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AppliedChem, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 9 articles

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16 pages, 2078 KiB  
Article
Manifestation of Heat-Induced Valuable Dietary Nucleotide Salvage in Food Prepared from Aged Fish in Fast Protein and Metabolites Liquid Chromatography, ATP-Bioluminescence Assay, and NMR Spectra
by Alar Sünter, Artur Kuznetsov, Piret Raudsepp, Tõnu Püssa, Lauri Toom, Georgii Konoplev, Oksana S. Stepanova, Oksana V. Stepanova, Daniil Lyalin, Aleksandr Frorip and Mati Roasto
AppliedChem 2023, 3(2), 334-349; https://doi.org/10.3390/appliedchem3020021 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
Dietary nucleotides and nucleosides, primarily inosine monophosphate (IMP) and the adenine nucleotide pool (ANP), are widely considered as essential nutrients responsible for multiple biological functions. Food prepared from meat and fish is the main source of these substances in the human diet, and [...] Read more.
Dietary nucleotides and nucleosides, primarily inosine monophosphate (IMP) and the adenine nucleotide pool (ANP), are widely considered as essential nutrients responsible for multiple biological functions. Food prepared from meat and fish is the main source of these substances in the human diet, and it is extremely important to implement storage and processing techniques ensuring their maximum preservation and even accumulation during maturation or conditioning. In experiments with freshly refrigerated grass carp and defrosted Alaska pollock fillets it was discovered, initially using Fast Protein and Metabolites Liquid Chromatography and the ATP-bioluminescence test, and afterwards validated by NMR spectroscopy, that heat treatment identical to conventional culinary processing in aqueous or wet media at temperatures above 62 °C leads to nucleotide salvage (recovery) in aged fish. A significant increase in the concentration of IMP, and even an emergence of ANP substances, were reliably demonstrated in fish samples which had already partially or fully lost these components during prolonged storage due to the ATP breakdown metabolic reactions. Owing to this recovery, the nutritive value of ready-to-eat food can be higher than was initially evaluated in raw products before heat treatment: an effect that should certainly be considered in practical nutrition. Moreover, it is necessary to reconsider the widely acknowledged system of indices of freshness based on nucleotides and nucleosides elaborated a long time ago for raw meat and fish products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectroscopy in Food Science and Engineering)
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14 pages, 3546 KiB  
Article
The Facile Microwave-Assisted Coprecipitation Route to Obtain Polyoxoniobate (Na7(H3O)Nb6O19·14H2O) Nanorods Modified with Copper for CO2 Photoreduction
by Joelma R. C. Souza, Juliana A. Torres, Lucas S. Ribeiro, Jose B. G. Filho, Fabiana L. Santos, Nicholas Malgioglio, Luiz Fernando Gorup, Alexandre H. Pinto and André E. Nogueira
AppliedChem 2023, 3(2), 320-333; https://doi.org/10.3390/appliedchem3020020 - 12 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1170
Abstract
The CO2 reduction by solar means has been discussed as an alternative to emission abatement, a fundamental topic for sustainable, carbon-free production in the future. However, the choice of efficient systems, starting with the catalysts, is still a critical issue, especially due [...] Read more.
The CO2 reduction by solar means has been discussed as an alternative to emission abatement, a fundamental topic for sustainable, carbon-free production in the future. However, the choice of efficient systems, starting with the catalysts, is still a critical issue, especially due to the poor activity of available options. Polyoxometalates have been extensively studied as promising photocatalysts due to their semiconducting properties. Nevertheless, the synthetic conditions of polyoxoniobate are stringent due to the low reaction activity of Nb species, the lack of soluble precursors, and the narrow pH range. Unlike the literature, in the present study, we report a simple polyoxoniobate synthesis method. This synthesis method has some remarkable features, such as low processing time and temperature and good activity and selectivity in the CO2 photoreduction process. The results revealed an outstanding efficiency for the CO2 reduction reaction with a high selectivity of CO2 to CO conversion (92.5%). Furthermore, C2 compounds (e.g., acetate) were produced in the liquid phase of the reaction system. Our findings are significant for indicating the potential of polyoxoniobate for CO2 photoreduction, which opens a way to control competitive reactions with synthesis, leading to higher selectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Energy and Environment Applications)
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17 pages, 8199 KiB  
Article
Vapor Composition and Vaporization Thermodynamics of 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate Ionic Liquid
by Anatoliy M. Dunaev, Vladimir B. Motalov, Mikhail A. Korobov, Dmitrii Govorov, Victor V. Aleksandriiskii and Lev S. Kudin
AppliedChem 2023, 3(2), 303-319; https://doi.org/10.3390/appliedchem3020019 - 02 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
The processes of the sublimation and thermal decomposition of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid (EMImPF6) were studied by a complex approach including Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry, IR and NMR spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations. It was established that the vapor over [...] Read more.
