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Biol. Life Sci. Forum, 2021, BDEE 2021

The 1st International Electronic Conference on Biological Diversity, Ecology and Evolution

Online | 15–31 Mar 2021

Volume Editors: 
Michael Wink, Heidelberg University, Germany
Luc Legal, Université Paul Sabatier, France
Mario A. Pagnotta, Tuscia University, Italy
Paolo Giordani, University of Genova, Italy
Matthieu Chauvat, University of Rouen Normandy, France

Number of Papers: 38
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Cover Story (view full-size image): The 1st International Electronic Conference on Biological Diversity, Ecology, and Evolution (BDEE 2021) was held from 15 to 31 March 2021 in Sciforum. The meeting brought together researchers in [...] Read more.
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1 pages, 176 KiB  
Abstract
Use of Camera Traps as a Biodiversity Measurement Tool in Gorce National Park, Southern Poland
by Ivan Karužić, Sayantani M. Basak, Jan Loch, Paweł Armatys, Paweł Czarnota and Izabela A. Wierzbowska
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09514 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Noninvasive methods, which do not require direct access to or harassment of animals, are essential for biodiversity monitoring. For mammals, analyses of scats and hair samples, tracking and recording by remote cameras are among the most commonly used. This study aimed to verify [...] Read more.
Noninvasive methods, which do not require direct access to or harassment of animals, are essential for biodiversity monitoring. For mammals, analyses of scats and hair samples, tracking and recording by remote cameras are among the most commonly used. This study aimed to verify the current status of animal populations using camera traps in Gorce National Park (GNP), located in the Polish Carpathians, an area covered by natural beech and spruce mountain forests. On average, 35 passive infrared camera traps annually were deployed in GNP. Archived data from the period of December 2013 to December 2017 were processed. In total, there were 21,087 recordings of animals with 23 different taxa of mammals including 17 large and medium-sized species. Shannon’s diversity index was H′ = 1.908. Among ungulates, the most commonly observed species were red deer (Cervus elaphus; n = 7898), followed wild boar (Sus scrofa; n = 526) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; n = 482). Three large carnivores, i.e., grey wolf (Canis lupus), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) and brown bear (Ursus arctos) were all regularly observed, though they belong to rare species in Poland and other neighbouring countries. The use of camera traps allowed us to distinguish lynx individuals and estimate the size of its local population. The European wildcat (Felis silvestris) which had not been observed in GNP since the 1990s, was surprisingly recorded by camera traps in 2015 and 2016. Additionally, we registered raccoon (Procyon lotor), an invasive alien species in Poland, which can pose a potential threat to local fauna. Similarly, domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and cats (Felis catus) were free-ranging in GNP without any confinement and far from the nearest human settlements. The collected information helped to improve management and conservation measures in GNP. We showed that this noninvasive method is particularly useful for the monitoring of elusive and individually recognizable animal species. Full article
174 KiB  
Abstract
Investigating the Diversity of the Terrestrial Invertebrate Fauna of Antarctica: A Closer Look at the Stereotydeus (Acari: Prostigmata) Genus
by Claudia Brunetti, Henk Siepel, Pietro Paolo Fanciulli, Francesco Nardi and Antonio Carapelli
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09405 - 12 Mar 2021
Viewed by 701
Abstract
The extremely inhospitable Antarctic ecosystems confine plants and invertebrates to sparse ice-free areas. These species survived for millions of years in isolated refugia where population divergence and differentiation can occur, potentially resulting in speciation. The limited dispersal abilities of invertebrate species combined with [...] Read more.
The extremely inhospitable Antarctic ecosystems confine plants and invertebrates to sparse ice-free areas. These species survived for millions of years in isolated refugia where population divergence and differentiation can occur, potentially resulting in speciation. The limited dispersal abilities of invertebrate species combined with their specific habitat requirements and substantial geographical barriers can drastically reduce the gene flow between different populations, resulting in high genetic differentiation between clusters of individuals. With more than 100 described species, mites are surely the most diverse invertebrate group of Continental Antarctica. Among them, the free-living genus Stereotydeus Berlese, 1901 (Acari: Prostigmata) is represented by six Antarctic species, of which five occur along the coastal zones of Victoria Land and the Transantarctic Mountains. In order to examine the biodiversity and the phylogeographic distribution ranges of Stereotydeus spp. across Victoria Land, we conducted an integrated analysis of the genus through morphological, phylogenetic and population genetics studies. Specimens were collected from nine localities in Victoria Land and sequenced for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I mitochondrial gene (COI) and a fragment of the 28S ribosomal RNA-encoding gene using mite-specific primers. We morphologically identified and described two novel Stereotydeus species from central and south Victoria Land. While the relationships between the cox1 haplotypes from North Victoria Land are well defined, the distribution of the central-southern species appears to be more complex. This suggests a possible common evolutionary history in a number of isolated glacial refugia, with scarce gene flow even within populations probably resulting from inter/intra-specific events influenced by several abiotic/biotic factors. Recent threats to Antarctic biodiversity, such as accelerated climate change, pollution, biological invasions and the increase in human activities, have caused increased calls for adequate conservation measures. Establishing a new distribution map for the Stereotydeus species of Victoria Land may help lay the foundations for future decisions in matters of protection and conservation of the unique terrestrial fauna of Antarctica. Full article
193 KiB  
Abstract
From the Sea to the Field: The Case Study of the Mycobiota Associated to the Marine Sponge Haliclona fulva and Its Interest as Biocontrol Agent Source for Agriculture
by Elena Bovio, Marina Rosenthal Pereira Lima, Benoît Industri, Pham Giang Nam, Laurent Lapeyre, Renaud Canaguier, Laurent Boyer, Mohamed Mehiri and Michel Ponchet
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09466 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 822
Abstract
Oceans and seas represent a largely unexplored environment, especially at the microorganism level. Among them, marine fungi are particularly interesting since they exhibit a high diversity and an incredible ability to produce new secondary metabolites that may have a biotechnological interest. In the [...] Read more.
Oceans and seas represent a largely unexplored environment, especially at the microorganism level. Among them, marine fungi are particularly interesting since they exhibit a high diversity and an incredible ability to produce new secondary metabolites that may have a biotechnological interest. In the present study, as part of the Interreg Alcotra FINNOVER project (2017–2021), the goal is to isolate and identify fungi associated to the Mediterranean sponge Haliclona fulva. The obtained strains were further evaluated for their ability to inhibit plant pathogens thanks to the production of active secondary metabolites. Natural strategies based on microorganisms (strains, compounds) have gained an increasing interest in plant protection. They are promising alternatives to some conventional agrochemicals that are banned due to concerns regarding health and the environment. The isolation of fungi was achieved from three specimens of H. fulva collected in the same area of the French Riviera. The homogenized sponges were plated on a seawater medium and on potato dextrose agar. The individual colonies were isolated in pure culture and identified (morphological check and sequencing of genomic markers). Overall, 118 different strains were isolated. The use of two different media guarantees to isolate a higher number of strains, but no significant difference was observed in the species isolated from the two culture conditions. The most abundant genera were Penicillium, Trichoderma and Cladosporium. However, the common core mycobiota of the three sponges was represented by Parathyridariella dematiacea, Roussoella padinae, Trichoderma atrobrunneum and different strains of the genus Kalmusia, including new species. Several species isolated from H. fulva were exclusive of the marine environment and were never or poorly studied for their biological activity. A selection of these fungi (62 strains) were tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of three important plant pathogens. Preliminary results showed that 34%, 43% and 43% of evaluated strains clearly inhibited Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora capsici and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, respectively. In conclusion, the mycobiota of H. fulva was characterized by a huge diversity, including species that are currently studied to be described as new ones. The preliminary results of the biological activity showed that despite the unusual environment studied to find new biocontrol agents for agriculture, several fungi exhibited a promising activity against three major plant pathogens. Full article
154 KiB  
Abstract
The Pattern of Earthworm Diversity on the Western Slopes of Kopaonik Mountain in Serbia: An Empirical Test of Rapoport’s Altitudinal Rule
by Filip Popovic, MIrjana Stojanović, Tanja Trakić and Jovana Sekulić
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09516 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 714
Abstract
The pattern of earthworm diversity along altitudinal gradients has rarely been investigated. The aim of the current study was to examine the patterns of earthworm diversity on the western slopes of Kopaonik Mountain. Earthworms were sampled in four-month periods (from April to July) [...] Read more.
