Next Article in Journal
Teaching (Meta) Competences for Digital Practice Exemplified by Building Information Modeling Work Processes
Previous Article in Journal
Quality of Information and Marketing of Rural Tourism Experience
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Cultivating Positivity to Achieve a Resilient Society: A Critical Narrative Review from Psychological Perspectives

School of Social Sciences, Singapore Management University, 10 Canning Rise, Singapore 179873, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Knowledge 2022, 2(3), 443-451;
Submission received: 10 July 2022 / Revised: 18 August 2022 / Accepted: 22 August 2022 / Published: 1 September 2022


With the rapid speed of globalization and technological breakthroughs, current social issues have become more complex than in past decades. As many issues such as pandemics, terrorism, and interracial conflict are realistically unpredictable, the idea of resilience offers an intuitively plausible and attainable strategy to deal with these potential adversities. The current narrative review explores the cultivation of positive emotions and traits as a plausible way to achieve a resilient society. Based on research in the social and industrial organizational psychology literature, we reviewed the role of positive emotions and traits on resilience. Lastly, we highlight important experiences and interventions that have been shown to be effective in cultivating positivity and discuss several potential considerations and boundary conditions.

1. Introduction

Current social issues have become more complex than the past decades [1]. In many countries, the rapid speed of globalization and technological breakthroughs have accelerated issues such as the aging population, changing family structures, social inequality, and the increasing diversification of culture and beliefs [2,3,4,5,6]. These issues are further exacerbated by potential threats, including terrorism and disease outbreaks, such as the COVID-19 pandemic [7,8,9]. As a result, a successful society can be partly dictated by how they adapt to the changes and how resilient they are when adversities occur [10,11]. Since many of the aforementioned adversities are both inevitable and unpredictable, the idea of resilience offers an intuitively plausible and attainable strategy to deal with adversities instead of unrealistically allocating limited resources to safeguard from all potential risks. Therefore, it is important to consider how to achieve a more resilient society to realistically prepare for potential changes and threats.
In the current review, we argue that cultivating positive emotions and psychological traits (e.g., optimism and self-efficacy) could accelerate the pathway towards a resilient society. Based on a narrative approach, the current narrative review begins with our conceptualization of positivity and resilience. We then discuss why negativity is not adaptive. Subsequently, we review evidence in social and industrial organizational psychology literature that could be translated to explain the importance of positivity in increasing resilience. Lastly, we explore important experiences and interventions that have been shown to cultivate positivity and discuss several potential considerations and boundary conditions.

2. Conceptualization of Positivity and Resilience

It is noteworthy that positivity is a broad and multidimensional construct. To establish the scope of the current review, based on well-established research in positive psychology [12,13], we focus on two important aspects of positivity: positive emotions and positive psychological traits. Positive emotions refer to pleasant or desirable situational responses, ranging from interest and contentment to love and joy but are distinct from positive sensation (e.g., satiety, comfort) and undifferentiated positive mood [14,15]. Positive psychological traits refer to cognitive and emotional traits that focus on one’s strengths and virtues [16] and indicate positive psychological functioning, such as optimism, self-efficacy, and dispositional gratitude [17,18,19,20,21,22]. Thus, positivity in the current review is restricted to both positive emotions and psychological traits.
For resilience, following Bergami et al. [23], we conceptualized resilience as a continuous process of anticipating and adjusting to environmental changes [24] and the ability to overcome disruptive events [25]. This conceptualization of resilience fits well with the background of the current review that focused on crisis management in view of the complexity and unpredictability of current social issues, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, an aging population, and terrorism. While the conceptualization focuses on individual-level resilience, it is important to note that individual-level resilience is essential for building higher-order-system-level resilience, such as a resilient society [23,26].

3. Why Is Negativity Not Adaptive?

Before we start our discussion on the importance of positivity, some may argue that instead of positivity, negativity in the form of pessimism can be an adaptive strategy to prepare for the worst in face of uncertainty in the future [27,28]. Similarly, one may also argue that negativity is an adaptive coping strategy to deal with potential disappointments [29]. However, some of these justifications may not be accurate. There is a misunderstanding that negativity is similar to prevention focus—which is an orientation to emphasize safety, responsibility, and security needs [30]. It is entirely plausible for an individual to be highly prevention-focused in their actions but at the same time feel positive and optimistic about their decisions. As such, negativity is not a specific type of coping strategy. In fact, research in psychology has demonstrated that those who feel negative and pessimistic regarding their future will be less likely to take charge of their own destinies [31] and engage the necessary efforts and resources to persevere in the face of obstacles [32,33]. Moreover, negativity has been found to be associated with psychological states and behaviors that are less likely to be useful in decision-making processes during a crisis [34,35,36]. Translating these research findings to the current issue, it suggests that negativity may adversely impact one’s ability to cope with potential adversities. Indeed, high levels of negativity in individuals could also create the self-fulling prophecies of their own negativity if they behave in non-resilient ways [37]. Given that negativity could be detrimental to national progress towards a resilient society, we turn our focus to positivity and translate research in psychology to explain the importance of positivity in increasing resilience.

