dose-dependent increase in the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase by MECL, and the maximum inhibition (37.01%) was observed at 30 µg/mL, possibly a better inhibition with increased concentration. Further scrutiny was performed using molecular docking to screen for Turmeric phytochemicals (retrieved from PubChem) with alpha-glucosidase (PDB ID: 3W37) inhibitory potentials. Based on their binding affinity, the top three compounds [Guaiacol (−7.422), Eriodictyol (−5.266), and p-Tolyl-MethylCarbinol (−3.939)] were analyzed for their intermolecular interactions in the binding pocket of alpha-glucosidase and ADMET properties; and compared to the standard drug, acarbose (−9.522). Interestingly, strong and weak interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, pi-pi stacking, and charged and hydrophobic interactions, were observed with Guaiacol in the binding pocket of alpha-glucosidase. Although acarbose had a better docking score, Guaiacol showed better ADMET (including physicochemical, drug-likeness, and pharmacokinetic) properties. Future studies could evaluate those potential anti-diabetes drug candidates against other targets and analyze them through in vivo experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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245 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Cytotoxic Assessment of Hydro-Methanolic Extracts Derived from Ripe Morinda citrifolia L. Fruit (Fresh, Dried, Pasteurized Juice) and Dried Seeds on Eukaryotic Normal and Carcinogenic Cellular Models
by Haththotuwa Gamage Amal Sudaraka Samarasinghe, Dona Chamara Kumari Illeperuma and Katugampalage Don Prasanna Priyantha Gunathilake
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15511 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 331
Abstract
Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) is utilized for wellness drinks, puree, and nutraceuticals, while its seeds are a source of vegetable oil. However, misconceptions persist due to limited scientific research in Sri Lanka. This study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of hydro-methanolic extracts from [...] Read more.
Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) is utilized for wellness drinks, puree, and nutraceuticals, while its seeds are a source of vegetable oil. However, misconceptions persist due to limited scientific research in Sri Lanka. This study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of hydro-methanolic extracts from fresh and dried noni fruits, pasteurized juice, and seeds on normal (BHK) and cancer (Hep2) cells using the MTT assay. The results indicated dose-dependent toxicity on cancer cells, while normal cells were less affected. Processing methods influenced cytotoxicity, with dried seeds showing the least toxicity. These findings suggest the potential of noni extracts as cytotoxic agents against cancer, influenced by the processing conditions. Further research is needed to identify the specific bioactive compounds and their mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
519 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of Nutritional Profile of Sargassum muticum Alga from the Spanish Coastline
by Aurora Silva, Cristina Soares, Maria Carpena, Paula Garcia Oliveira, Javier Echave, Franklin Chamorro, Pauline Donn, Sepidar S. Mansour, Maria Fátima Barroso and Miguel A. Prieto
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15028 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Macroalgae, or seaweed, has a long history of use in human diets, especially in Eastern nations. However, the present interest in these species is driven by their remarkable bioactive and nutritional qualities and their significant availability and underutilization, making them incredibly alluring to [...] Read more.
Macroalgae, or seaweed, has a long history of use in human diets, especially in Eastern nations. However, the present interest in these species is driven by their remarkable bioactive and nutritional qualities and their significant availability and underutilization, making them incredibly alluring to people following alternative dietary patterns like vegetarianism and veganism. Sargassum muticum, also known as Japanese wireweed or Asian seaweed, is considered edible and has been consumed in some cultures, popular as a soup ingredient in Korea. This brown macroalgae found in marine environments has been introduced in various regions outside its native range, including Europe and North America. Moreover, this species could be helpful in feeding animals or as soil fertilizer. In this study, the nutritional properties of this marine macroalga were investigated. Nutritional parameters such as protein, sugar, and fiber content were analyzed using classical techniques. In addition, its proximate composition was also determined in terms of moisture, fixed and volatile carbon, and ash content using thermogravimetry, and their major minerals, including calcium, potassium, and magnesium, was determined using the ICP-OS technique. In terms of its mineral content, it was found to have a high mineral content (21% of ash), which consisted mainly of calcium (9 g/kg dw), potassium (77 g/kg dw), and magnesium (12 g/kg dw). In addition, this study determined the presence of iodine using ICP-MS, and 106 mg/kg dw of this essential element was quantified in these algae. The results of this study highlighted the potential nutritional benefits of the tested marine algae. Their composition revealed significant concentrations of vital elements, making them highly advantageous for human/animal dietary requirements with possible health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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1514 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Ideas Generation for New Aquaculture Products (Sea Bream and Prawns) Developing Using Focus Group by Different Participants Profiles
by Palmira Javier-Pisco, Marta Igual-Ramo, Purificación García-Segovia and María Jesús Pagan-Moreno
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15221 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 247
Abstract
The current market requires new fish-based products. In this context, the use of focus groups is a qualitative technique that enables the generation of ideas for the development of new products. The aim of this study is to create a list of ideas [...] Read more.
The current market requires new fish-based products. In this context, the use of focus groups is a qualitative technique that enables the generation of ideas for the development of new products. The aim of this study is to create a list of ideas for products based on two species from aquaculture: sea bream and prawn. To achieve this, two sessions were conducted involving 20 individuals from diverse backgrounds. The sessions included consumer surveys, exploration of new products, brainstorming, and categorization of ideas into product categories. As a result, the frequencies of idea mentions were obtained, with the ‘fresh products’ category being the most frequently mentioned for both species. Furthermore, associations between product categories and participant profiles were established using correspondence analysis (CA). In conclusion, for sea bream, consumers showed a preference for fresh product ideas. Conversely, for prawns, canned and dehydrated products were consistently suggested across all participant profiles. This study lays the foundation for innovative aquaculture product development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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1380 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Determining the Acoustic Properties of Chihuahua, Manchego, and Panela Cheeses by Applying Ultrasonic Spectroscopy
by Raúl Alberto Reyes-Villagrana, América Chávez-Martínez, Ana Luisa Rentería-Monterrubio, Juliana Juárez-Moya and Jesús Madrigal-Melchor
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15104 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 239
Abstract
In this paper, a study to determine the acoustic properties of Chihuahua, Manchego, and panela cheeses is carried out by applying acoustic spectroscopy in the ultrasound spectrum. The products were purchased at a local store in the capital city of Chihuahua. The echoscope [...] Read more.