The pattern of earthworm diversity along altitudinal gradients has rarely been investigated. The aim of the current study was to examine the patterns of earthworm diversity on the western slopes of Kopaonik Mountain. Earthworms were sampled in four-month periods (from April to July) in both 2018 and 2019. In total, 30 plots at altitudinal transects between 420 and 1950 m a.s.l. were sampled within two years’ fieldwork. Overall, 27 earthworm species belonging to 11 genera were found at the study sites. A combination of Pearson’s correlation, linear regression and cluster analysis (UPGMA) was used to determine the effects of altitude on earthworm diversity. Essentially, we found monotonically declining relationships between total abundance/species richness and altitudinal gradients (from 14 to 6 species and from 118 to 39 individuals). Cluster analysis revealed two patterns of earthworm community composition: one that characterizes a low altitude (up to 1000 m) and one that was observed at the middle and high altitudes (from 1000 m). Nevertheless, a high number of taxa with broad ecological tolerances was observed, which means an increase in the altitudinal range with increasing altitudes, thus supporting Rapoport’s altitudinal rule. Overall, this study provides new insights into the understanding of the effect of altitude on earthworm diversity. Full article
195 KiB  
Abstract
Is Cryptic Biodiversity a Common Phenomenon among Atlantic Oceanic Squids?
by Fernando A. Fernández-Álvarez, Roger Villanueva and A. Louise Allcock
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09438 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 558
Abstract
Historically, marine oceanic open environments have been considered without barriers to dispersal, and the subsequent speciation of lineages from distant areas. As a consequence, many marine pelagic invertebrates are considered as monotypic cosmopolitan taxa, sometimes even including divergent geographic morphotypes. However, this view [...] Read more.
Historically, marine oceanic open environments have been considered without barriers to dispersal, and the subsequent speciation of lineages from distant areas. As a consequence, many marine pelagic invertebrates are considered as monotypic cosmopolitan taxa, sometimes even including divergent geographic morphotypes. However, this view has been consistently challenged in the last decades by the discovery of many cryptic species complexes among pelagic marine “cosmopolitan” invertebrates. Despite their vast ecological importance, oceanic squids of the orders Oegopsida Orbigny, 1845 and Bathyteuthida Lindgren, 2010 are seldomly molecularly tested for cryptic biodiversity covering wide areas. Here, we barcoded specimens belonging to 12 oceanic squid species sampled during several Atlantic oceanic cruises covering waters from Brazil to Iceland, and the Mediterranean Sea. For assessing the presence of cryptic lineages, we studied the uncorrected p-distances at the intra- and interclade level and performed molecular species delimitation methods, such as the Poisson Tree Processes and the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent approach. Within Atlantic waters, we found cryptic biodiversity in five species: Abraliopsis morisii (Verany, 1839), Ancistrocheirus lessueuri (Orbigny 1842), Chtenopteryx sicula (Verany 1851), Galiteuthis armata Joubin, 1898 and Helicocranchia pfefferi Massy 1907. Atlantic individuals of Pterygioteuthis gemmata Chun, 1908 represent a divergent lineage of those from New Zealand. The divergence values among cryptic lineages of individuals of the same nominal species range from 2.2 to 17%, likely representing different stages of divergence since each putative speciation phenomena. In total, 50% of the tested species revealed cryptic lineages, which indicates that oceanic squid biodiversity is underestimated and it is necessary to develop more studies to assess the diversity of these animals at a global scale. Full article
159 KiB  
Abstract
Marine Heat Wave Increased Variance and Decreased Productivity at Bering Strait during 2015–2016
by Hector D. Douglas, Alexander S. Kitaysky and Evgenia V. Kitaiskaia
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09457 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Planktivorous auklets registered changes across two years of a marine heat wave (2015–2016). Colony attendance of crested auklets (Aethia cristatella) was reduced (35–50%) at Little Diomede I., AK, in the latter part of June 2016 compared to 2015. The pattern was [...] Read more.
Planktivorous auklets registered changes across two years of a marine heat wave (2015–2016). Colony attendance of crested auklets (Aethia cristatella) was reduced (35–50%) at Little Diomede I., AK, in the latter part of June 2016 compared to 2015. The pattern was similar for least auklets (A. pusilla). An anomalous marine distribution and anomalous consumption pattern were noted for crested auklets. A plot of δ15N/δ13C spanned three times the range in 2016 vs. 2015. Crested auklet RBC’s had lower δ13C values and higher δ15N in 2016. Least auklet growing primaries showed the same pattern. Advected production is important, but δ13C enrichment may have occurred later in 2016. Julian Date of sampling was more strongly correlated with δ13C of crested auklet RBCs in 2016 (r = 0.47, p < 0.001) than in 2015 (r = 0.31, p = 0.01). Crested auklets had higher baseline corticosterone (t0.05(2)27 = 2.56, p < 0.05) and higher variances in 2016. The crested auklet’s citrus-like odorant was less evident in 2016 and ceased earlier in the summer. Bill pigmentation was incomplete in 11% of crested auklets (n = 82) in 2016. Planktivorous auklets are proxies for the marine ecosystem. Increased marine heat content may have imposed additive costs that decreased productivity of some top predators. Full article
227 KiB  
Abstract
DNA Barcoding of Kemp’s Ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) in México
by Fátima Yedith Camacho-Sanchez, A. Alonso Aguirre, Héctor Hugo Acosta-Sánchez, Hervey Rodriguez-González, Martha López-Hernández and Miguel Angel Reyes-Lopez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09392 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 541
Abstract
From the seven existing species of sea turtles, two are endemic to Mexico and one of these inhabits the Gulf of Mexico and nests mainly in the Rancho Nuevo (RN) Sanctuary, Aldama, Tamaulipas, Mexico [1]. There are other important beaches in Tamaulipas, Mexico, [...] Read more.
From the seven existing species of sea turtles, two are endemic to Mexico and one of these inhabits the Gulf of Mexico and nests mainly in the Rancho Nuevo (RN) Sanctuary, Aldama, Tamaulipas, Mexico [1]. There are other important beaches in Tamaulipas, Mexico, as Tepehuajes (TEP), Barra del Tordo (BdT), Altamira (ALT), y Miramar (MIR) and outside Mexico in South Padre Island (SPI), TX, USA, all locations in the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the DNA barcode by COI gene sequences in Kemp’s ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) and to estimate their genetic divergence. One hundred and one new sequences were obtained from the Kemp’s ridley turtles from the RN sanctuary and compared with the 13 sequences reported in BOLD database [2]. Sequences of nearly 700 bp of Kemp’s ridley were aligned among them and compared to seven different sea turtle species; all new sequences will be added to the BOLD database. Genetic divergence showed a clear separation between other species (0.02 to 0.12), while their relationship with the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) was confirmed (0.02). Additionally, the result of the haplotype network showed five haplotypes, four out of which were novel and only one was the most predominant, it belonged to RN sanctuary, the second one was LK-COI-01 previously reported [3], mostly all sequences were grouped from outside Mexico and only one was from BdT. Finally, the other three ones (twice sequenced) were described for only one sequence each (MIR, ALT, and TEP). Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree showed and confirmed the separation into two main clades, or families, and one out of them, contained the remaining six sea turtle species. Finally, the DNA barcode for Kemp’s ridley was obtained [4]. In conclusion, the main haplotype corresponded to RN Sanctuary as it was expected, and the secondary camps are part of the RN Sanctuary as they are around less than 100 km distant. There was clear evidence that DNA barcode by the COI gene is useful for the study of Kemp’s ridley turtles, being able to discriminate between dominant and new haplotypes from those already reported, as well as study phylogeny and genetic diversity in Kemp’s ridley. Full article
868 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Biodiversity Loss with Habitat and Risk of New Diseases
by Darshit Ram
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09427 - 12 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1227
Abstract
Biodiversity is the number and variety of organisms found within a specified geographic region. It refers to the varieties of plants, animals, and microorganisms, the genes they contain and the ecosystems they form. Approximately half of Earth’s terrestrial surface is considered to be [...] Read more.