4. Positivity and Resilience

Research in social psychology and industrial organizational psychology have accumulated impressive evidence that suggests both positive emotions and traits could enhance resilience [18,38,39,40,41]. We begin by translating research that examines the broaden-and-build effect of positive emotions on resilience from the social and personality psychology literature. Subsequently, we review research in industrial and organizational psychology that has investigated positive psychological constructs, such as hope, efficacy, optimism, engagement, and organizational citizenship, in relation to resilience. Within these two sub-disciplines, we also explore research that examines the effect of positivity on cognitive abilities, such as creativity, which may facilitate resilience.

4.1. Postivity in Social Psychology

One theory that supports the influence of positivity on resilience is the broaden-and-build theory [40]. The broaden-and-build theory posits those discrete positive emotions, including joy, gratitude, interest, contentment, pride, and love—although conceptually distinct, all share the ability to broaden one’s thought–action repertoires and positively build lasting personal resources, ranging from physical resources to socioemotional and intellectual resources. The theory further posits that enduring personal resources due to positive emotions will facilitate coping with stress and adversity. Supporting the broaden-and-build theory, a study by Tugade and Fredrickson [42], where a time-pressured speech preparation task was administered to induce highly stressful situations, found that participants who reported a high level of psychological resilience showed higher levels of positive emotions even before the speech task was introduced. More importantly, the effect of self-reported resilience on lower levels of cardiovascular activation following the speech task was mediated by positive emotions, suggesting that positivity fuels psychological resilience. Consistent with this finding, other studies have also found that positive emotions fuel post-crisis growth in the wake of terrorist attacks [43], help people effectively recover from stress both in daily life and during bereavement [41], and have a motivational effect on individuals by increasing persistence and effort in the face of adversity [43].
Moreover, existing research has shown that positive emotions not only fuel resilience but may also build psychological resilience over time [44,45,46,47]. Cohn et al. [48] showed that daily experiences of positive emotions—consisting of amusement, awe, compassion, contentment, gratitude, hope, interest, joy, love, and pride—predict increases over time in psychological resilience. Relatedly, Gable et al. [49] found that positive emotions expressed during interactions between romantic partners predict increases in relational resources, such as commitment, satisfaction, intimacy, and love, over a 2-month period, which in turn served as a protective factor when the couples were confronted with negative-event discussions.
In summary, research findings based on the broaden-and-build theory have demonstrated that positivity is an important factor for individuals to be able to cope with social issues and bounce back when potential threats occur. More importantly, during a peaceful time, focusing on improving positive experiences would increase psychological resilience and allow individuals to cope with future adversities.

4.2. Positivity in Industrial and Organizational Psychology

In the field of industrial and organizational psychology, positive psychological constructs, such as efficacy, optimism, and hope, have been widely studied in relation to resilience. For instance, an employee’s efficacy—defined as the employee’s confidence about his or her abilities to mobilize the motivation, cognitive resources, or courses of action needed to successfully execute a specific task—has been shown to be strongly associated with adaptiveness and resilience [50,51,52]. Similarly, efficacious employees were found to possess positive expectations for goal achievement accompanied by tenacious pursuit and persistent efforts toward accomplishment [53]. Even when a setback or challenge occurs during a process of change, efficacious employees were likely to attribute the setback to external, one-time circumstances and immediately consider alternative pathways to goal success. These adaptive and resilient outcomes have also been found in employees with high optimism and hope in their future with their organization [54,55,56]. Perhaps, more importantly, individuals with efficacy, optimism, and hope were found to generate more creative and innovative ideas to adapt to potential stressors [57,58]. For instance, Speier and Frese [59] demonstrated that employees with high self-efficacy were found to prefer training that enables them to restructure their roles innovatively to adapt with potential organizational changes. Although most of the reviewed studies focused on individual-level resilience, it is noteworthy that individual-level resilience is a constituent of organizational resilience, and organizational-level resilience is essential for building higher-order-system-level resilience, such as a resilient society [23,26].
Other than efficacy, optimism, and hope, which are commonly grouped under psychological capital [60], other positive work-related constructs, such as job satisfaction, authentic leadership, emotional knowledge, workplace belongingness, and organizational commitment, have also been shown to be closely associated with resilience and better decision making [61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68]. Cullen et al. [69] demonstrated that employees with higher job satisfaction require less assistance in adapting to workplace changes than employees with lower job satisfaction. Similarly, employees with higher affective organizational commitment were associated with better acceptance and coping outcomes during organizational changes [70]. These findings from industrial and organizational psychology highlight the importance of enhancing positive psychological traits—such as efficacy, optimism, and affective commitment—to adapt and cope with any possible changes and crises. Moreover, studies have demonstrated that individuals who have positive attitudes and are efficacious, optimistic, and hopeful about their future are more likely to be able to cope with possible societal changes and bounce back quickly and persevere when conflicts and crises arise.