In this paper, a study to determine the acoustic properties of Chihuahua, Manchego, and panela cheeses is carried out by applying acoustic spectroscopy in the ultrasound spectrum. The products were purchased at a local store in the capital city of Chihuahua. The echoscope block of the GAMPT® acoustic tomograph with acoustic sensor at 2 MHz was used to measure the acoustic phase velocity (m/s), which depended on the thickness, with a quasiregular ambient temperature of 16 °C. The acoustic tomograph used transmission with normal incidence. Measurements were performed in triplicate. The volumetric density and acoustic impedance of the cheeses, as well as the rheological properties, were determined through an indirect method. The results show that the acoustic phase velocities of the Chihuahua, Manchego and panela cheeses were APVChi ≈ 1221.47 m/s, APVman ≈ 1436.05 m/s, and APVpan ≈ 1142.28 m/s, respectively. The volumetric densities of the Chihuahua, Manchego, and panela cheeses were ρChi ≈ 1.16 gr/cm3, ρman ≈ 1.11 gr/cm3, and ρpan ≈ 1.70 gr/cm3 to 12.1 °C, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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825 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Determination of Critical Storage Conditions for Spray-Dried Habanero Pepper (Capsicum chinense) Extracts by Coupling Water Adsorption Isotherms and Glass Transition Temperature
by Ubaldo Richard Marín Castro, Fernando Cansino Jácome, José Arturo Olguín-Rojas, Guadalupe del Carmen Rodríguez-Jimenes, María Teresa González Arnao, Enrique Flores Andrade and Martha Paola Rascón Díaz
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-151 - 17 Oct 2023
Viewed by 244
Abstract
This study aimed to determine storage conditions for microparticles containing habanero pepper extracts with maltodextrin (MD) and a 95:5 w/w mixture with precipitated silica (MDSP) as wall materials. State diagrams (SD) using water adsorption isotherms and glass transition temperatures were created. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine storage conditions for microparticles containing habanero pepper extracts with maltodextrin (MD) and a 95:5 w/w mixture with precipitated silica (MDSP) as wall materials. State diagrams (SD) using water adsorption isotherms and glass transition temperatures were created. Monolayer values were 6.17 g (MD) and 6.76 g (MDSP) of water/100 g d.s. Critical water activity values (awC) were 0.49 for MD and 0.41 for MDSP. When stored at aw > awC, both samples underwent physical transformations, with significant color changes (ΔE > 8). Conversely, storage below awC resulted in minimal changes (ΔE < 4), consistent with the SD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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246 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Characterization of Bioactive Compounds and Element Content in Goat Milk and Cheese Products
by Ioannis Kontodimos, Eftichia Chatzimanoli, Eleni Kasapidou, Zoitsa Basdagianni, Maria-Anastasia Karatzia, Michail Amanatidis and Nikolaos Margaritis
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15131 - 16 Oct 2023
Viewed by 361
Abstract
Goat milk and cheese are popular dairy products known for their nutritional value and distinct flavors. The presence of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and volatile compounds in these products contributes to their sensory characteristics and potential health benefits. This study aims to [...] Read more.
Goat milk and cheese are popular dairy products known for their nutritional value and distinct flavors. The presence of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and volatile compounds in these products contributes to their sensory characteristics and potential health benefits. This study aims to compare the content of bioactive compounds in goat milk and the cheese that was produced thereof. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) equipped with diode array detector (DAD) was used for the quantification of beta carotene and lutein content. The lutein content in milk samples displayed higher values ranging between 0.11 and 0.25 mg/100 g per sample compared to cheese samples. Beta Carotene was not detected in either of the matrices. For the identification of volatile compounds, Solid Phase Microextraction/Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME/GCMS) were used. The volatile compounds detected were classified into terpenes, ketones, aldehydes, acids and esters. Esters constituted the most abundant group of compounds in all samples. The simultaneous analysis of these compounds provides valuable insights into the nutritional composition, flavor profiles, and potential health benefits of goat cheese and milk. At last, the major elements comparison of milk and cheese products, including Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg), Chlorine (Cl) and Sulfur (S), were quantitatively measured across all samples using a wavelength dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WD-XRF) to establish their elemental profiles. Milk samples exhibited higher concentrations of Potassium. Conversely, cheese products displayed elevated levels on all the other elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
269 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Immature Opuntia ficus-indica Peel By-Product as Mayonnaise Additive and Natural Anticoccidial Drug
by Meriem Amrane-Abider, Salima Zemouri-Alioui, Souad Khaled and Ouarda Djaoudene
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15220 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 296
Abstract
In recent years, the valorization of food by-products has attracted increased interest in the scientific community for ecological and economic reasons. Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) peels are the primary by-products of prickly pears. Several studies claim that the beneficial bioactive compounds are concentrated in [...] Read more.
In recent years, the valorization of food by-products has attracted increased interest in the scientific community for ecological and economic reasons. Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) peels are the primary by-products of prickly pears. Several studies claim that the beneficial bioactive compounds are concentrated in the fruit’s peel. Therefore, the present investigation aimed to study the immature OFI peel as a natural antioxidant in mayonnaise and its use as a natural treatment against coccidiosis, which is the main disease of broiler chickens. The findings confirmed that OFI peels are a source of phenolic compounds, including total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, and carotenoids (21.01 ± 0.33, 1.12 ± 0.28, 10.25 ± 0.10 mg equivalent standard/g, and 5.62 ± 0.53 mg β-carotene equivalent/100 g, respectively), having strong antioxidant activities over 87 percent (DPPH radical, iron chelation power, β-carotene bleaching). Using the rancimat test, OFI extract improves the mayonnaise’s stability for 2.5 h. Immature OFI peel extracts recorded a notable destruction rate of Eimeria oocysts. The current study promoted the use of immature OFI peel extracts as a natural food additive and as an antiparasitic treatment substitute. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
597 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Instrumental Evaluation of Selected Properties of Oil Extracted from Walnuts before and after the Roasting Process
by Joanna Bryś, Artur Stańczak, Aneta Skwierczyńska and Urszula Adamczuk
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15161 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 237
Abstract
Walnuts (Juglans regia) are characterized by a high fat content of approximately 73%. The oil contained in the nuts is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, including monounsaturated oleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids, both of the n-3 and n-6 family. One [...] Read more.