Biodiversity is the number and variety of organisms found within a specified geographic region. It refers to the varieties of plants, animals, and microorganisms, the genes they contain and the ecosystems they form. Approximately half of Earth’s terrestrial surface is considered to be in a natural or semi-natural condition. It relates to the variability among living organisms on the Earth, including the variability within and between species and that within and between ecosystems. The degradation of nature is among the most serious issues that the world faces, but current targets and consequent actions amount, at best, to a managed decline. Required now are bold and well-defined goals and a credible set of actions to restore the abundance of nature to levels that enable both people and nature to thrive. Human population density strongly correlates with the risk of emergence for all major classes of infectious disease. The maintenance of biodiversity is hypothesised to reduce pathogen prevalence and consequently human disease risk through the dilution effect. However, assuming microbial diversity correlates with that of all other life forms, there may be increased potential for novel pathogens to emerge from biodiverse regions. Here, we present a theoretical framework that exploits the species–area relationship (SAR) to link habitat biodiversity and fragmentation with the exposure to novel infectious diseases.By exploiting ecological theory, it is possible to identify high-risk areas for risk mitigation and mitigation measures that may simultaneously reduce risk and conserve biodiversity, a problem that has previously been described as both conceptually and practically challenging. Full article
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654 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Native People’s Perception of Trees in the Urban Landscape of the Bay of Naples
by Adriano Stinca, Luigi Marfella and Assunta Esposito
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09446 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 905
Abstract
In urban areas, trees play a crucial role as providers of ecosystem services, which enhance the well-being of humans directly and indirectly. Research on trees and humans generally depict a complex system of historical, cultural and natural values. However, urban changes can modify [...] Read more.
In urban areas, trees play a crucial role as providers of ecosystem services, which enhance the well-being of humans directly and indirectly. Research on trees and humans generally depict a complex system of historical, cultural and natural values. However, urban changes can modify historic landscapes by causing the loss of cultural and environmental values. In this study, we assessed native people’s perception of trees in the urban landscape of the Bay of Naples (Italy) with the main goals of: (i) highlighting the tree species historically characteristic of the urban landscape; and (ii) evaluating the quantitative changes and the related causes that have affected trees in the last twenty years. To these aims, we conducted a completely anonymous online survey using the Google Forms application. Pinus pinea L. (Pinaceae) showed the highest scores as a species that historically characterized the study area, but also with a strong reduction, while Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Simaroubaceae) showed an increase in the last twenty years. The results of this study will support decision making in urban landscape planning in the Bay of Naples. Furthermore, the proposed survey method can be tested and applied to other urban areas of the world. Full article
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411 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Ampelographic and Ampelometric Characterization of Berries and Seeds from Traditional Vineyards in Morocco
by Younes Hmimsa, Widad Benziane, Zineb Mouden, Mohammed Ater and Salama El Fatehi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09523 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Morocco, like other Mediterranean countries, is characterized by a great diversity of indigenous varieties of vines, “Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera”, due to the climate and the heterogeneity of the landscapes, as well as the know-how and agricultural practices adopted by traditional [...] Read more.
Morocco, like other Mediterranean countries, is characterized by a great diversity of indigenous varieties of vines, “Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera”, due to the climate and the heterogeneity of the landscapes, as well as the know-how and agricultural practices adopted by traditional farmers who have contributed preserving the genetic diversity of these indigenous grape varieties. Within the framework of this study, we seek the identification and characterization of 36 indigenous grape varieties sampled in northern and southern Morocco. The samples studied were taken from traditional vineyards in these regions. For the ampelographic and ampelometric descriptions, 26 characters were used according to a list of descriptors developed by the International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV). Thus, the ampelographic and ampelometric approaches were refined by a principal component analysis (PCA), which made it possible to group the grape varieties into five distinct groups according to their correlations to the variables linked to the bunch, the berry, and the seed. The results obtained from these different approaches confirmed the presence of great inter-grape and intra-grape variability within the samples studied. This observation encourages us to make more efforts to maintain this variability and to fight against genetic erosion and the threat of environmental changes. Full article
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1894 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Ampelometric and Ampelographic Characterization of Leaves of Indigenous “Vitis vinifera ssp. Vinifera” in the North of Morocco
by Salama El Fatehi, Mohammed Ater and Younes Hmimsa
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09461 - 15 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
Morocco, with its Mediterranean climate and its various potentialities, conceals an important space for the extension of viticulture, in particular that of traditional grape varieties, which has undergone profound upheavals linked to economic, social and environmental constraints which have had a negative impact [...] Read more.
Morocco, with its Mediterranean climate and its various potentialities, conceals an important space for the extension of viticulture, in particular that of traditional grape varieties, which has undergone profound upheavals linked to economic, social and environmental constraints which have had a negative impact on genetic diversity. The present study aimed to evaluate the richness of the local phylogenetic heritage of the traditional vines in the North-West of Morocco. For this, we carried out a characterization of a collection of 1617 leaves, taken from 162 vine plants and belonging to 27 different traditional varieties. Thereafter, we used an ampelometric and ampelographic approach with the Super Ampelo software. The ANOVA test revealed the most discriminating parameters, which were the angles, the depth of the lateral sinuses in relation to the lengths of the ribs, and the relationships between all the parameters. In this sense, the qualitative parameters (OIV Codes) confirmed the presence of morphological diversity within the grape varieties studied; the study of general averages made it possible to specify the varieties with the large values of distance/angles and of ratio, and we have shown the presence of a great intra-varietal diversity in addition to that which is inter-varietal. The analysis in principal components allowed the grouping of the grape varieties into five groups according to their expressions by the quantitative parameters, and it confirmed the hypothesis of the influence of the external environment in addition to the gene pool on the grape varieties. This leads us to provide more efforts to maintain inter- and intra-varietal variability and to fight against genetic erosion and the threat of environmental changes. Full article
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1542 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Distribution of Viviparous American Fish Species in Eastern Europe on the Example of Gambusia holbrooki Girarg, 1859 and Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 in the Context of Global Climate Change
by Oksana Nekrasova, Volodymyr Tytar, Mihails Pupins, Andris Čeirāns, Oleksii Marushchak and Arturs Skute
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09398 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
The potential distribution of tropical fish species in Eastern Europe—Gambusia holbrooki Girarg, 1859 (introduced for biological control) and Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 (aquarium species, found in wastewaters of big cities)—tends to be of particular interest in terms of global climate change. After [...] Read more.
The potential distribution of tropical fish species in Eastern Europe—Gambusia holbrooki Girarg, 1859 (introduced for biological control) and Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 (aquarium species, found in wastewaters of big cities)—tends to be of particular interest in terms of global climate change. After GIS modeling of our own data and findings listed in the GBIF databases (2278 points for G. holbrooki and 1410 points for P. reticulata) by using the Maxent package and 18 uncorrelated variables of 35 Bioclim climatic parameters from the CliMond dataset, it was found that by 2090, guppies will appear in the south of Ukraine (Danube River estuary, as well as in several places in the Caucasus and Turkey with habitat suitability of >0.3–0.5). G. holbrooki will also slightly expand its range in Europe. Limiting factors for G. holbrooki distribution are as follows: bio1 (annual mean temperature, optimum +12–+23 °C) and bio19 (precipitation of coldest quarter (mm)). Limiting factors for guppies are as follows: bio1 (optimum +14–+28 °C), bio4 (temperature seasonality), and bio3 (isothermality). Guppies, unlike G. holbrooki, prefer warmer waters (correlation 0.02). Such thermophilic fish species do not compete with the native ichthyofauna, but they can occupy niches in anthropogenically transformed habitats, playing an important role as agents of biological control. Full article
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2252 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of Canopy Gap Ecology on the Diversity and Dynamics of Natural Regeneration in a Tropical Moist Semi-Deciduous Forest, Ghana
by Maame Esi Hammond and Radek Pokorný
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09455 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1280
Abstract
The study evaluated species diversity, including regeneration and growth dynamics of different naturally regenerated tree species in gaps of different sizes in a tropical moist semi-deciduous forest, Ghana. Twenty-three randomly selected gaps categorized as small (≤300 m2), medium (301–1000 m2 [...] Read more.