5. Discussion

5.1. Considerations When Cultivating Positivity

Research evidence from both social and organizational psychology indicates that positive emotions and psychological traits not only motivate individuals to persist against stressors but also allow them to see innovative solutions to the problems they are facing and prepare them for any adversities in the future. Therefore, positivity is an important factor to achieve a resilient society. However, there are many pre-existing factors that may undermine the effort to cultivate positivity.
When individuals in societies exhibit high negativity, the attempt to cultivate positivity would require a more thorough consideration. This is because the pre-existing negativity would bias any genuine attempt to increase positivity. One mechanism that complicates the attempt to increase positivity is confirmation bias, which is the tendency for people to tend to seek, perceive, interpret, and create new evidence in ways that verify their pre-existing beliefs [71,72]. Research has demonstrated that confirmation bias is one of the most pervasive cognitive biases that could be unconsciously exhibited by many people in different contexts [73]. The prevalence of confirmation bias suggests that individuals who have pre-existing pessimistic attitudes regarding their future are more likely to be skeptical when they are presented with positive information about their future outlook. Other than confirmation bias, research in negativity bias has also demonstrated that negative events have a greater effect on one’s psychological state and processes than neutral or positive events of similar intensity [74]. Consequently, negative impressions and negative stereotypes are quicker to form and more resistant to disconfirmation than their positive equivalences [75]. These asymmetries between negative and positive events could exacerbate the difficulty of cultivating positivity because increasing positivity requires more effort and persistence than increasing negativity.

5.2. Experiences and Interventions to Cultivate Positivity

Even though confirmation bias and negativity bias can exacerbate the difficulty of increasing positivity, the existing research findings do not suggest that positivity is fixed and not modifiable. In fact, research in social and personality psychology has established that positive emotions and psychological traits are malleable and can be improved in most contexts [76,77,78]. For instance, many experiences and interventions, such as counting blessings [79,80,81], visualizing one’s best possible self [82,83], loving–kindness meditation [84,85], experiencing or witnessing kindness [86,87], engaging in prosocial behavior [88,89,90], and mindfulness practices [91,92,93], have been shown to be effective in increasing positive emotions and psychological traits. Furthermore, research has shown that positive emotions and psychological traits can be cultivated through several important factors, such as increasing trust [94,95,96], increasing social engagement and support [97,98], reducing conflicts and stressors [99,100,101], inducing a sense of meaning [102,103], promoting inclusiveness and diversity [104,105], and, most importantly, increasing exposure to positive experiences and emotions [16,78,106].

5.3. Maladaptive Positivity

While positivity has been shown to facilitate resilience, it is noteworthy that some constructs of positivity can be maladaptive on the extreme side. For instance, research has demonstrated that an unhealthy level of self-efficacy and optimism may lead to optimism bias, which causes the person to believe that they are at less risk of experiencing a negative event [107]. Other research has demonstrated that high levels of positive emotions are associated with gullibility [108]. These findings suggest that positive emotions and psychological traits could compromise adaptivity and resilience to some extent. Therefore, there is a need to accompany positivity with realism to ensure the effectiveness of positivity in facilitating resilience.

6. Conclusions

In conclusion, positive emotions and psychological traits are essential factors to achieve an adaptive and resilient society. Psychological research has established that positivity not only motivates individuals to persist against stressors but also allows them to see innovative solutions to the problems they are facing and prepare for any adversities in the future. Our review suggests that cultivating positive emotions and psychological traits will accelerate the goal towards a resilient society that can overcome new challenges caused by unpredictable situations.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, A.H.; writing—original draft preparation, A.H.; writing—review and editing, A.H., K.T.A.S.K. and X.C.S.; supervision, A.H. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research was funded by Ministry of Education Academy Research Fund Tier 1, grant number 20-C242-SMU-001 & 21-SOSS-SMU-023, and the Lee Kong Chian Fund for Research Excellence.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the design, interpretation, and writing of the manuscript.