Walnuts (Juglans regia) are characterized by a high fat content of approximately 73%. The oil contained in the nuts is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, including monounsaturated oleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids, both of the n-3 and n-6 family. One important thermal process for nuts is roasting, which significantly increases their palatability. Technically, roasting is a drying process at high temperatures. The purpose of roasting is to reveal new flavor and aroma properties of the raw material. The aim of the current study was to determine and compare the fatty acid composition and oxidative and hydrolytic stability of oils extracted from both roasted and raw walnuts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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449 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluating Contaminants in Fish: Plastic Additives and Pesticides in the Context of Food Safety
by Virgínia Cruz Fernandes, Dylan Boesmans, Valentina F. Domingues and Cristina Delerue-Matos
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15052 - 14 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 234
Abstract
The World Health Organization reports that foodborne illnesses cause millions of disease cases globally, resulting in approximately 33 million lost healthy years of life. Over the past decade, global awareness of food safety grew significantly, highlighting various hazards from biological, chemical, and environmental [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization reports that foodborne illnesses cause millions of disease cases globally, resulting in approximately 33 million lost healthy years of life. Over the past decade, global awareness of food safety grew significantly, highlighting various hazards from biological, chemical, and environmental factors in our food supply, including marine sources. Emerging contaminants like pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, plastic additives, and microplastics are concerning, with some remaining unregulated. Our work focused on analyzing plastic additives and pesticides in fish captured in the Atlantic Ocean and available in local Oporto supermarkets. We used QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography for the analysis of organophosphate ester compounds in fish samples. Our goal is to ensure safe and healthy seafood, aligning with the principles of the blue economy and sustainable fisheries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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216 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Food Choices in Snacking Moments and Biogenic Amines Exposure: A Preliminary Observation of Children from the Abruzzo Region
by Luigi Esposito, Dino Mastrocola and Maria Martuscelli
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15038 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Snacking outside of main meals is common and often a dietary requirement, especially for children and toddlers. This habit has both social and educative dimensions, as it has become an established moment in people’s daily routines. We conducted an easy online survey involving [...] Read more.
Snacking outside of main meals is common and often a dietary requirement, especially for children and toddlers. This habit has both social and educative dimensions, as it has become an established moment in people’s daily routines. We conducted an easy online survey involving students and their families from schools in the Abruzzo region, Italy. The aim of the survey was to understand the participants’ habits, food choices, and meal composition during snack time. Additionally, we inquired about their general health state. Our interest lies in knowing more about this population, with sufficient data to observe whether habits and food choices may be accountable for exposure to biogenic amines (BAs). BAs are unavoidable natural compounds that come from the catabolism of amino acids in tissues. They are possibly involved in reactions such as allergic-like manifestations, abdominal pain, and more severe symptoms depending on individual sensitivity. The action of BAs can be augmented by the intake of foods, mainly fermented products, which are common in everyday diets. We collected 300 responses from students ranging from 11 to 18 years old. The most popular foods eaten were sweets (pastries, cakes) and sweet bakery products, followed by yogurt-based and milk-based products (30% and 23%, respectively). Most students (58%) reported having a snack moment daily. The population was generally in good health, but some reported experiencing light discomfort after snacking, such as transient gastrointestinal pain, headache, and dermatological symptoms (8.7%, 2%, and 0.7% of the total, respectively). All this information may be linked and added to the knowledge about BA content in foods and their potential impact on health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
1571 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of Different Raw Materials on Changes in Volatile Compounds during Moromi Fermentation
by Luka Ly, Chansehakpong Te, Monychot Tepy Chanto and Reasmey Tan
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-14962 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 470
Abstract
The composition and ratio of volatile compounds in soy sauce have a major impact on its organoleptic properties. Considering the important influence of long-term (3 months) moromi fermentation on the aroma formation of soy sauces from different materials (soybean, rice, black bean, wheat, [...] Read more.
The composition and ratio of volatile compounds in soy sauce have a major impact on its organoleptic properties. Considering the important influence of long-term (3 months) moromi fermentation on the aroma formation of soy sauces from different materials (soybean, rice, black bean, wheat, wheat flour and mungbean), the volatile compounds of 24 samples in total, taken from three different stages of moromi fermentation, were analyzed via solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME–GC–MS). The results show a total of 77 volatile compounds, including acids (4), alcohols (14), phenols (6), aldehydes (12), esters (26), ketones (5), furan(one)s (5) and pyrazines (5), and the majority of the compounds were common. Among all samples, the highest number of volatile compounds (5528.58 ± 1308 µg/L) was detected in the moromi made from the combination of soybean, black bean and wheat flour on the first month of fermentation, and the sample that had the lowest number of volatile compounds (63.25 ± 1.70 µg/L) was detected in the moromi sample made from the combination of soybean and wheat flour on day 0. During the three months of moromi fermentation, the relative contents of acids, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, furan(one)s and pyrazines changed gradually. Finally, the total presence of volatile compounds identified in the 24 samples increased from day 0 to 1 month and from month to month perfectly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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194 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigating the Relationship between Food Quality and Mental Health
by Ali Hassan, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan, Ali Hasan, Summaia Fordos, Muhammad Zeeshan Naeem and Ali Usman
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15133 - 16 Oct 2023
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Abstract
This study aims to explore the relationship between food quality and mental health by comprehensively analyzing existing research. A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant studies published between 2010 and 2022. The selected studies encompassed various populations, including adults, adolescents, and elderly [...] Read more.
This study aims to explore the relationship between food quality and mental health by comprehensively analyzing existing research. A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant studies published between 2010 and 2022. The selected studies encompassed various populations, including adults, adolescents, and elderly individuals, and examined the impact of food quality on mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, and cognitive function. The findings of the analysis revealed a significant association between food quality and mental health. Several studies indicated that a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins was positively correlated with better mental health outcomes. Conversely, a diet high in processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats was associated with an increased risk of mental health disorders. Furthermore, the analysis highlighted the role of specific nutrients in mental health. Omega-3 fatty acids, found in fatty fish and nuts, were consistently linked to improved mood and cognitive function. Additionally, the consumption of antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals from fruits and vegetables showed positive effects on mental well-being. However, it is important to note that the relationship between food quality and mental health is complex and influenced by various factors such as socioeconomic status, cultural background, and individual differences. Future research should consider these factors to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the topic. In conclusion, this study provides evidence supporting the relationship between food quality and mental health. Adopting a healthy diet rich in nutrient-dense foods may have a positive impact on mental well-being. Further research is needed to explore the underlying mechanisms and develop targeted interventions to improve mental health outcomes through dietary interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
242 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Physicochemical and Nutritional Analysis of Molasses for Rum Fermentation
by Tinashe W. Mangwanda, Janice S. Mani, Joel B. Johnson, Steve Jackson, Tyryn McKeown and Mani Naiker
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15137 - 17 Oct 2023
Viewed by 511
Abstract
The production of high-quality rum requires a carefully controlled fermentation process, which is determined by the physicochemical and nutritional properties of the molasses used as a substrate. The flavor, aroma, and alcohol content of the final product are heavily influenced by the composition [...] Read more.