The study evaluated species diversity, including regeneration and growth dynamics of different naturally regenerated tree species in gaps of different sizes in a tropical moist semi-deciduous forest, Ghana. Twenty-three randomly selected gaps categorized as small (≤300 m2), medium (301–1000 m2), large (1001–2000 m2), and very large (>2000 m2) sizes were defined. Forty-one subsampling circular 1 m2 plots at 2 m intervals were delineated within each gap. In total, 1468 individuals belonging to 85 species from 25 families and 65 genera were enumerated. Malvaceae (13 species) was the most diverse family, while Bignoniaceae, Clusiaceae, Lecythidaceae, Melastomataceae, Mimosaceae, Myristicaceae, Ochnaceae, Rutaceae, Santalaceae, and Urticaceae families were scarcely represented by only 1 species, respectively. Non-pioneer light demanding (NPLD) recorded the highest number of 38 species, followed by pioneers with 30 species, whereas shade-tolerant attained the lowest representatives of 17 species in regenerated species composition. All estimated diversity indices revealed improvements of species diversity in all gaps significantly. Though the small gaps showed no regeneration shift between pioneers and shade-tolerant, the other gap sizes did it at 62–82%. Medium and large gaps promoted natural regeneration at all distinguished diameter classes, however, pioneers and NPLD at 71–100 mm and pioneers at 51–70 mm were absent in small and very large gaps, respectively. Similarly, pioneers of height 0–20 cm in very large gaps were missing. Conclusively, species biodiversity differed significantly among gaps while regeneration dynamics differed significantly among gap sizes. Full article
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8 pages, 10863 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessing Earthworm Populations in Some Hungarian Horticultural Farms: Comparison of Conventional, Organic and Permaculture Farming
by Alfréd Szilágyi, Evelin Plachi, Péter Nagy, Barbara Simon and Csaba Centeri
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09416 - 3 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
Soil is one of the most important, non-renewable natural resources of humans. People use soils for food production, thus maintaining soil health is crucial. Farming systems have a tremendous impact on soil biota. Effects can be negative and positive. Less intensive farming (e.g., [...] Read more.
Soil is one of the most important, non-renewable natural resources of humans. People use soils for food production, thus maintaining soil health is crucial. Farming systems have a tremendous impact on soil biota. Effects can be negative and positive. Less intensive farming (e.g., organic and permaculture) is known to be more favorable for soil life while intensive farms known for their negative effects. Our aim was to compare different farming systems based on the density of earthworms. Fifteen small-scale (0.3–2 ha) farms in Hungary with similar agroecological features were selected for comparison. All of them are horticultural farms with diverse crops in the crop rotation, the only difference is the farming systems, i.e., one intensive (conventional), and two extensive types (organic and permaculture). Earthworms were sampled in May and September 2020, six replicates on each site, by hand sorting of 25 × 25 × 25 cm soil blocks. In May, abundance of earthworms were significantly higher in case of permaculture farms compared to organic and also conventional farms. However, we did not find significant differences in earthworm abundance in September. Earthworm species number was significantly higher in permaculture farms in May however there was no significant difference in September. We did not find significant differences regarding Shannon diversity indices. Based on our soil-wise experiences it is of great importance to know as much soil information as possible (i.e., soil thickness, soil organic matter content, texture, soil management, fertilizers used, soil moisture content at the time of the counting, soil cover etc.) for considering earthworms data as good indicator for soil quality assessment. Full article
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215 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Biodiversity and Pesticides—Why We Are Wrong
by Pierre-Henri Gouyon
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09529 - 25 Mar 2021
Viewed by 936
Abstract
Biodiversity is a dynamic process that has been collapsing at a remarkably high speed for the last thirty years. How can 80% of the insect biomass in protected areas of Europe vanish in such a short period of time? In the meantime, honeybee [...] Read more.
Biodiversity is a dynamic process that has been collapsing at a remarkably high speed for the last thirty years. How can 80% of the insect biomass in protected areas of Europe vanish in such a short period of time? In the meantime, honeybee colonies are collapsing. In each case, the usual answer is that the causes are multifactorial and that more research is needed—a statement that easily satisfies the scientific community. The aim of this paper is to show that, in fact, this consensus results from the manipulation of the scientific management system by social engineers working for the agrochemical industry. Such techniques have been in use since 1953 when they served to hide the major effects of tobacco concerning lung cancer. Indeed, lung cancer, like biodiversity collapse, is multifactorial. However, one cause is more important than all others. By insisting on the multifactorial aspect and by manipulating the research system, this fact remains hidden. This process has been documented by journalists and sociologists but remains largely ignored by the community of biologists who are immersed in it and thus largely ignore it. Full article
1065 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Pollinator Communities in Some Selected Hungarian Conventional, Organic and Permaculture Horticultures
by Alfréd Szilágyi, Fanni Mészáros, Róbert Kun and Miklós Sárospataki
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09492 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 893
Abstract
Increasing agricultural intensification can have a large impact on pollinating communities in terms of number and diversity, which often show a declining trend these days. Pollination is an important regulating ecosystem service, providing about 84% of fruit and vegetable production. The diversity of [...] Read more.
Increasing agricultural intensification can have a large impact on pollinating communities in terms of number and diversity, which often show a declining trend these days. Pollination is an important regulating ecosystem service, providing about 84% of fruit and vegetable production. The diversity of pollinators and the appropriate number of individuals are key to efficient pollination. In study, we examined the impact of three farming systems (organic, permaculture, and conventional) on the temporal, average farm-level number and diversity of pollinator species groups. We sampled all together fifteen small-scale (0.3–2 hectares, 5–5 in all three types) farms in North-Central Hungary with similar agroecological features. All of them have horticultural production with diverse crop rotation. We used visual sampling method to register individual number and taxa of pollinators in 14 categories in May, July and August, 2020. Our results show that the abundance of some pollinator taxonomic groups was highest in case of permaculture farms and in some cases even significant differences were found (e.g., Apidae and Total number of pollinators taxonomic groups). On the other hand regarding taxonomic group Shannon diversity of the pollinator communities, we could not detect any significant difference between the farming types. Our results show that permaculture farms could maintain a diverse and abundant pollinator community during the studied period, but we have to consider the farm management factors like plant protection measures, flower resources and biodiversity management on the farm, also natural habitats around the farms and the attitude of the farmers towards protection of pollinators. Full article
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559 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Metabolomic Variability in the Volatile Composition of Essential Oils from Pinus pinea and P. pinaster
by Jorge M. S. Faria and Ana Margarida Rodrigues
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09428 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1131
Abstract
In the Mediterranean basin, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine) and P. pinea (stone pine) are highly economically important pine species. These species provide raw material for forest-based industries (e.g., wood, paper, and resin), as well as of other economically relevant products, such as pine [...] Read more.
In the Mediterranean basin, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine) and P. pinea (stone pine) are highly economically important pine species. These species provide raw material for forest-based industries (e.g., wood, paper, and resin), as well as of other economically relevant products, such as pine nuts (stone pine) and essential oils (EOs). Previous studies described a large genetic and phenotypic intra-species variability that ultimately hinders the comparison between reports. The present work reviews the available literature on P. pinaster and P. pinea EO composition and pinpoints the compounds that showed the highest variation. The chemical profiles of EOs extracted from the aerial parts were obtained from a total of 30 publications. Cluster analysis revealed a higher influence of geographic location on P. pinaster EO composition, than on P. pinea. A high degree of chemical variability was detected for these species. Specifically, the EO components that showed the highest variations were limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, trans-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, and β-myrcene for P. pinea, and α-pinene, β-pinene, trans-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, and β-myrcene for P. pinaster. Thus, it is highly recommended that research performed in field or greenhouse conditions should first ascertain pine chemical variability. Full article
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696 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Changes in Soil Seed Bank and Vegetation at Abandoned Bait Sites in a Central European Hilly Area
by Katalin Rusvai and Szilárd Czóbel
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09422 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
Feeding places for shooting wild boar (ie., bait sites) may cause weed infestations in natural habitats. We examined the vegetation, and the soil seed banks of three current and three—1, 8 and 10 years old—abandoned baits, using a vegetation survey alongside transects and [...] Read more.