The processes of the sublimation and thermal decomposition of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid (EMImPF6) were studied by a complex approach including Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry, IR and NMR spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations. It was established that the vapor over the liquid phase primarily consists of decomposition products under equilibrium conditions. Otherwise, the neutral ion pairs are the only vapor components under Langmuir conditions. To identify the nature of the decomposition products, an experiment on the distillation of the ionic liquid was performed and the collected distillate was analyzed. It was revealed by the IR and NMR spectroscopy that EMImPF6 decomposes to substituted imidazole-2-ylidene (C6N2H10PF5) and HF. The measured vapor pressure of C6N2H10PF5 reveals a very low activity of the decomposition products (<10−4) in the liquid phase. The absence of a significant accumulation of decomposition products in the condensed phase makes it possible to determine the enthalpy of sublimation of the ionic liquid assuming its unchanged activity. The thermodynamics of the EMImPF6 sublimation was studied by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry. The formation enthalpy of EMImPF6 in the ideal gas state was found from a combination of the sublimation enthalpy and formation enthalpy of the ionic liquid in the condensed state. The obtained value is in good agreement with those calculated by quantum chemical methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in AppliedChem)
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13 pages, 3310 KiB  
Article
Pharmaceutical Residual Solvent Analysis: A Comparison of GC-FID and SIFT-MS Performance
by Mark J. Perkins, Colin Hastie, Sophia E. Whitlock and Vaughan S. Langford
AppliedChem 2023, 3(2), 290-302; https://doi.org/10.3390/appliedchem3020018 - 01 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1517
Abstract
Residual solvents in pharmaceutical excipients, active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), and finished products are usually analyzed using gas chromatography (GC)-based techniques according to a pharmacopeial monograph, such as the United States Pharmacopeia’s (USP) chapter <467>. GC analyses are often slow, which limits sample throughput. [...] Read more.
Residual solvents in pharmaceutical excipients, active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), and finished products are usually analyzed using gas chromatography (GC)-based techniques according to a pharmacopeial monograph, such as the United States Pharmacopeia’s (USP) chapter <467>. GC analyses are often slow, which limits sample throughput. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) removes the rate-limiting chromatographic separation step, potentially offering faster sample analyses. This approach was demonstrated recently with the publication of an alternative SIFT-MS procedure which was successfully validated against the performance criteria in USP chapter <1467>. The present study expands upon the previous work by conducting a head-to-head comparison of GC-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and SIFT-MS procedures. The results obtained in this cross-platform study demonstrated similar performance for the GC-FID and SIFT-MS procedures for linearity (R2 > 0.94 and 0.97, respectively) and repeatability (<17%RSD and <10%RSD). For accuracy and recovery, acceptance criteria (within 20%) were achieved for most compounds across the two drug products (SIFT-MS suffered fewer failures, possibly due to shorter wait times prior to analysis). Additionally, SIFT-MS analyzed samples over 11-fold faster than GC-FID, increasing daily sample throughput and reducing the time taken to determine the result. This study therefore suggests that residual solvent analysis using SIFT-MS may support workflow improvements for pharmaceutical manufacturers. Full article
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11 pages, 1689 KiB  
Article
Predicting Animal Welfare Labels from Pork Fat Using Raman Spectroscopy and Chemometrics
by Katarzyna M. Szykuła, Tim Offermans, Oliver Lischtschenko, Joris Meurs, Derek Guenther, Yvette Mattley, Martin Jaeger and Maarten Honing
AppliedChem 2023, 3(2), 279-289; https://doi.org/10.3390/appliedchem3020017 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1584
Abstract
The awareness of the origin of meat that people consume is rapidly increasing today and with that increases the demand for fast and accurate methods for its distinction. In this work, we present for the first time the application of Raman spectroscopy using [...] Read more.