  1. Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Zhan, S. Immigration, Population, and Foreign Workforce in Singapore: An Overview of Trends, Policies, and Issues. HSSE Online 2017, 6, 10–21. [Google Scholar]
  2. Camarero, L.; Oliva, J. Thinking in Rural Gap: Mobility and Social Inequalities. Palgrave Commun. 2019, 5, 95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Kubin, E.; von Sikorski, C. The Role of (Social) Media in Political Polarization: A Systematic Review. Ann. Int. Commun. Assoc. 2021, 45, 188–206. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Roberts, S.O.; Bareket-Shavit, C.; Dollins, F.A.; Goldie, P.D.; Mortenson, E. Racial Inequality in Psychological Research: Trends of the Past and Recommendations for the Future. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 2020, 15, 1295–1309. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Smock, P.J.; Schwartz, C.R. The Demography of Families: A Review of Patterns and Change. J. Marriage Fam. 2020, 82, 9–34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Van de Werfhorst, H.G. Early Tracking and Social Inequality in Educational Attainment: Educational Reforms in 21 European Countries. Am. J. Educ. 2019, 126, 65–99. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Chavez, J.A.M.; Ocana-Fernandez, Y.; vela, S.L.R.; Flores, J.A.; Uribe-Hernandez, Y.C. Educational Inequality before and During the Covid-19 Pandemic in Social and Virtuality. NeuroQuantology 2022, 20, 514–524. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Peng, M. Outbreak of COVID-19: An Emerging Global Pandemic Threat. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2020, 129, 110499. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Pfefferbaum, B.; North, C.S. Mental Health and the Covid-19 Pandemic. N. Engl. J. Med. 2020, 383, 510–512. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Bryce, C.; Ring, P.; Ashby, S.; Wardman, J.K. Resilience in the Face of Uncertainty: Early Lessons from the COVID-19 Pandemic. J. Risk Res. 2020, 23, 880–887. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Chan, D. Enabling Positive Attitudes and Experiences in Singapore; World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte Ltd.: Singapore, 2016; ISBN 978-981-4723-71-8. [Google Scholar]
  12. Lee Duckworth, A.; Steen, T.A.; Seligman, M.E.P. Positive Psychology in Clinical Practice. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 2005, 1, 629–651. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  13. Seligman, M.E.P.; Steen, T.A.; Park, N.; Peterson, C. Positive Psychology Progress: Empirical Validation of Interventions. Am. Psychol. 2005, 60, 410–421. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Cohn, M.A.; Fredrickson, B.L. Positive Emotions. In Oxford Handbook Of Positive Psychology, 2nd ed.; Oxford Library of Psychology; Oxford University Press: New York, NY, USA, 2009; pp. 13–24. ISBN 978-0-19-518724-3. [Google Scholar]
  15. Fredrickson, B.L. What Good Are Positive Emotions? Rev. Gen. Psychol. 1998, 2, 300–319. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Seligman, M.E.P.; Csikszentmihalyi, M. Positive Psychology: An Introduction. Am. Psychol. 2000, 55, 5–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. DuBois, C.M.; Lopez, O.V.; Beale, E.E.; Healy, B.C.; Boehm, J.K.; Huffman, J.C. Relationships between Positive Psychological Constructs and Health Outcomes in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Cardiol. 2015, 195, 265–280. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Luthans, F.; Avolio, B.J.; Avey, J.B.; Norman, S.M. Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Pers. Psychol. 2007, 60, 541–572. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Ng, M.H.S.; Lua, V.Y.Q.; Majeed, N.M.; Hartanto, A. Does Trait Self-Esteem Serve as a Resilience Factor in Maintaining Affective Well-Being? Findings from Daily Diary Studies in Singapore and the United States. Personal. Individ. Differ. 2022, 198, 1–9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Gallagher, M.W.; Lopez, S.J. (Eds.) Positive Psychological Assessment: A Handbook of Models and Measures, 2nd ed.; American Psychological Association: Washington, DC, USA, 2019; ISBN 978-1-4338-3107-2. [Google Scholar]
  21. Schmidt, C.K.; Raque-Bogdan, T.L.; Piontkowski, S.; Schaefer, K.L. Putting the Positive in Health Psychology: A Content Analysis of Three Journals. J. Health Psychol. 2011, 16, 607–620. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Hartanto, A.; Majeed, N.M.; Lua, V.Y.Q.; Wong, J.; Chen, N.R.Y. Dispositional Gratitude, Health-Related Factors, and Lipid Profiles in Midlife: A Biomarker Study. Sci. Rep. 2022, 12, 6034. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Bergami, M.; Corsino, M.; Daood, A.; Giuri, P. Being Resilient for Society: Evidence from Companies That Leveraged Their Resources and Capabilities to Fight the COVID-19 Crisis. R&D Manag. 2022, 52, 235–254. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Hamel, G.; Välikangas, L. The Quest for Resilience. Harv. Bus. Rev. 2003, 81, 52–131. [Google Scholar]