Feeding places for shooting wild boar (ie., bait sites) may cause weed infestations in natural habitats. We examined the vegetation, and the soil seed banks of three current and three—1, 8 and 10 years old—abandoned baits, using a vegetation survey alongside transects and seedling emergence methods. In the case of vegetation, the density and the number of weeds were significantly higher at the current baits. In addition, the abundance of weeds decreased with the time of abandonment, but the number of weeds remained similar. Concerning the seed bank, the species number and the total seed density were highly varied, but due to the frequent disturbances, they were lower at current baits. Only the proportion of weed species was significantly lower at abandoned sites, the abundancy of weed seeds was similar, and did not decrease in time. The youngest bait showed the lowest proportion, while the oldest one showed the highest proportion of weed seeds among the abandoned sites. Generally, long-term persistent seeds were of the highest proportion, except for in the oldest site, indicating a lower level of disturbance. Vegetation regenerates relatively quickly, but the seed banks remain infected for years, which can be a potential source of secondary invasions. Full article
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1582 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Invasive Plant Species of Recreational Zones of Kharkiv (Ukraine)
by Hanna Kazarinova and Karina Zviahintseva
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09472 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 732
Abstract
The formation of synanthropic flora of any territory occurs in two ways: the penetration of anthropophytes (anthropophytization, adventization) and the transition of native plant species from natural phytocenoses to anthropogenic ecotopes (apophytization). The article highlights the results of the study of synanthropic flora [...] Read more.
The formation of synanthropic flora of any territory occurs in two ways: the penetration of anthropophytes (anthropophytization, adventization) and the transition of native plant species from natural phytocenoses to anthropogenic ecotopes (apophytization). The article highlights the results of the study of synanthropic flora and vegetation of recreational zones of Kharkiv (abandoned parks, recreational areas, and green areas) for 2018–2020. The classification of synanthropic vegetation was performed on the basis of processing geobotanical releves in programs Turboveg 2.91 and Juice 7.0.127. Ecological amplitudes of syntaxons were determined by ecological scales of Ya.P. Didukh. The study of invasive plant species was carried out according to the classification of D. Richardson et al. As part of the synanthropic vegetation of recreational zones of Kharkiv, we have found 15 invasive plant species. Most of them, according to the degree of invasive potential, belong to the group with high invasive capacity (11 species). Among them there are dominate species of the family Asteraceae (eight). The results of biomorphic analysis show that there are dominate therophytes (8 species), ecological analysis shows the domination of mesophytes (14 species) and geographical analysis shows the domination of species of North American origin (13). The structural analysis of the alien fraction of flora shows the dominance of kenophytes (15 species), xenophytes (6 species), and ergasiophytes (5 species), and epecophytes (7 species). Woody phytocenoses of the class Robinietea are sensitive to soil acidity and carbonate content in soil, thermal, and cryo-climate. In their composition, we have found eight invasive species. In plant communities of herbaceous annual vegetation of classes Bidentetea and Galio-Urticetea, which are adapted to the variability of damping and nitrification of the edaphotope, nine invasive plant species are growing. Ruderal phytocenoses of classes Artemisietea vulgaris and Stellarietea mediae are formed with the participation of 10 invasive plant species. These communities are sensitive to the variability of damping, soil acidity, total salt regime, nitrogen content in soil, thermal climate, humidity, and the continentality of the climate. Full article
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1342 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Silvicultural Practices as Main Drivers of the Spread of Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle)
by Arnold Erdélyi, Judit Hartdégen, Ákos Malatinszky and Csaba Vadász
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09467 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
The impact of anthropogenic disturbances on the spread of invasive species is one of the central issues of invasion biology. In our study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between certain silvicultural activities and the spread of Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima [...] Read more.
The impact of anthropogenic disturbances on the spread of invasive species is one of the central issues of invasion biology. In our study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between certain silvicultural activities and the spread of Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima) in calcareous sand forests (Peszéri-erdő, Central Hungary). We applied full-cover mapping (25 × 25 m grid) and BACI design to monitor the effects of clear-cuttings and selective thinning on the prevalence and abundance of A. altissima in several stands (in total 26 ha). We also investigated young and middle-aged artificial reforestations (4 to 26 years), where stump deposits were made (in total 30 ha). Our results indicate that silvicultural practices may significantly contribute to the spread of A. altissima. One or two years after the accomplishment of selective thinning or clear-cutting, the increase in both the small-scale prevalence and the total abundance of A. altissima was significantly higher compared to control stands. Stump deposits proved to be deterministic in the spread of A. altissima. A decrease in the abundance of A. altissima was observable only in one forest stand where verticillium wilt infection was detected, indicating a biological opportunity to control the spread of A. altissima. Full article
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249 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Exudate Compounds of Origanum Species
by Milena Nikolova, Anatoli Dzhurmanski and Strahil Berkov
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09408 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 719
Abstract
Origanum species are valuable medicinal and culinary herbs whose biocidal properties are very important for organic farming. The first substances involved in allelopathic interactions in nature were the exudate (surface) compounds. In the present study, acetone exudates of ten samples of the Origanum [...] Read more.
Origanum species are valuable medicinal and culinary herbs whose biocidal properties are very important for organic farming. The first substances involved in allelopathic interactions in nature were the exudate (surface) compounds. In the present study, acetone exudates of ten samples of the Origanum species were comparatively analyzed by GC/MS and TLC. Plant material of Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum (Link) Ietsw. as the latter taxa represented by eight patterns with different origins were studied. Flavonoid aglycones, terpenes, fatty acids and alcohols, triterpene acids and phenolic derivatives were identified. Methylated derivatives of flavones and non-methylated flavanones (naringenin and eriodictyol) were identified as the most common flavonoid aglycones. The most complex flavonoid profile was detected for O. vulgare ssp. hirtum samples. A few differences in the flavonoid profiles of O. vulgare ssp. hirtum from different origins were found. Carvacrol was determined to be a main component of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum samples, whereas in O. vulgaris exudate long-chain fatty alcohol was found to be an abundant compound. The data obtained complement the knowledge of the distribution and role of exudate compounds. Full article
846 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Best of Both Worlds? Hybridization Potentiates Exotic Bohemian Knotweed’s (Reynoutria × bohemica) Impacts on Native Plant and Faunal Communities
by Markus Neupert, Pierre Margerie, Estelle Forey, Matthieu Chauvat, Fabrice Bureau, Michaël Aubert, Stève Prével, Estelle Langlois and Lucie Vincenot
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09471 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
The Asian knotweed species complex gathers some of the world’s most successful plant invaders including the Japanese knotweed (Reynoutria japonica), the giant knotweed (R. sachalinensis) and the hybrid of these two species, the Bohemian knotweed (R. × bohemica [...] Read more.
The Asian knotweed species complex gathers some of the world’s most successful plant invaders including the Japanese knotweed (Reynoutria japonica), the giant knotweed (R. sachalinensis) and the hybrid of these two species, the Bohemian knotweed (R. × bohemica). Hybrid species often present higher competitive abilities compared to their parent species. While several studies have focused on the effects of knotweed invasion on plant communities, few have simultaneously considered (i) effects of the three taxa on native plant communities and (ii) effects on litter and soil faunal components. In this study, we compared the differential effects of three Asian knotweeds on vegetation and soil macroinvertebrates communities across seven sites on a regional scale in North Western France. All three knotweed species displayed similar negative effects on local plant species richness, while promoting the taxonomic richness of litter-dwelling macroinvertebrates. Belowground macroinvertebrate taxonomic richness appeared strongly reduced by the presence of the hybrid R. × bohemica, significantly more so than those of sites colonized by R. japonica or R. sachalinensis. These changes of belowground communities were correlated to associated changes of composition and richness within plant communities. This study provides new insight into the consequences of ecosystem invasion by these species, especially revealing the even further strength of impacts of the hybrid Bohemian knotweed on local vegetation and belowground macroinvertebrates than those of other Asian knotweeds, which points to the need for monitoring the spatial spread of R. × bohemica and describing further its effects on ecosystem properties. Full article
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1324 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Russian Red Data Book Orchids: Taxonomic Diversity and Anthropogenic Drivers of Their Extinction in Regions
by Anatoliy A. Khapugin
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09493 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 996
Abstract
The research of drivers leading to plant extinction is a primary task in global biodiversity conservation. Despite Russia covering a large area, there is a lack of data on factors leading to plant extinction there, including orchids. We aimed to evaluate the anthropogenic [...] Read more.