The awareness of the origin of meat that people consume is rapidly increasing today and with that increases the demand for fast and accurate methods for its distinction. In this work, we present for the first time the application of Raman spectroscopy using a portable spectrometer for the classification of pork. Breeding conditions were distinguished from spectral differences of adipose tissues. The pork samples were obtained from Dutch vendors, from supermarkets with quality marks of 1 and 3 stars, and from a local butcher shop. In total, 60 fat samples were examined using a fiber-optic-coupled Raman spectrometer. Recorded spectra were preprocessed before being subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. An initial data exploration using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed a separation of adipose tissue samples between the lower supermarket quality grade and the samples from the local butcher. Moreover, predictive modeling using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) resulted in 96.67% classification accuracy for all three sources, demonstrating the suitability of the presented method for intraspecies meat classification and the potential on-site use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectroscopy in Food Science and Engineering)
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23 pages, 2568 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Substituted N-Aryl Maleimide and Acrylamides for Bioconjugation
by Hugh G. Hiscocks, Giancarlo Pascali and Alison T. Ung
AppliedChem 2023, 3(2), 256-278; https://doi.org/10.3390/appliedchem3020016 - 15 May 2023
Viewed by 1799
Abstract
Novel SF5-bearing maleimide and acrylamide derivatives were synthesised as potential [18F]radio-prosthetic groups for radiolabelling peptides and proteins. The efficacy of selected prosthetic groups was first assessed through bioconjugation with protected model amino acid derivatives. These reactions were investigated on [...] Read more.
Novel SF5-bearing maleimide and acrylamide derivatives were synthesised as potential [18F]radio-prosthetic groups for radiolabelling peptides and proteins. The efficacy of selected prosthetic groups was first assessed through bioconjugation with protected model amino acid derivatives. These reactions were investigated on an analytical scale via LC-MS across a pH range to quantitatively evaluate this prosthetic group’s reactivity and stability. Model bioconjugate reactions were then replicated using analogous para-substituted derivatives to determine the influence of the electronic effects of -SF5. Finally, the SF5-bearing prosthetic groups were utilised for bioconjugation with cancer-targeting c-RGD peptides. N-aryl maleimides reacted extremely efficiently with the model amino acid N-acetyl-L-cysteine. The subsequent conjugates were obtained as regio-isomeric mixtures of the corresponding thio-succinamic acids in yields of 80–96%. Monitoring the bioconjugate reaction by LC-MS revealed that ring hydrolysis of the intermediate SF5–thio-succinimide conjugate occurred instantaneously, an advantageous quality in minimising undesirable thiol exchange reactions with non-targeted cysteine residues. In contrast, N-aryl acrylamides demonstrated poor solubility in semi-aqueous media (<1 mM). In turn, synthetic-scale model bioconjugations with Nα-acetyl-L-lysine were performed in methanol, affording the corresponding acrylamide conjugates in modest to high yield (58–89%). Including electron-deficient, fluorinated prosthetic groups for bioconjugation will broaden their applicability within the fields of 19F-MRI and PET imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in AppliedChem)
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27 pages, 2334 KiB  
Article
New Physicochemical Methodology for the Determination of the Surface Thermodynamic Properties of Solid Particles
by Tayssir Hamieh
AppliedChem 2023, 3(2), 229-255; https://doi.org/10.3390/appliedchem3020015 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1473
Abstract
The study of the surface thermodynamic properties of solid materials is primordial for the determination of the dispersive surface energy, polar enthalpy of adsorption and Lewis’s acid base properties of solid particles. The inverse gas chromatography technique (IGC) at infinite dilution is the [...] Read more.