The production of high-quality rum requires a carefully controlled fermentation process, which is determined by the physicochemical and nutritional properties of the molasses used as a substrate. The flavor, aroma, and alcohol content of the final product are heavily influenced by the composition of molasses. This paper presents the results of an extensive analysis of molasses, a byproduct of sugar production that has various applications in food and feed industries. The physicochemical properties and nutritional composition of molasses were investigated using a range of analytical techniques including Brix, moisture content, pH, total ash content, total dissolved solids, crude protein, sugar content, total nitrogen, free amino acids, amino acids, mineral content, vitamins, and organic acids. This study analyzed molasses samples obtained from three painted concrete constructed storage wells at the Bundaberg Distilling Company. The results indicated that the molasses samples possessed a substantial sugar concentration, with sucrose being the most abundant, ranging from 35.02 to 35.27% w/w. These findings support the traditional use of molasses in rum fermentation and use as an alternative feedstock for the synthesis of various value-added chemicals. The pH of the molasses was slightly acidic, and the total ash content was relatively high, ranging from 8.76 to 13.55% w/w, indicating the presence of mineral salts. Mineral content varied among the samples, but all three contained significant levels of sodium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. All the samples contained essential amino acids and vitamins, but their levels varied. The molasses also contained varying levels of different organic acids, including acetic, propanoic, aconitic, formic, valeric, lactic, citric, and malic acids. The analysis revealed significant differences in ash content, nitrogen compounds, and minerals between storage wells, indicating inherent variability between batches. However, key fermentable sugars did not significantly differ between samples, and blending or standardization is recommended to minimize batch-to-batch variation prior to fermentation. This study provides valuable information on the composition and quality of molasses, which can be used to optimize its utilization in rum fermentation and various other applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
487 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Spent Coffee Grounds—A Coffee By-Product Abundant in Bioactive Compounds with Antioxidant Properties
by Rita Brzezińska, Agata Górska, Magdalena Wirkowska-Wojdyła and Ewa Ostrowska-Ligęza
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15048 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 260
Abstract
The present study concentrated on the quality assessment of spent coffee grounds (SCG) blends collected after the brewing process in local commercial cafeterias. To obtain SCG extract and oil, the ultrasound-assisted extraction with 60% hydroethanolic mixture and the conventional solid–liquid extraction with hexane [...] Read more.
The present study concentrated on the quality assessment of spent coffee grounds (SCG) blends collected after the brewing process in local commercial cafeterias. To obtain SCG extract and oil, the ultrasound-assisted extraction with 60% hydroethanolic mixture and the conventional solid–liquid extraction with hexane were carried out, respectively. The quality of the SCG blend was assessed by performance of the ensuing analysis: total polyphenols content (TPC), antioxidant activity by using ABTS and FRAP methods, browning index (BI), caffeine and chlorogenic acids contents by using high-performance liquid chromatography as well as oxidative induction time (OIT) by using the pressure differential scanning calorimetry and fatty acids profile by using the gas chromatography. The SCG extract was characterized by a high TPC (33.79 mg GAE/g SCG), BI (0.2), caffeine (5.25 mg/g SCG), and chlorogenic acids (7.52 mg/g SCG) contents. In addition, ABTS and FRAP methods revealed the high antioxidant activity of SCG extract. The OIT of SCG oil reached 43.8 min. The SCG oil mainly contained palmitic acid (37.18%) and linoleic acid (39.69%). Overall, SCG can be regarded as a coffee by-product abundant in various chemical compounds with biological and antioxidant activity, but it is necessary to examine the opportunity for the implementation of SCG in particular forms as a new constituent of functional foodstuffs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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359 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of the Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Properties of a Pasta Based on Lentil Flour and Turmeric
by Campo-Vera Yesenia, Contreras-Lozano Mauricio and Florez-Anteliz Ruben Francisco
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15043 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 252
Abstract
This project aimed to develop a lentil and turmeric-based pasta, where three formulations were evaluated. The elaboration process was carried out, and, subsequently, the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of the pasta were as well (NTC 1055-2007). The sensory results showed that the [...] Read more.
This project aimed to develop a lentil and turmeric-based pasta, where three formulations were evaluated. The elaboration process was carried out, and, subsequently, the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of the pasta were as well (NTC 1055-2007). The sensory results showed that the formulation with the highest acceptance was the one that contained a concentration of 60% lentil and 40% wheat flour, presenting similar characteristics to commercial pasta according to the panelists. The microbiological and physicochemical requirements comply with the provisions of the regulations; highlighting that the final product contains 5% more protein. The standardization of a staple product of the family diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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269 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Study of Essential Amino Acids’ Bioaccessibility in a Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and Amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) Supplements for Ecuadorian Adolescents
by Mayra Paredes-Escobar, Marta Igual, Johana Ortiz-Ulloa, Xavier Carrera, Javier Martínez-Monzó and Purificación García-Segovia
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15001 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 285
Abstract
The consumption of food supplements in Latin America represents 7% of the world’s consumption, as reported by the Latin American Alliance of Responsible Nutrition (ALANUR) in 2021. Developing high-quality Andean-grain supplements could be interesting for enhancing the country’s food security. A supplement has [...] Read more.