The research of drivers leading to plant extinction is a primary task in global biodiversity conservation. Despite Russia covering a large area, there is a lack of data on factors leading to plant extinction there, including orchids. We aimed to evaluate the anthropogenic drivers that threaten orchids included in the Russian Red Data Books. For this purpose, we generalized and systematized data on orchids included in all relevant (i.e., published during the last 10–11 years) regional Red Data Books available online on 31 December 2020. For each Red Data Book orchid, we identified threats, i.e., drivers leading to species extinction, according to the sections “Limiting factors” or “Limiting factors and threats” of the regional Red Data Books. We found the total taxonomic list of Red Data Book orchids in the analyzed regions of Russia. The similarity of the lists of orchid taxa in analyzed regions was established based on the Jaccard index. In regard to extinction drivers, we found which of them are the most serious threats to orchids in the regions of the Russian Federation. We believe that conducting a similar study for the whole array of threatened plants of Russia will provide highly valuable results demanded all over the world. Full article
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222 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of Cross-Species Usability of Microsatellite Markers for Baikal Endemic Sponges
by Alena Yakhnenko and Valeria Itskovich
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09435 - 12 Mar 2021
Viewed by 778
Abstract
In the last decade, events of mass disease and mortality of sponges have been observed in Lake Baikal, which indicates an ecological crisis of the lake. Based on the crucial role of sponges as filter feeders and bioindicators, their comprehensive study in this [...] Read more.
In the last decade, events of mass disease and mortality of sponges have been observed in Lake Baikal, which indicates an ecological crisis of the lake. Based on the crucial role of sponges as filter feeders and bioindicators, their comprehensive study in this situation is of great interest. Despite the presence of genomic and transcriptome data for several species of endemic Baikal sponges, their population structure has never been studied before. The analysis of the population structure of both marine and freshwater sponges is successfully carried out using microsatellite markers. For freshwater sponges, the only species for which microsatellite markers have been published is Ephydatia fluviatilis, a close relative of the Baikal endemic sponges. Microsatellite markers show a high percentage of interspecies cross-specificity among invertebrates. According to this, here we attempted to access the suitability of these microsatellite markers for population genetic studies of endemic Baikal sponge Lubomirskia baikalensis based on genomic data. The presence of microsatellite sequence markers homologous to the flanking regions in the L. baikalensis genome was shown for 63.6% of markers, 71.4% of which contained microsatellite sequences. However, all of these markers require the development of species-specific primer pairs. Full article
708 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Changes in Understory Plant Populations after Clearcutting in Scots Pine-Dominated Forests
by Laima Česonienė and Remigijus Daubaras
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09442 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 651
Abstract
Clearcutting causes significant changes in boreal forest ecosystems and has long-term effects on populations of understory plants. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of clearcutting on understory moss and vascular plant populations after clearcutting. The species diversity of particular [...] Read more.
Clearcutting causes significant changes in boreal forest ecosystems and has long-term effects on populations of understory plants. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of clearcutting on understory moss and vascular plant populations after clearcutting. The species diversity of particular populations in mature stands before cutting and after one year was determined. Our results corroborated changes in coverage, frequency, and prominence value of predominant Ericaceae plants. We determined the different response of Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., V. myrtillus L. and Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Plant species that are particularly sensitive to clearcutting have been identified. Assessing the viability of moss populations in mature forest stands and deforested areas showed that moss species are most sensitive to environmental changes after clearcutting. These investigations could justify the conservation of sensitive forest plant populations and nonwood forest resources. Full article
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272 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Forage Morphology and Productivity of Different Species of Tripsacum under Sub-Humid Tropical Conditions
by José Francisco Villanueva-Avalos, Abieser Vázquez-González and Adrián-Raymundo Quero-Carrillo
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09478 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
Morphology and forage productivity of 25 Tripsacum spp. materials were characterized under tropical conditions in Nayarit, Mexico. Treatments included: Tripsacum latifolium, T. australe var. Australe, Tripsacum spp., T. dactyloides (cv. Meridionale and Hispidum), T. bravum, T. manisuroides, T. zopilotense, [...] Read more.
Morphology and forage productivity of 25 Tripsacum spp. materials were characterized under tropical conditions in Nayarit, Mexico. Treatments included: Tripsacum latifolium, T. australe var. Australe, Tripsacum spp., T. dactyloides (cv. Meridionale and Hispidum), T. bravum, T. manisuroides, T. zopilotense, T. andersonii, T. lanceolatum, T. floridanum, T. laxum, T. cundinamarceae, T. intermedium, T. maizar, and T. peruvianum. Five in row equidistant plants (1.5 m) and three rows (replicates) per species, were evaluated and fertilized using 100-60-00 (N-P-K units) per hectare per year. Variables included: plant mean height, leading flowered stem’s height, plant crown circumference, basal cover, tillers per crown, forage yield and growth rates. Data was analyzed through a completely randomized design including 25 treatments (species, varieties, and/or ecotypes) and LSD tests for mean separation. Differences (p < 0.01) were observed among morphological, productive variables, and species. Outstanding material included T. latifolium and T. australe (8.3 and 5.6 kg DM per plant). Forage production ranged (p < 0.01) from 22% to 1405%, in comparison with the local ecotype T. dactyloides. Morphology and forage productivity within Tripsacum is highly variable, according to the genetic diversity available within this native to Mexico genus, suggesting that Tripsacum agamic complex presents enormous forage production potential for its promotion under grazing for rain-fed systems. Full article
757 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Profiling the Variability of Eucalyptus Essential Oils with Activity against the Phylum Nematoda
by Ana Margarida Rodrigues and Jorge M. S. Faria
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09425 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
The genus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) comprises more than 800 species, mostly native to Australia. Eucalyptus shoots’ essential oils (EOs) are well-known for their extremely high qualitative and quantitative variation in terpenes (mainly mono- and sesquiterpenes). These EOs have a wide range of uses, from [...] Read more.
The genus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) comprises more than 800 species, mostly native to Australia. Eucalyptus shoots’ essential oils (EOs) are well-known for their extremely high qualitative and quantitative variation in terpenes (mainly mono- and sesquiterpenes). These EOs have a wide range of uses, from the taxonomic characterization of populations based on the chemical profiling of EO chemotypes, to industrial applications, including pharmaceutical and agrochemical and in food and fragrances. In this study, we reviewed the available information concerning the chemical variability of EOs from Eucalyptus spp. assayed against nematodes. Among the most active EOs, those from E. globulus, E. staigeriana, and E. citriodora were most frequently used. EO chemical composition was mainly dominated by 1,8-cineole, limonene, p-cymene, citronellal, and piperitone in varying proportions. Nematicidal activity of Eucalyptus EOs was reported against animal parasitic nematodes, including gastrointestinal nematodes (e.g., Haemonchus contortus), plant parasitic nematodes, such as root-knot nematodes (e.g., Meloidogyne incognita and M. chitwoodi) or the pinewood nematode Bursapelenchus xylophilus, and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Correlation between EO qualitative and quantitative composition with its respective activity may provide valuable information on the nematicidal specificity of EOs. This knowledge can be useful for devising environmentally safer pest management strategies in the conservation of ecosystems biodiversity. Full article
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2333 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigating the Distribution of Foraging Habitat for Loggerhead Sea Turtles, Caretta caretta, in the Mediterranean Sea
by Vasiliki Almpanidou, Anastasia Chatzimentor, Vasiliki Tsapalou and Antonios D. Mazaris
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09423 - 12 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1336
Abstract
A better understanding of the habitat distribution of highly migratory marine megafauna xand its potential exposure to anthropogenic activities is essential for its effective protection. Here, we deliver a comprehensive view on the distribution of suitable foraging habitat for the representatives of marine [...] Read more.
A better understanding of the habitat distribution of highly migratory marine megafauna xand its potential exposure to anthropogenic activities is essential for its effective protection. Here, we deliver a comprehensive view on the distribution of suitable foraging habitat for the representatives of marine megafauna, loggerheads, Caretta caretta, in the Mediterranean Sea, along with an assessment on their exposure to fisheries. Using the available published satellite tracking information on the adult Mediterranean foraging loggerheads, we built a series of distribution models to develop a map of the foraging habitat across the basin. We also assessed the exposure of the delineated foraging grounds to the cumulative risk due to different types of fisheries. Our findings revealed that the neritic foraging habitat of adult loggerheads extended over 9% of the Mediterranean Sea. We identified well-established areas in the central Mediterranean Sea but also sites, in the western part, for which current knowledge was restricted. The exposure of the foraging habitat to fisheries differed across the basin, with the Adriatic Sea showing the highest level of risk. The developed approach, combining modeling techniques and risk assessment, allowed the identification of critical sites for loggerheads on which conservation actions should focus. Full article
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761 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Sexual and Oviposition Behaviors of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale L.)
by Tayron Sousa Amaral, Ana Elizabete Lopes Ribeiro, Rodrigo de Souza Bulhões, Fernando Ribeiro Sujimoto and Elton Lucio de Araujo
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09473 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 895
Abstract
The host selection behavior is essential to studies of plant–insect interaction, considered as a critical step to populations maintenance since it directly influences offspring development. This work describes the sexual and oviposition behavior of the invasive species Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in [...] Read more.