The study of the surface thermodynamic properties of solid materials is primordial for the determination of the dispersive surface energy, polar enthalpy of adsorption and Lewis’s acid base properties of solid particles. The inverse gas chromatography technique (IGC) at infinite dilution is the best surface technique for the determination of the surface physicochemical properties of materials. (1) Background: This paper was devoted to studying the surface properties of solid materials, such as alumina, titania and silica particles, using the IGC technique. (2) Methods: Different methods and molecular models, such as the spherical, cylindrical, Van der Waals, Redlich–Kwong, Kiselev and geometric models, were used to determine the London dispersive surface energy of solid surfaces. The Hamieh model was also used and highlighted the thermal effect on the surface area of solvents. (3) Results: The variations of the dispersive surface energy and the free energy of adsorption were determined for solid particles as a function of the temperature, as well as their Lewis’s acid base constants. Alumina surfaces were proved to exhibit a strong Lewis amphoteric character three times more basic than acidic, titanium dioxide more strongly basic than acidic and silica surface exhibited the stronger acidity. (4) Conclusions: The new methodology, based on the Hamieh model, gave the more accurate results of the physicochemical properties of the particle surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in AppliedChem)
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12 pages, 3366 KiB  
Article
The Plagiochilins from Plagiochila Liverworts: Binding to α-Tubulin and Drug Design Perspectives
by Gérard Vergoten and Christian Bailly
AppliedChem 2023, 3(2), 217-228; https://doi.org/10.3390/appliedchem3020014 - 09 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Among bryophytes, the Plagiochila genus represents a large group of leafy liverworts with over 500 species. Plagiochilins A to X are sesquiterpenoids isolated from Plagiochila species. The lead compound plagiochilin A (Plg-A), endowed with anticancer and antiparasitic properties, has been characterized as a [...] Read more.
Among bryophytes, the Plagiochila genus represents a large group of leafy liverworts with over 500 species. Plagiochilins A to X are sesquiterpenoids isolated from Plagiochila species. The lead compound plagiochilin A (Plg-A), endowed with anticancer and antiparasitic properties, has been characterized as a potent mitosis inhibitor, acting selectively at the late stage of cytokinesis termed abscission. The compound perturbs the dynamics of microtubules, blocking cell cycle progression and triggering the death of malignant cells. Based on the compound’s mechanism of action and by analogy with other natural products bearing a dihydro-pyrone moiety, we postulated that Plg-A could bind to the pironetin site of α-tubulin. A molecular docking analysis was performed to compare the bindings of all 24 plagiochilins to α-tubulin and to establish structure–binding relationships. The identification of Plg-E and Plg-G as the best binders in the series highlighted the importance of the C13-OH or C=O group for α-tubulin recognition. This observation led to the testing of the natural-product ester plagiochilin A-15-yl n-octanoate and the corresponding alcohol (Plg-OH), both identified as robust α-tubulin binders. The study provides a rationale to potentially explain the mechanism of action of Plg-A and to guide the design of new derivatives. Full article
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21 pages, 2126 KiB  
Review
Essential Oils in Postharvest Treatment against Microbial Spoilage of the Rosaceae Family Fruits
by Anna Magri, Martina Curci, Valerio Battaglia, Antonio Fiorentino and Milena Petriccione
AppliedChem 2023, 3(2), 196-216; https://doi.org/10.3390/appliedchem3020013 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Fruits undergo numerous chemical, physical, and microbiological changes during storage that shorten their postharvest life, reducing shelf-life and boosting food loss. Food quality and safety are seriously threatened by postharvest infections, one of the factors behind postharvest deterioration and mycotoxin contamination in fruits. [...] Read more.
Fruits undergo numerous chemical, physical, and microbiological changes during storage that shorten their postharvest life, reducing shelf-life and boosting food loss. Food quality and safety are seriously threatened by postharvest infections, one of the factors behind postharvest deterioration and mycotoxin contamination in fruits. The control of postharvest deterioration is a big concern because there are few management methods available. Several attempts have been undertaken to prevent the microbial degradation of fresh food at the postharvest stage without using synthetic fungicides, which are dangerous for the environment and people’s health. A good substitute for synthetic fungicides among them is the use of natural plant compounds, such as essential oils included or not included in the edible coatings. This review’s aim was to collect information from the scientific literature on the biological activity of essential oil, with or without edible coatings, against pathogens that cause the postharvest spoilage of many fruit belonging to Rosaceae family in order to develop appropriate substitute tactics for synthetic fungicides in the treatment of postharvest fruit diseases. Advances and obstacles surrounding emerging methods that may be useful for enhancing the effectiveness and dependability of essential oils were evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Food)
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