The consumption of food supplements in Latin America represents 7% of the world’s consumption, as reported by the Latin American Alliance of Responsible Nutrition (ALANUR) in 2021. Developing high-quality Andean-grain supplements could be interesting for enhancing the country’s food security. A supplement has been developed that contains high-quality protein and carbohydrates sourced from a blend of precooked quinoa and amaranth flours. Additionally, it includes omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids derived from microencapsulated sacha inchi and chia oils, along with vitamins and minerals. The process for obtaining the precooked flours involved cooking at 75 °C for 12 min, followed by drying in a tray dryer at 70 °C for 8–9 h, grinding in a disk mill, and sieving to achieve a particle size of 150 µm. Pasta tests were conducted using RVA and DSC to check their gelatinization. The supplement’s composition adheres to the mandatory nutrient requirements specified by the Ecuadorian standard NTE INEN1334-2, 2011. Moreover, the supplement satisfies the sensory criteria related to taste and consistency. To evaluate the impact of the processing on the nutrients’ attributes, assessing their bioaccessibility becomes significant. To accomplish this, the static in vitro digestion method was employed, both before and after the digestion process. The digestion protocol involves the following steps: an oral phase with amylase, a gastric phase with pepsin, and an intestinal phase with pancreatin. The resulting digest was subsequently centrifuged and filtered. The apparatus utilized consisted of a reactor equipped with precise controls for temperature, pH, and agitation. The in vitro digestibility percent for the supplement shake was determined to be 96.7% (IVD). Essential amino acids were quantified through HPLC analysis with a fluorescence detector. As a result, lysine and histidine exhibited the highest bioaccessibility values of 97% and 79%, respectively, while methionine had the lowest value of 32%. The remaining amino acids showed intermediate values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
538 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development and Quality Evaluation of Dehydrated Kiwi Candy
by Ali Hassan, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan, Abuzar Aslam, Summaia Fordos, Hafiza Ayesha Noor, Fatima Javed and Laiba Younas
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15033 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Kiwi fruit is a member of the “Actinidiaceae” family, with over 76 species and cultivars with a wide range of sensory attributes. The kiwi fruit is one of the most popular fruits in the world, and it is high in nutrients such as [...] Read more.
Kiwi fruit is a member of the “Actinidiaceae” family, with over 76 species and cultivars with a wide range of sensory attributes. The kiwi fruit is one of the most popular fruits in the world, and it is high in nutrients such as vitamins, phytochemicals, and minerals. Candies have a low nutritional value because of their principal constituents, which include gelling agents and sugar. In comparison to conventional candy, the goal of this project is to make a natural and healthy dehydrated candy utilizing fresh kiwi fruit. The fruits were obtained from the local market of Faisalabad. Two types of dehydrated kiwi candies were prepared (T1: peeled; T2: unpeeled). In the last step, the sweets were kept in a dehydrator at 50 degrees Celsius for 24 h. Candy’s physiochemical, color measurements, and sensory characteristics were assessed. In all physio-chemical and sensory evaluations, the unpeeled candy produced the best results. The unpeeled candy’s TSS value, titratable acidity, pH, and vitamin C content was 77.9°, 0.36%, 4.5, and 37 mg, respectively. Unpeeled candy has a slightly darker color as compared to peeled candy, and color values L*, a*, and b* were 43.89, 0.43, and 11.34, respectively. Candy’s sensory study employing a nine-point hedonic scale reveals the highest consumer acceptability in terms of flavor, scent, mouthfeel, and texture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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291 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of Polyphenolics Extracts from Mexican Crops as Natural Antimicrobial Agents for Postharvest Treatments
by Laura M. Aguilar-Veloz, Jose Arturo Olguín-Rojas, Diana Gómez-Flores, Cecilia Vázquez-González, Alfredo Salvador Castro-Díaz, Manuel González-Pérez, Montserrat Calderón-Santoyo and Juan Arturo Ragazzo-Sánchez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15486 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 289
Abstract
In the last decade, the use of natural antimicrobial agents, like polyphenolic extracts in postharvest applications, has gained attention. However, a significant challenge lies ahead. Demonstrating these agents’ commercial-scale production feasibility, practical applications, and economic viability compared to traditional agrochemicals is crucial. This [...] Read more.
In the last decade, the use of natural antimicrobial agents, like polyphenolic extracts in postharvest applications, has gained attention. However, a significant challenge lies ahead. Demonstrating these agents’ commercial-scale production feasibility, practical applications, and economic viability compared to traditional agrochemicals is crucial. This review focuses on the achievements and obstacles in using polyphenolic extracts from Mexican crops as natural antimicrobial agents against postharvest phytopathogens and foodborne microorganisms. A comprehensive knowledge of the molecular mechanisms in vitro and in vivo, as well as plant systems, is essential for better results. Toxicity assessments and an evaluation of the impact on fruit quality are needed. Incorporating coating and encapsulation techniques can enhance the effectiveness of extracts. An integrated approach is needed for efficient, cost-effective control throughout the preharvest, harvest, and postharvest phases. Successful commercialization depends on the cost–benefit analysis, infrastructure, raw materials, local needs, and technical facilities, among other factors. Additionally, incorporating strategies related to circular economy can improve plant residue utilization and enhance technological and marketing approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
184 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Food Safety and Quality Assurance in the Supply Chain of Pakistan
by Ali Hassan, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan, Summaia Fordos, Syed Ali Hassan, Samran Khalid and Ali Hasan
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15023 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 449
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the food safety and quality in Pakistan’s supply chain and improvement improvement solutions to enhance consumer health and trust in the local food system by identifying critical points and proposing improvement solutions. To gather data, we conducted surveys, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the food safety and quality in Pakistan’s supply chain and improvement improvement solutions to enhance consumer health and trust in the local food system by identifying critical points and proposing improvement solutions. To gather data, we conducted surveys, reviewed relevant literature, and analyzed industry reports from 500 food establishments. Our findings revealed that inadequate hygiene practices and improper handling were major contributors to foodborne illnesses in the supply chain. Based on our results, we recommend implementing standardized monitoring and testing protocols to ensure the safety and quality of food products. Additionally, the use of blockchain technology for traceability can help enhance transparency and accountability throughout the supply chain. The implications of this study are significant. Policymakers can use these findings to develop and enforce regulations that prioritize consumer safety. Industry professionals can adopt our recommendations to improve their practices and build consumer trust. Furthermore, researchers can further build upon this study to explore innovative solutions for food safety and quality in Pakistan. This study provides valuable insights into the challenges and opportunities for enhancing food safety and quality in Pakistan’s supply chain. By implementing the recommended measures, we can create a safer and more reliable food system for all consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Pumpkin Cultivars: Impact of Cooking Treatments
by Roxana E. González, María B. Botella and Pamela Y. Quintas
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-14969 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 232
Abstract
Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) undergoes several cooking processes before consumption, leading to alterations in both its physical attributes and chemical composition. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of different cooking treatments (convection oven, steaming, microwaving, and boiling) [...] Read more.
Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) undergoes several cooking processes before consumption, leading to alterations in both its physical attributes and chemical composition. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of different cooking treatments (convection oven, steaming, microwaving, and boiling) on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in different pumpkin cultivars: Cuyano INTA, Dorado INTA, Paquito INTA, and Cokena INTA. The results showed high variability in the concentration of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity between the cultivars (p < 0.001). The stability of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity after cooking was found to be genotype × cooking treatment interaction dependent (p < 0.001). Nevertheless, the free radical scavenging activity exhibited by cooked pumpkins was found to be high, in the range of 69.93 to 256.44 µM Trolox g−1 fw. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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871 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Polyphenol Content and Lipoxygenase Activity in Selected Oil Cakes in Terms of Their Valorization
by Jolanta Małajowicz, Anna Dziedzic, Paulina Goleń and Tomasz Stepaniuk
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15140 - 17 Oct 2023
Viewed by 220
Abstract
Oil cakes are pomace that is a by-product of pressing oil from oilseeds. Due to the content of bioactive ingredients, there is more and more talk about their valorization through use in human and animal nutrition as well as microbiological processes aimed at [...] Read more.
Oil cakes are pomace that is a by-product of pressing oil from oilseeds. Due to the content of bioactive ingredients, there is more and more talk about their valorization through use in human and animal nutrition as well as microbiological processes aimed at the biosynthesis of biosurfactants, enzymes and fragrance compounds. The aim of this research was a qualitative assessment of selected oil cakes (linseed, rapeseed, hemp, safflower and camelina oil cakes) in the context of their potential use in microbiological cultures aimed at the biosynthesis of green note aroma compounds. The scope of the research included the analysis of the fatty acid composition of the lipid fraction of oil cakes as well as the determination of lipoxygenase activity and the polyphenol content in the extracts of these raw materials. Chromatographic analysis of the lipid fraction showed that hemp and safflower cakes had the highest content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. PUFAs constitute 67.18 ± 2.2% and 73.72 ± 1.8% in their extracts, respectively. Hemp cake extracts were also characterized by the highest lipoxygenase activity—76.4–1.2 U/mL with a low content of phenolic compounds at the level of 0.116 ± 0.005 mg GAE/mL of extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
A Comparison of the Biometric Characteristics, Physicochemical Composition, Mineral Elements, Nutrients, and Bioactive Compounds of Hylocereus undatus and H. polyrhizus
by Clarice Silva e Souza, Pamella C. Anunciação, Ceres M. Della Lucia, Rosana G. Rodrigues das Dôres, Regina Célia R. de M. Milagres and Helena M. Pinheiro Sant’Ana
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15151 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 232
Abstract
Pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) is an exotic and attractive fruit with promising consumption potential due to its nutritional qualities and its flavor and color. However, this fruit and its nutritional benefits for the human diet are not widely known. This paper compared the [...] Read more.
Pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) is an exotic and attractive fruit with promising consumption potential due to its nutritional qualities and its flavor and color. However, this fruit and its nutritional benefits for the human diet are not widely known. This paper compared the biometric and physicochemical characteristics, mineral elements, nutrients, and bioactive compounds of pitaya with white and red pulp. The nutrients and bioactive compounds were analyzed by HPLC. The total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity were determined by spectrophotometry. Pitaya red pulp showed higher vitamin E (140.76 Gg µg·100 g−1), antioxidant capacity (36.41 AAT%), eriodictyol (178.75 µg·100 g−1), and anthocyanins. The α-carotene showed higher expression in the white pulp (110.21 µg·100 g−1). The total phenolic content was similar in both fruits. Pitaya consumption should be encouraged due to the presence of nutrients and bioactive compounds relevant to our basic nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
608 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessing the Likelihood of Staphylococcus aureus Contamination in Bottled Drinking Water Production
by Patcharee Chittaphithakchai, Nonlapan Chomphulao, Pasika Kantasap, Kanyapak Wongput, Pawaret Kaitpoka, Thit Leesurapong, Thunnop Loakuldilok, Pichaya Poonlarp, Sutee Wangtuei, Wachira Jirarattanarangsri, Suthat Surawang and Sukhuntha Osiriphun
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15073 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 345
Abstract
This study’s objectives were to evaluate the possibility of S. aureus contamination in bottled drinking water and to determine the elements that affect the level of S. aureus in raw water. In two drinking water treatment facilities, samples of raw water, soft water, [...] Read more.
This study’s objectives were to evaluate the possibility of S. aureus contamination in bottled drinking water and to determine the elements that affect the level of S. aureus in raw water. In two drinking water treatment facilities, samples of raw water, soft water, reverse osmosis (R.O.) water, and finished water were collected at various stages. In addition, raw water samples and risk indicators like pH, temperature, and residual chlorine were gathered at the packaging facility during the washing process. For Factory A (small scale), the pH values for the raw water, soft water, R.O. water, and finished water samples were 7.17, 7.24, 6.69, and 5.92, respectively. For Factory B (medium scale), the pH values were 7.9, 7.44, 6.97, and 6.8. All water samples from Factory A (2 CFU/mL) and Factory B (1 CFU/mL) had S. aureus concentrations that were within the acceptable range for human consumption. All water samples from Factory A (2–26 CFU/mL) and Factory B (11–316 CFU/mL) contained total coliforms as well. Our study revealed that S. aureus contamination in water is mostly caused by pH and processing times. To prevent pathogen contamination in bottled drinking water, it is recommended that raw and finished water be kept at a pH level between 6.5 and 7.5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Coupling Flash Vacuum Expansion and Spray Drying to Produce Stable Polyphenolic Extract from Coffee Exocarp
by Ubaldo Richard Marin Castro, César Antonio Ortiz Sánchez, Manuel Alejandro Vargas-Ortiz, Marco Antonio Salgado Cervantes, Martha Paola Rascón Díaz, Adrien Servent and Víctor Manuel Rivera Arredondo
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-14999 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 259
Abstract
In the present work, the effect of the Flash Vacuum Expansion (FVE) process on the recovery of total phenolic content (TPC) from entire coffee peel was evaluated. The resulting extracts were microencapsulated by spray drying using maltodextrin (MD10) and arabic gum (GA). The [...] Read more.
In the present work, the effect of the Flash Vacuum Expansion (FVE) process on the recovery of total phenolic content (TPC) from entire coffee peel was evaluated. The resulting extracts were microencapsulated by spray drying using maltodextrin (MD10) and arabic gum (GA). The FVE increased TPC by 20.97% in the ethanolic extracts. The use of MD10 allowed obtention of smaller, less hygroscopic particles, with better color and flow properties as well as a higher concentration of TPC. Both powders were considered microbiologically stable based on humidity and water activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Calculating the Dose Rate of Natural Radioactivity in Vegetables from an Agricultural Area, El Jadida, Morocco
by Samira El Aouidi, Nezha Mejjad, Azzouz Benkdad and Abdelmourhit Laissaoui
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15077 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 276
Abstract
The present work aims to measure the natural radioactivity and annual effective dose in vegetables collected from an agricultural area in El-Jadida located in the Northwestern part of Morocco. The activity concentrations of 210Pb, 226Ra, and 40K were determined using [...] Read more.