The host selection behavior is essential to studies of plant–insect interaction, considered as a critical step to populations maintenance since it directly influences offspring development. This work describes the sexual and oviposition behavior of the invasive species Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.). The results showed that from 5.645 behavioral patterns registered, for males and females, in the tests with papaya, mango, cashew apple, sprayed papaya extract, and sprayed mango extract, 3.719 were activities displayed by the males and 1.935 displayed by the females. As regards the female species, the walking activity on cashew apples differed between the morning and afternoon shifts (4.3 ± 2.58 and 1.5 ± 1.22). The oviposition behavior in mango fruits (11.16) differed from all the other treatments, except from papaya (6.38). However, the quantity of obtained adults was higher in papaya fruits (97) than in mango fruits (49), reducing with papaya (48) and mango (24) treatments exposed to the cashew apple extract. There are differences in the total number of obtained adults by treatment, showing that the cashew extract reduces the total number of adults obtained in papaya and mango treatments. The results obtained in this research are essential for advances in studies related to chemical ecology and behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies in semiarid fruits. Full article
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1065 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Eight Years of Cydalima perspectalis in Poland—From the First Finding to the Status of Invasive Species
by Paweł K. Bereś, Patrycja Ziętara, Mirosław Nakonieczny, Łukasz Kontowski, Michał Grzbiela and Maria Augustyniak
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09474 - 16 May 2021
Viewed by 1032
Abstract
The box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis Walker; Lepidoptera, Crambidae) originates from East Asia. It was probably brought to Europe in 2005–2007 along with boxwood bushes (Buxus spp.) imported from China. In Europe, it was recorded for the first time in 2007 [...] Read more.
The box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis Walker; Lepidoptera, Crambidae) originates from East Asia. It was probably brought to Europe in 2005–2007 along with boxwood bushes (Buxus spp.) imported from China. In Europe, it was recorded for the first time in 2007 in south-western Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands. Without encountering any natural enemies, it quickly became an invasive alien species that threaten plants of the genus Buxus, both wild and cultured. There is a risk of its migration to other host plants. In Poland, C. perspectalis was found for the first time in 2012 in the south-western part of the country. From 2015, it was recorded in subsequent provinces of southern Poland, and a year later it appeared in the east (Outer Subcarpathia). The direction of its expansion eastwards suggests a natural way of expanding the acreage. In 2017, it was found in the central part of the country. In the 2018 growing season, boxwood plants were utterly destroyed for the first time in many Poland regions. In the following years, insects between Poland’s western and eastern borders occupied different areas to the north. By the end of 2020, C. perspectalis was found all over Poland. As it is not a quarantine pest in the European Union, it is not subject to official monitoring in Poland. Hence the lack of official information on the range of occurrence in the country. The studies conducted in 2018–2020 determined the current range of C. perspectalis occurrence in Poland, along with the selection of places with the highest intensity of occurrence. The caterpillars are most harmful in Poland’s southern and central part, where their foraging leads to total defoliation. The Polish climatic conditions allow the pest to develop without any obstacles two generations a year. In the warm year of 2019, the third generation was observed in large numbers. The insect poses a real threat to box trees in Poland, including the historic boxwood garden arrangements. Full article
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3459 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Agricultural Crop Diversity of Kashmir Valley
by Shabir A. Zargar, Tajamul Islam and Junaid A. Magray
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09396 - 3 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 10474
Abstract
Agriculture is the backbone of India’s economy in general, and Kashmir’s economy in particular. It has an enormous potential for future growth and job creation. Kashmir has been home to diverse agricultural crops, both Kharif and Rabi. Rice, the people’s staple food, [...] Read more.
Agriculture is the backbone of India’s economy in general, and Kashmir’s economy in particular. It has an enormous potential for future growth and job creation. Kashmir has been home to diverse agricultural crops, both Kharif and Rabi. Rice, the people’s staple food, has been the most important crop cultivated in Kashmir, followed by maize and wheat, because of comparative benefits such as the ability to grow it in a wide range of habitats, simple cultivation requirements, easier processing, nutritional characteristics, and taste. The present study revealed that 75 crop species belonging to 58 genera and 18 families were cultivated in Kashmir valley. These crops include cereals, pseudo cereals, cash crops, vegetables, oilseeds, and fodder crops. Full article
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538 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Analysis of Ecological Indicators Applied to Agricultural Ecosystems: What to Retain to Shape a Future Indicator for Pollinators
by Sergio Albertazzi, Elisa Monterastelli, Manuela Giovanetti, Simone Flaminio, Emanuele Luigi Zenga, Laura Bortolotti and Marino Quaranta
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09476 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1649
Abstract
Biodiversity loss has been demonstrated to have direct impacts on human welfare. However, policymakers need to refer to commonly accepted standards to monitor biodiversity, especially to direct fund granting. Intending to collate information for the creation of a reliable pollinators’ one, we screened [...] Read more.
Biodiversity loss has been demonstrated to have direct impacts on human welfare. However, policymakers need to refer to commonly accepted standards to monitor biodiversity, especially to direct fund granting. Intending to collate information for the creation of a reliable pollinators’ one, we screened available indicators. Our first criterion was selecting indicators applied in agricultural contexts and legitimated by a regulatory agency. Further, we included indicators referring to any arthropod taxa and officially recognized, at least by national bodies. We compared survey scale, monitoring scheme, type of environment, sampling effort, expected arthropod population, taxonomic level of data. As a common approach, we identified the combination of a territorial analysis by remote tools (e.g., GIS) and animal taxa surveys. The strength of indicators, including arthropods, emerges in the simultaneous inclusion of biotic and abiotic components. However, most of them just refer to confined environments (e.g., grasslands, riversides). Pollinators’ sensitivity to changes at the micro-habitat level is widely recognized, even helping to distinguish different methods of agricultural management. To develop a biodiversity indicator based on pollinators, we suggest improving knowledge on local pollinator species and their environmental requirements, coupled with wide (in time and space) national monitoring programs. Full article
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767 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Inhabitants of the Heights: An Anthropological Perspective on the Selection of Sleeping Sites of Brachyteles arachnoides
by Camila Mascaró Castro
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09410 - 12 Mar 2021
Viewed by 908
Abstract
The following research was conducted in the Carlos Botelho State Park, São Paulo State, Brazil, to examine the overnight sites of the southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides), an endemic primate of the Atlantic Forest. A multiple factor statistical analysis was carried out [...] Read more.
The following research was conducted in the Carlos Botelho State Park, São Paulo State, Brazil, to examine the overnight sites of the southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides), an endemic primate of the Atlantic Forest. A multiple factor statistical analysis was carried out to determine the selection of the sleeping areas. Findings indicate that the southern muriqui selects its sleeping sites based on comfort and hygiene factors, favoring body thermoregulation, deterring predators and parasites, and staying near food sources. Brachyteles arachnoides is critically endangered, therefore this work aims to contribute to the ethological and social reconstruction of the southern muriqui, approaching the understanding of its behavior patterns and its possible implications in human species evolution. It also intends to consolidate an understanding from another non-human being to generate a comprehensive view of the ecosystem across human generations that promote biodiversity conservation, based on a harmonious existence among the human primate and the non-human animal. Full article
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998 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Study of Biodiversity of Russian Local Sheep Breeds Based on Pattern of Runs of Homozygosity
by Tatiana Deniskova, Arsen Dotsev, Henry Reyer, Marina Selionova, Klaus Wimmers, Gottfried Brem and Natalia Zinovieva
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09452 - 15 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 675
Abstract
The rapid spreading of cosmopolite breeds reduces the population sizes of Russian local sheep, possibly resulting a loss of biodiversity. Estimation of the runs of homozygosity (ROHs) in local sheep genomes is an informative tool to address their current genetic state. In this [...] Read more.