  25. Williams, T.A.; Gruber, D.A.; Sutcliffe, K.M.; Shepherd, D.A.; Zhao, E.Y. Organizational Response to Adversity: Fusing Crisis Management and Resilience Research Streams. Acad. Manag. Ann. 2017, 11, 733–769. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Giustiniano, L.; Clegg, S.; Cunha, M.; Rego, A. Elgar Introduction to Theories of Organizational Resilience; Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham, UK, 2018. [Google Scholar]
  27. Cantor, N.; Norem, J.K. Defensive Pessimism and Stress and Coping. Soc. Cogn. 1989, 7, 92–112. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Showers, C.; Ruben, C. Distinguishing Defensive Pessimism from Depression: Negative Expectations and Positive Coping Mechanisms. Cogn. Ther. Res. 1990, 14, 385–399. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Elliot, A.J.; Church, M.A. A Motivational Analysis of Defensive Pessimism and Self-Handicapping. J. Pers. 2003, 71, 369–396. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Higgins, E.T. Beyond Pleasure and Pain. Am. Psychol. 1997, 52, 1280–1300. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Seligman, M.E.P. Positive Social Science. J. Posit. Behav. Interv. 1999, 1, 181. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Majeed, N.M.; Tan, J.J.X.; Tov, W.; Hartanto, A. Dispositional Optimism as a Buffer against Emotional Reactivity to Daily Stressors: A Daily Diary Approach. J. Res. Personal. 2021, 93, 104105. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Stajkovic, A.D.; Luthans, F. Self-Efficacy and Work-Related Performance: A Meta-Analysis. Psychol. Bull. 1998, 124, 240–261. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Brief, A.P.; Weiss, H.M. Organizational Behavior: Affect in the Workplace. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2002, 53, 279–307. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Gärling, T.; Kirchler, E.; Lewis, A.; van Raaij, F. Psychology, Financial Decision Making, and Financial Crises. Psychol. Sci. Public Interest 2009, 10, 1–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. Riolli, L.; Savicki, V.; Cepani, A. Resilience in the Face of Catastrophe: Optimism, Personality, and Coping in the Kosovo Crisis. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 2002, 32, 1604–1627. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Sulkers, E.; Fleer, J.; Brinksma, A.; Roodbol, P.F.; Kamps, W.A.; Tissing, W.J.E.; Sanderman, R. Dispositional Optimism in Adolescents with Cancer: Differential Associations of Optimism and Pessimism with Positive and Negative Aspects of Well-Being. Br. J. Health Psychol. 2013, 18, 474–489. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. Arewasikporn, A.; Sturgeon, J.A.; Zautra, A.J. Sharing Positive Experiences Boosts Resilient Thinking: Everyday Benefits of Social Connection and Positive Emotion in a Community Sample. Am. J. Community Psychol. 2019, 63, 110–121. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  39. Chia, J.L.; Hartanto, A. Older Adult Employment Status and Well-being: A Longitudinal Bidirectional Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public. Health 2021, 18, 12533. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  40. Fredrickson, B.L. The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions. Am. Psychol. 2001, 56, 218–226. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. Ong, A.D.; Bergeman, C.S.; Bisconti, T.L.; Wallace, K.A. Psychological Resilience, Positive Emotions, and Successful Adaptation to Stress in Later Life. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 2006, 91, 730–749. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  42. Tugade, M.M.; Fredrickson, B.L. Resilient Individuals Use Positive Emotions to Bounce Back From Negative Emotional Experiences. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 2004, 86, 320–333. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  43. Fredrickson, B.L.; Tugade, M.M.; Waugh, C.E.; Larkin, G.R. What Good Are Positive Emotions in Crisis? A Prospective Study of Resilience and Emotions Following the Terrorist Attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 2003, 84, 365–376. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  44. Avey, J.B.; Wernsing, T.S.; Mhatre, K.H. A Longitudinal Analysis of Positive Psychological Constructs and Emotions on Stress, Anxiety, and Well-Being. J. Leadersh. Organ. Stud. 2011, 18, 216–228. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  45. Galatzer-Levy, I.R.; Brown, A.D.; Henn-Haase, C.; Metzler, T.J.; Neylan, T.C.; Marmar, C.R. Positive and Negative Emotion Prospectively Predict Trajectories of Resilience and Distress among High-Exposure Police Officers. Emotion 2013, 13, 545–553. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  46. Hartanto, A.; Lee, S.T.H.; Yong, J.C. Dispositional Gratitude Moderates the Association between Socioeconomic Status and Interleukin-6. Sci. Rep. 2019, 9, 802. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  47. Reich, J.W. (Ed.) Handbook of Adult Resilience; Guilford Publ: New York, NY, USA, 2010; ISBN 978-1-4625-0647-7. [Google Scholar]