The present work aims to measure the natural radioactivity and annual effective dose in vegetables collected from an agricultural area in El-Jadida located in the Northwestern part of Morocco. The activity concentrations of 210Pb, 226Ra, and 40K were determined using a high-resolution gamma spectrometry technique. The results show that the specific activities in vegetable samples of 210Pb, 226Ra, and 40K vary between 3.44 ± 0.55 Bq.Kg−1 and 12.80 ± 0.57 Bq.Kg−1; 2.25 ± 0.6 Bq.Kg−1 and 5.15 ± 0.60 Bq.Kg−1, and between 507.5 ± 27.76 and 1808.6 ± 93.19 Bq.Kg−1 respectively. The total annual effective doses calculated for investigated vegetable samples for Pb-210, Ra-226, and K-40 are 0.5997 mSv/y, 0.1202 mSv/y, and 0.4194 mSv/y respectively. The obtained values of natural radioactivity and annual effective dose for 210Pb, 226Ra, and 40K in the vegetable of the El Jadida region are safe and do not exceed the International limit values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Production and Acceptability of Jam Produced from Kiwi Fruit and Cucumber
by Ali Hassan, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan, Summaia Fordos, Ali Usman, Sharmeen Arif and Abuzar Aslam
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15022 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Fruits are an essential part of a healthy lifestyle, providing the body with the necessary nutrients and helping to prevent illness. Recognizing the importance of fruits, our study aimed to create a unique and nutritious mixed fruit jam using the delightful combination of [...] Read more.
Fruits are an essential part of a healthy lifestyle, providing the body with the necessary nutrients and helping to prevent illness. Recognizing the importance of fruits, our study aimed to create a unique and nutritious mixed fruit jam using the delightful combination of kiwi and cucumber. We chose kiwi and cucumber for this experiment due to their exceptional nutritional value. Kiwi is rich in vitamin C, vitamin K, and dietary fiber, while cucumber is hydrating and contains vitamins A, C, and K. Combining these two fruits not only adds a refreshing flavor but also enhances the nutritional profile of jam. In our experiment, we tested different ratios of kiwi and cucumber, including 100% kiwi (control), 50% kiwi and 50% cucumber, 70% kiwi and 30% cucumber, and 30% kiwi and 70% cucumber. To improve the texture and preservation of the jam, we added commercial pectin, sodium benzoate, and citric acid. Through comprehensive analysis, we found that the jam made with a 50%:50% kiwi ratio (T1) stood out regarding its physicochemical properties. It had higher levels of titratable acidity, total soluble solids, moisture, pH, and ascorbic acid while having a lower proportion of total sugar. These attributes contribute to a well-rounded nutritional profile, making it an excellent choice for individuals seeking a healthy option. To ensure the jam’s sensory appeal, we conducted sensory assessments evaluating its taste, scent, texture, and overall acceptance. The T1 jam received the highest scores in all sensory categories, indicating that it was the most preferred option among the participants. Its vibrant green color, with L*, a*, and b* values of 32.41, −2.29, and 9.51, respectively, adds to the overall sensory experience and entices consumers to indulge in its goodness. In conclusion, our study highlights the nutritional excellence and sensory delight of the kiwi-based jam, particularly the T1 variant. By combining the goodness of kiwi and cucumber, we have created a jam that not only satisfies taste buds but also nourishes the body. It is an excellent choice for individuals of all ages looking for a healthy and enjoyable spread. So spread this fruity goodness on your toast and savor the benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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756 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Novel Flours from Neltuma affinis Fruit for Improving the Technological Quality and Alveolar Structure of Gluten-Free Bread
by Nancy Esposito, Karen Irigoytía, Verónica Busch, Juan Manuel Castagnini, Pilar Buera and Carolina Genevois
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15516 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 219
Abstract
The incorporation of alternative flours in the formulation of gluten-free (GF) baked goods has the potential to improve their nutritional and technological characteristics. Within this context, the addition of novel flours from the grinding of seed-endocarp (ES) and the exocarp/mesocarp (EM) of Neltuma [...] Read more.
The incorporation of alternative flours in the formulation of gluten-free (GF) baked goods has the potential to improve their nutritional and technological characteristics. Within this context, the addition of novel flours from the grinding of seed-endocarp (ES) and the exocarp/mesocarp (EM) of Neltuma affinis fruit was studied in the design and formulation of GF bread. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of ES, EM and water hydration (WH) on the alveolar structure, pH and colour of GF bread. A Box–Behnken response surface design was used. EM and ES were found to have a negative effect on pH. The alveolar structure of the bread was influenced by the level of hydration, with larger alveoli being observed in the bread crumb at higher levels of hydration and greater density at lower levels. The three factors studied showed a positive influence on the a* coordinate of the colour of the crumb. In conclusion, the incorporation of alternative flours from N. affinis could be a valuable approach to improve the nutritional profile and sustainability of an underappreciated species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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247 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Healthy Cereal Granola Bar Formulation from a Mixture of Thai Local Rice Flour, Job’s Tears Flour, and Black Sesame Seeds
by Mayuree Chompoo, Chalermkwan Somjai, Sujinda Sriwattana, Niramon Utama-ang, Thunnop Loakuldilok and Sukhuntha Osiriphun
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15074 - 14 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 373
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal ratio of a mixture of Thai riceberry rice flour, Job’s tears flour, and black sesame seeds in developing a healthy cereal granola bar. Based on the experimental mixture design of 10 formulations of [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal ratio of a mixture of Thai riceberry rice flour, Job’s tears flour, and black sesame seeds in developing a healthy cereal granola bar. Based on the experimental mixture design of 10 formulations of a granola bar, the mixture ratio of riceberry rice flour, Job’s tears flour, and black sesame seeds affected the quality of the cereal granola bar in terms of its physicochemical and sensory properties, and the differences were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The main ingredients of the granola bar formulation that was well accepted were riceberry rice flour (5%), Job’s tears flour (35%), and black sesame seeds (5%). The peak viscosity of riceberry rice flour and Job’s tears flour, as measured by the Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), was 943.67 ± 49.60 cP and 1329.00 ± 10.71 cP, respectively. This product showed the highest overall liking score of 7.27 ± 0.64 with a water activity of 0.53 and a moisture content of 11.54%. These results suggest that the prepared local cereal granola bar can be a promising food product with nutritional value and antioxidant content. The addition of Job’s tears flour and riceberry rice flour improved the texture of the granola bars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
The Novel Antioxidant Active Packaging Approach: A Combination of Aquafaba and Essential Oils to Prevent Lipid Oxidation in Fish
by Elif Tuğçe Aksun Tümerkan
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15159 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 198
Abstract
Active packaging commonly consists of several bioactive compounds that improve sensory characteristics, protect quality, and expand the shelf life of food items. With a better understanding of the importance of plant-based protein sources, the utilization of by-products of any food item has gained [...] Read more.