The rapid spreading of cosmopolite breeds reduces the population sizes of Russian local sheep, possibly resulting a loss of biodiversity. Estimation of the runs of homozygosity (ROHs) in local sheep genomes is an informative tool to address their current genetic state. In this work, we aimed to address the distribution of ROHs and to estimate genome inbreeding in Russian local sheep breeds based on SNP genotyping. Medium-density SNP genotypes of twenty-three local sheep breeds (n = 332) were obtained in our previous study. We used a consecutive runs method implemented in the R package “detectRUNS” to calculate ROH which were estimated for each animal and then categorized in the ROH length classes (1–2 Mb, 2–4 Mb, 4–8 Mb, 8–16 Mb, >16 Mb). The frequency of short ROH segments (≤2 Mb) were the highest in all studied breeds (63.15–93.10%). The longest segments (>16 Mb) were the least frequent and were missing in four breeds. The genomic coefficients based on ROH estimation varied from medium (0.114) to low (0.035). Thus, we found that Russian local sheep breeds are characterized by a low level of genomic inbreeding. Full article
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1228 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Phenotypic Variation of Castanea sativa Mill. Ecotypes in Northern Morocco Based on a Multivariate Analysis of Leaf Morphometrics
by Ihssane Toujgani, Salama El Fatehi, Mohammed Ater and Younes Hmimsa
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09458 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 696
Abstract
For decades, local and traditional species have been neglected and replaced by industrial and improved species. Sweet chestnut ‘Castanea sativa Mill.’, found in a small area in northern Morocco, is no exception. Indeed, Moroccan ecotypes are neither classified nor characterized. This study [...] Read more.
For decades, local and traditional species have been neglected and replaced by industrial and improved species. Sweet chestnut ‘Castanea sativa Mill.’, found in a small area in northern Morocco, is no exception. Indeed, Moroccan ecotypes are neither classified nor characterized. This study aims to evaluate the local genetic resources of Castanea sativa Mill. via a multivariate analysis of the morphometric parameters of its leaves. The study involved 6200 leaves from 31 villages in 3 regions; 10 trees/village and 20 leaves/tree were sampled. Then, eight morphometric parameters were analyzed: lamina length (LL), lamina width (LW), petiole length (PL), distance from the base of the leaf to the widest point of the leaf (DBW), blade area (S), perimeter (P), and ratios LL/LW and LL/DBW. Analysis of the descriptive statistics within and between ecotypes initially showed a large variation in the ten parameters studied. This finding was supported by analysis of variance (ANOVA), which revealed a very highly significant difference (p < 0.0001) for all parameters. Indeed, the analysis of agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) made it possible to group the studied ecotypes into three distinct groups based on the surface. Overall, the high level of variability in leaf morphometric parameters indicates that the region is an important center of genetic diversity for which assessment is crucial for the implementation of conservation and enhancement strategies for this heritage. Full article
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578 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Genetic Variability of Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff Accessions from Western Indonesia by Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism
by Dimas Andrianto, Puspa Julistia Puspita, Ukhradiya Magharaniq Safira Purwanto, Danty Oktiana Prastiwi, Suci Hermita, Dyah Subositi and Anshary Maruzy
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09449 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1205
Abstract
Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff is one of the medicinal plants in Indonesia that has been proved to have antioxidant, antidiabetic, and analgesic properties. However, there is no report about the relationship of its genetic diversity with accession and ethnic aspects. Thus, we carried [...] Read more.
Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff is one of the medicinal plants in Indonesia that has been proved to have antioxidant, antidiabetic, and analgesic properties. However, there is no report about the relationship of its genetic diversity with accession and ethnic aspects. Thus, we carried out polymorphism studies and clusterization of 34 samples of G. pictum that were collected from 10 ethnics in Western Indonesia. The research purpose was to determine the polymorphism and kinship relations between ethnic groups and accessions of G. pictum in Western Indonesia. DNA was isolated using the GeneJET Plant Genomic DNA purification mini kit. Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) was used as a molecular marker in PCR amplification. We analyzed the data using NTSYS and PopGene 1.3 software. We found eight combinations of selected primers with a polymorphic percentage average of 72.23% and 45 loci. The ethnicity that has the highest polymorphic percentage is Kutai (East Kalimantan) with 55.56%. The diversity between population and accession is moderate with a Dissimilarity Index (DI) of not more than 0.69. Ribun ethnic in West Kalimantan is the oldest ancestry ethnic that has a locus marker at the 24th and 41st position. In conclusion, we found that G. pictum in Western Indonesia is divided into four clusters. Full article
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1522 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Identifying Environmental Refuges (“Coldspots”) from Infection by Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis of Amphibians in Eastern Europe
by Volodymyr Tytar, Oksana Nekrasova, Mihails Pupins, Arturs Skute, Oleksii Marushchak, Andris Čeirāns and Iryna Kozynenko
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09505 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 737
Abstract
Amphibians are the most threatened group of vertebrates. While habitat loss poses the greatest threat to amphibians, a spreading fungal disease caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is seriously affecting an increasing number of species. Although Bd is widely prevalent, there are identifiable heterogeneities [...] Read more.
Amphibians are the most threatened group of vertebrates. While habitat loss poses the greatest threat to amphibians, a spreading fungal disease caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is seriously affecting an increasing number of species. Although Bd is widely prevalent, there are identifiable heterogeneities in the pathogen’s distribution that are linked to environmental parameters. Our objective was to identify conditions that affect the geographic distribution of this pathogen using species distribution models (SDMs), with a special focus on Eastern Europe. SDMs can help identify hotspots for future outbreaks of Bd, but perhaps more importantly, they can identify locations that may be environmental refuges (“coldspots”) from infection. In general, climate is considered a major factor in driving amphibian disease dynamics, but temperature in particular has received increased attention. Here, 42 environmental raster layers containing data on climate, soil and human impacts were used. Mean annual temperature range (or ‘continentality’) was found to have the strongest constrain on the geographic distribution of this pathogen. Using the partial dependence visualization module in the R package ‘embarcadero’, a number of corresponding coldspots were identified. Full article
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875 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae) Recorded at the South Shetland Islands and near the Antarctic Peninsula during the Argentinian Summer Antarctic Expedition in 2012
by Alejandro Ariel Fernández, Nicolás Agustín Lemiña and Laura Schejter
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 2(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/BDEE2021-09470 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
The Argentinian 2012 Summer Antarctic Expedition took place in the austral summer of 2012. One of its goals was the study of the benthic communities, considering the biodiversity and the distribution of the species around the Antarctic Peninsula and neighbouring islands. Samples were [...] Read more.
The Argentinian 2012 Summer Antarctic Expedition took place in the austral summer of 2012. One of its goals was the study of the benthic communities, considering the biodiversity and the distribution of the species around the Antarctic Peninsula and neighbouring islands. Samples were mainly collected by bottom trawling at eight locations. Sponges were sorted from the total catch, photographed, labelled, and frozen onboard, while identification was carried out using the classical methodology at the Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP, Argentina). In this preliminary study, we provide data on sponges belonging to the Demospongiae Class. A total of 34 samples were collected, and at least 24 morphospecies were identified. The most represented Order was Poecilosclerida with 18 taxa (Isodictya erinacea, I. lankesteri, I. cf. verrucosa, Mycale (Oxymycale) acerata, M. (M.) cf. tridens, Phorbas glaberrimus, P. acantochela, Lissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) anacantha, L. (E.) ramilobosa, L. (L.) flabellata, Artemisina apollinis, Myxodoryx hanitschi, Clathria (Axosuberites) nidificata, Tedania (Tedaniopsis) charcoti, Iophon unicorne, I. cf. aceratum, Myxilla (M.) mollis, and Kirkpatrickia aff. coulmani), followed by Haplosclerida with 5 taxa (Haliclonissa verrucosa, Haliclona sp., Calyx cf. arcuarius, Microxina charcoti, and Hemigellius cf. pilosus). The most frequently recorded species was Mycale (O.) acerata followed by species of the genera Isodictya and Lissodendoryx. Some of the recorded taxa such as Phorbas glaberrimus, Myxodoryx hanitschi, Phorbas cf. acanthochela, and Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) hentscheli have only scarce records in this region. The results of this study greatly contribute to the knowledge of the distribution and biodiversity of Antarctic sponges, a very important component of the benthic communities. Full article
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