  48. Cohn, M.A.; Fredrickson, B.L.; Brown, S.L.; Mikels, J.A.; Conway, A.M. Happiness Unpacked: Positive Emotions Increase Life Satisfaction by Building Resilience. Emotion 2009, 9, 361–368. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. Gable, S.L.; Gonzaga, G.C.; Strachman, A. Will You Be There for Me When Things Go Right? Supportive Responses to Positive Event Disclosures. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 2006, 91, 904–917. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  50. Bandura, A.; Locke, E.A. Negative Self-Efficacy and Goal Effects Revisited. J. Appl. Psychol. 2003, 88, 87–99. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. Fida, R.; Paciello, M.; Tramontano, C.; Fontaine, R.G.; Barbaranelli, C.; Farnese, M.L. An Integrative Approach to Understanding Counterproductive Work Behavior: The Roles of Stressors, Negative Emotions, and Moral Disengagement. J. Bus. Ethics 2015, 130, 131–144. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  52. Luthans, F. The Need for and Meaning of Positive Organizational Behavior. J. Organ. Behav. 2002, 23, 695–706. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  53. Avey, J.B.; Wernsing, T.S.; Luthans, F. Can Positive Employees Help Positive Organizational Change? Impact of Psychological Capital and Emotions on Relevant Attitudes and Behaviors. J. Appl. Behav. Sci. 2008, 44, 48–70. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  54. Powley, E.H. Reclaiming Resilience and Safety: Resilience Activation in the Critical Period of Crisis. Hum. Relat. 2009, 62, 1289–1326. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Stajkovic, A.D. Development of a Core Confidence-Higher Order Construct. J. Appl. Psychol. 2006, 91, 1208–1224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  56. Schulman, P. Applying Learned Optimism to Increase Sales Productivity. J. Pers. Sell. Sales Manag. 1999, 19, 31–37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  57. Rego, A.; Machado, F.; Leal, S.; Cunha, M.P.E. Are Hopeful Employees More Creative? An Empirical Study. Creat. Res. J. 2009, 21, 223–231. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  58. Sweetman, D.; Luthans, F.; Avey, J.B.; Luthans, B.C. Relationship between Positive Psychological Capital and Creative Performance. Can. J. Adm. Sci. Rev. Can. Sci. Adm. 2011, 28, 4–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  59. Speier, C.; Frese, M. Generalized Self Efficacy As a Mediator and Moderator Between Control and Complexity at Work and Personal Initiative: A Longitudinal Field Study in East Germany. Hum. Perform. 1997, 10, 171–192. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  60. Luthans, F.; Avolio, B.J. Brief Summary of Psychological Capital and Introduction to the Special Issue. J. Leadersh. Organ. Stud. 2014, 21, 125–129. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  61. Gaddy, J.W.; Gonzalez, S.P.; Lathan, C.A.; Graham, P.K. The Perception of Authentic Leadership on Subordinate Resilience. Mil. Behav. Health 2017, 5, 64–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  62. Bratianu, C.; Vătămănescu, E.-M.; Anagnoste, S.; Dominici, G. Untangling Knowledge Fields and Knowledge Dynamics within the Decision-Making Process. Manag. Decis. 2020, 59, 306–323. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  63. Meneghel, I.; Borgogni, L.; Miraglia, M.; Salanova, M.; Martínez, I.M. From Social Context and Resilience to Performance through Job Satisfaction: A Multilevel Study over Time. Hum. Relat. 2016, 69, 2047–2067. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  64. Hudgins, T.A. Resilience, Job Satisfaction and Anticipated Turnover in Nurse Leaders. J. Nurs. Manag. 2016, 24, E62–E69. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  65. Paul, H.; Bamel, U.K.; Garg, P. Employee Resilience and OCB: Mediating Effects of Organizational Commitment. Vikalpa 2016, 41, 308–324. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  66. Bratianu, C.; Bejinaru, R. Knowledge Dynamics: A Thermodynamics Approach. Kybernetes 2019, 49, 6–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  67. Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Daley, E. Workplace Belongingness, Distress, and Resilience in Emergency Service Workers. Psychol. Trauma Theory Res. Pract. Policy 2017, 9, 32–35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  68. Wibowo, A.; Paramita, W. Resilience and Turnover Intention: The Role of Mindful Leadership, Empathetic Leadership, and Self-Regulation. J. Leadersh. Organ. Stud. 2022, 29, 325–341. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  69. Cullen, K.L.; Edwards, B.D.; Casper, W.C.; Gue, K.R. Employees’ Adaptability and Perceptions of Change-Related Uncertainty: Implications for Perceived Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction, and Performance. J. Bus. Psychol. 2014, 29, 269–280. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  70. Elias, S.M. Employee Commitment in Times of Change: Assessing the Importance of Attitudes Toward Organizational Change. J. Manag. 2009, 35, 37–55. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  71. Klayman, J. Varieties of Confirmation Bias. In Psychology of Learning and Motivation; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1995; Volume 32, pp. 385–418. ISBN 978-0-12-543332-7. [Google Scholar]