Active packaging commonly consists of several bioactive compounds that improve sensory characteristics, protect quality, and expand the shelf life of food items. With a better understanding of the importance of plant-based protein sources, the utilization of by-products of any food item has gained interest in both academia and industry. Aquafaba, as an accepted legume by-product, offers several benefits in the food industry owing to its gelling property and high emulsifier and stabilizer capacity. Over the years, essential oils have been used as an antioxidant agent in the active packaging approach to prevent lipid oxidation, especially in highly perishable foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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414 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Multidrug-Resistance Cases of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Fresh Meats
by Joana Paiva, Vanessa Silva, Patrícia Poeta and Cristina Saraiva
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15071 - 14 Oct 2023
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to provide an overview of multidrug-resistance cases of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from fresh meat and meat products from the north of Portugal. Samples of fresh meat preparations and meat products from hypermarkets and small traditional local shops [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to provide an overview of multidrug-resistance cases of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from fresh meat and meat products from the north of Portugal. Samples of fresh meat preparations and meat products from hypermarkets and small traditional local shops were subjected to microbiological analysis and antimicrobial resistance tests. The strains were identified using morphological and molecular methods. Antibiotic resistance was determined using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method. The overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes among screened samples was 32%. A total of nine isolates were obtained from minced meat, displaying a multidrug-resistance profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Antimicrobial Properties of Chestnut Shell Extract as an Ecofriendly Approach for Food Preservation
by Maria Ciríaco, Luis Patarata, Márcio Moura-Alves, Fernando Nunes and Cristina Saraiva
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-14934 - 12 Oct 2023
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Abstract
The chestnut industry generates large quantities of by-products, including the chestnut shell, which is a source of phenolic compounds. In this study, the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of chestnut shell extract was determined using the disk diffusion method. The chestnut shell was freeze-dried [...] Read more.
The chestnut industry generates large quantities of by-products, including the chestnut shell, which is a source of phenolic compounds. In this study, the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of chestnut shell extract was determined using the disk diffusion method. The chestnut shell was freeze-dried and milled. The extract was obtained using an ultrasound-assisted technique using water 70%: ethanol 30% (v/v) and subsequently lyophilized. Muller–Hinton plates were inoculated with ~105 CFU/mL of microorganisms. Sterile paper discs (6 mm) were placed on the inoculated culture medium and impregnated with 10 µL of each extract. Seven concentrations of extract between 0.3% and 2.1% were tested. The plates were incubated for 24 h at 37 °C. The antibacterial efficacy of the extracts was indicated by a halo formed around the paper disk. This work was carried out in triplicate. Halos were found at 1.5%, 1.8%, and 2.1% on Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7973 (8.32 ± 0.06 mm for 2.1%), Enterococcus faecalis 19433 (8.94 ± 0.41 mm for 2.1%), and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC (10.26 ± 0.19 mm at 2.1%). For the remaining microorganisms, no halos were observed. The tested extract showed antimicrobial activity, demonstrating its potential for the control of pathogens in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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Proceeding Paper
Sensory Profile of Gluten-Free Breads Based on Alternative Commercial Flours
by Karen Irigoytia, María Belén Parodi, Nancy Espósito, Marina de Escalada Pla and Carolina Genevois
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15217 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 208
Abstract
Gluten-free baked goods (GFBGs) are based mainly on refined flours and starches, being characterized by a poor nutritional profile. The use of alternative flours rich in protein and dietary fibre, and with a good sensorial profile, in the formulation of GFBGs could improve [...] Read more.
Gluten-free baked goods (GFBGs) are based mainly on refined flours and starches, being characterized by a poor nutritional profile. The use of alternative flours rich in protein and dietary fibre, and with a good sensorial profile, in the formulation of GFBGs could improve either nutritional or sensorial properties. The objective of the study was to evaluate the global differences/similarities and overall acceptability of gluten-free breads (GFBs) formulated with alternative flours among regular consumers and those with gluten-related disorders. The results showed four well-differentiated groups of GFBs with descriptors related to texture, odour, flavour, colour, and crumb, and most of the samples received a punctuation in a range of 5.9–7.3 in a 9-point hedonic scale. The identification of descriptors in GFBs formulated with flours with a good nutritional profile could be a useful tool in the design of baked goods for the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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867 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Quantification of β-Casomorphin 7 in Commercially Available Filtered and Pasteurized Cow’s Milk
by Raja Buatig, Miriam Clegg, Nicholas Michael and Maria-Jose Oruna-Concha
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 26(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/Foods2023-15157 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 278
Abstract
β-casomorphin 7 (BCM7) is a bioactive peptide that is released during the digestion of the β-casein (in particular, the A1 variant) present in cow’s milk. BCM7 has been linked to several health concerns such as gastrointestinal disorders. Milk processing alters the composition of [...] Read more.
β-casomorphin 7 (BCM7) is a bioactive peptide that is released during the digestion of the β-casein (in particular, the A1 variant) present in cow’s milk. BCM7 has been linked to several health concerns such as gastrointestinal disorders. Milk processing alters the composition of milk, which in turn may affect its digestion, thus impacting the amount of BCM7 that is released. This study aimed to understand the impact of microfiltration on BCM7 release after the in vitro digestion (mimicking in vivo digestion) of semi-skimmed filtered milk compared to that of pasteurized milk and pasteurized Jersey milk (which does not contain A1 β-casein, the main source of BCM7). LC/MS was used to quantify BCM7. The results indicated that the β-casein variants present in milk, rather than the milk treatments themselves, are the key factors for the release of BCM7. Similar BCM7 levels were found in the filtered and pasteurized milk samples, whereas the Jersey milk released just half the amount. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Foods)
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