  72. Rassin, E. Individual Differences in the Susceptibility to Confirmation Bias. Neth. J. Psychol. 2008, 64, 87–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  73. Nickerson, R.S. Confirmation Bias: A Ubiquitous Phenomenon in Many Guises. Rev. Gen. Psychol. 1998, 2, 175–220. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  74. Rozin, P.; Royzman, E.B. Negativity Bias, Negativity Dominance, and Contagion. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 2001, 5, 296–320. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  75. Baumeister, R.F.; Bratslavsky, E.; Finkenauer, C.; Vohs, K.D. Bad Is Stronger Than Good. Rev. Gen. Psychol. 2001, 5, 323–370. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  76. Gawronski, B.; Bodenhausen, G.V. Associative and Propositional Processes in Evaluation: An Integrative Review of Implicit and Explicit Attitude Change. Psychol. Bull. 2006, 132, 692–731. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  77. Levine, L.; Bluck, S. Painting with Broad Strokes: Happiness and the Malleability of Event Memory. Cogn. Emot. 2004, 18, 559–574. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  78. Eid, M.; Larsen, R.J. (Eds.) The Science of Subjective Well-Being; Guilford Press: New York, NY, USA, 2008; ISBN 978-1-59385-581-9. [Google Scholar]
  79. Emmons, R.A.; McCullough, M.E. Counting Blessings versus Burdens: An Experimental Investigation of Gratitude and Subjective Well-Being in Daily Life. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 2003, 84, 377–389. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  80. Froh, J.J.; Sefick, W.J.; Emmons, R.A. Counting Blessings in Early Adolescents: An Experimental Study of Gratitude and Subjective Well-Being. J. Sch. Psychol. 2008, 46, 213–233. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  81. Watkins, P.C.; Uhder, J.; Pichinevskiy, S. Grateful Recounting Enhances Subjective Well-Being: The Importance of Grateful Processing. J. Posit. Psychol. 2015, 10, 91–98. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  82. Meevissen, Y.M.C.; Peters, M.L.; Alberts, H.J.E.M. Become More Optimistic by Imagining a Best Possible Self: Effects of a Two Week Intervention. J. Behav. Ther. Exp. Psychiatry 2011, 42, 371–378. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  83. Sheldon, K.M.; Lyubomirsky, S. How to Increase and Sustain Positive Emotion: The Effects of Expressing Gratitude and Visualizing Best Possible Selves. J. Posit. Psychol. 2006, 1, 73–82. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  84. Fredrickson, B.L.; Boulton, A.J.; Firestine, A.M.; Van Cappellen, P.; Algoe, S.B.; Brantley, M.M.; Kim, S.L.; Brantley, J.; Salzberg, S. Positive Emotion Correlates of Meditation Practice: A Comparison of Mindfulness Meditation and Loving-Kindness Meditation. Mindfulness 2017, 8, 1623–1633. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  85. Hofmann, S.G.; Grossman, P.; Hinton, D.E. Loving-Kindness and Compassion Meditation: Potential for Psychological Interventions. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 2011, 31, 1126–1132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  86. Fryburg, D.A. Kindness as a Stress Reduction–Health Promotion Intervention: A Review of the Psychobiology of Caring. Am. J. Lifestyle Med. 2022, 16, 89–100. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  87. Oliver, M.B.; Kim, K.; Hoewe, J.; Chung, M.-Y.; Ash, E.; Woolley, J.K.; Shade, D.D. Media-Induced Elevation as a Means of Enhancing Feelings of Intergroup Connectedness: Media-Induced Elevation. J. Soc. Issues 2015, 71, 106–122. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  88. Dunn, E.W.; Aknin, L.B.; Norton, M.I. Prosocial Spending and Happiness: Using Money to Benefit Others Pays Off. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 2014, 23, 41–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  89. Layous, K.; Nelson, S.K.; Oberle, E.; Schonert-Reichl, K.A.; Lyubomirsky, S. Kindness Counts: Prompting Prosocial Behavior in Preadolescents Boosts Peer Acceptance and Well-Being. PLoS ONE 2012, 7, e51380. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  90. Weinstein, N.; Ryan, R.M. When Helping Helps: Autonomous Motivation for Prosocial Behavior and Its Influence on Well-Being for the Helper and Recipient. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 2010, 98, 222–244. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  91. Geschwind, N.; Peeters, F.; Drukker, M.; van Os, J.; Wichers, M. Mindfulness Training Increases Momentary Positive Emotions and Reward Experience in Adults Vulnerable to Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 2011, 79, 618–628. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  92. Lindsay, E.K.; Chin, B.; Greco, C.M.; Young, S.; Brown, K.W.; Wright, A.G.C.; Smyth, J.M.; Burkett, D.; Creswell, J.D. How Mindfulness Training Promotes Positive Emotions: Dismantling Acceptance Skills Training in Two Randomized Controlled Trials. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 2018, 115, 944–973. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  93. Shapiro, S.L.; Oman, D.; Thoresen, C.E.; Plante, T.G.; Flinders, T. Cultivating Mindfulness: Effects on Well-Being. J. Clin. Psychol. 2008, 4, 840–862. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  94. Dirks, K.T.; Ferrin, D.L. Trust in Leadership: Meta-Analytic Findings and Implications for Research and Practice. J. Appl. Psychol. 2002, 87, 611–628. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  95. Fransen, M.L.; Smit, E.G.; Verlegh, P.W.J. Strategies and Motives for Resistance to Persuasion: An Integrative Framework. Front. Psychol. 2015, 6, 1201. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  96. Van den Heuvel, S.; Schalk, R.; van Assen, M.A.L.M. Does a Well-Informed Employee Have a More Positive Attitude Toward Change? The Mediating Role of Psychological Contract Fulfillment, Trust, and Perceived Need for Change. J. Appl. Behav. Sci. 2015, 51, 401–422. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  97. Broockman, D.; Kalla, J. Durably Reducing Transphobia: A Field Experiment on Door-to-Door Canvassing. Science 2016, 352, 220–224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  98. Stroebe, W.; Diehl, M. Conformity and Counterattitudinal Behavior: The Effect of Social Support on Attitude Change. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 1981, 41, 876–889. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  99. Leigh, J.H.; Lucas, G.H.; Woodman, R.W. Effects of Perceived Organizational Factors on Role Stress-Job Attitude Relationships. J. Manag. 1988, 14, 41–58. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  100. Miller, C.W.; Roloff, M.E.; Reznik, R.M. Hopelessness and Interpersonal Conflict: Antecedents and Consequences of Losing Hope. West. J. Commun. 2014, 78, 563–585. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  101. Romero, A.J.; Piña-Watson, B.; Toomey, R.B. When Is Bicultural Stress Associated with Loss of Hope and Depressive Symptoms? Variation by Ethnic Identity Status among Mexican Descent Youth. J. Lat. Psychol. 2018, 6, 49–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  102. Hartanto, A.; Yong, J.C.; Lee, S.T.H.; Ng, W.Q.; Tong, E.M.W. Putting Adversity in Perspective: Purpose in Life Moderates the Link between Childhood Emotional Abuse and Neglect and Adulthood Depressive Symptoms. J. Ment. Health 2020, 29, 473–482. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  103. Reker, G.T.; Peacock, E.J.; Wong, P.T.P. Meaning and Purpose in Life and Well-Being: A Life-Span Perspective. J. Gerontol. 1987, 42, 44–49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  104. Ehrke, F.; Berthold, A.; Steffens, M.C. How Diversity Training Can Change Attitudes: Increasing Perceived Complexity of Superordinate Groups to Improve Intergroup Relations. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 2014, 53, 193–206. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  105. Tawagi, A.L.; Mak, A.S. Cultural Inclusiveness Contributing to International Students’ Intercultural Attitudes: Mediating Role of Intergroup Contact Variables: International Students’ Attitudes. J. Community Appl. Soc. Psychol. 2015, 25, 340–354. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  106. Fazio, R.H.; Zanna, M.P. Attitudinal Qualities Relating to the Strength of the Attitude-Behavior Relationship. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 1978, 14, 398–408. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  107. Harris, P. Sufficient Grounds for Optimism?: The Relationship Between Perceived Controllability and Optimistic Bias. J. Soc. Clin. Psychol. 1996, 15, 9–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  108. Forgas, J.P.; East, R. On Being Happy and Gullible: Mood Effects on Skepticism and the Detection of Deception. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 2008, 44, 1362–1367. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Hartanto, A.; Kasturiratna, K.T.A.S.; Soh, X.C. Cultivating Positivity to Achieve a Resilient Society: A Critical Narrative Review from Psychological Perspectives. Knowledge 2022, 2, 443-451.

AMA Style

Hartanto A, Kasturiratna KTAS, Soh XC. Cultivating Positivity to Achieve a Resilient Society: A Critical Narrative Review from Psychological Perspectives. Knowledge. 2022; 2(3):443-451.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hartanto, Andree, K. T. A. Sandeeshwara Kasturiratna, and Xun Ci Soh. 2022. "Cultivating Positivity to Achieve a Resilient Society: A Critical Narrative Review from Psychological Perspectives" Knowledge 2, no. 3: 443-451.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop