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Physiologia, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 15 articles

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13 pages, 5917 KiB  
Article
Effects of Engaging Older Adults in Technology-Based Dance Programs
Physiologia 2023, 3(2), 381-393; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3020026 - 08 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1589
Abstract
Functionality is a crucial aspect of aging that is vital to one’s health and well-being. Older adults often struggle with mobility issues, which increases their risk of injury from falls and other problems. Dancing has the potential to be a physically stimulating activity [...] Read more.
Functionality is a crucial aspect of aging that is vital to one’s health and well-being. Older adults often struggle with mobility issues, which increases their risk of injury from falls and other problems. Dancing has the potential to be a physically stimulating activity that may be tailored to older individuals’ ages, physical conditions, and cultural preferences. The study aimed to determine whether dancing programs can improve older adults’ physical and mental health by using technology. Sixty women were divided into two groups at random: a dance group (N = 33; mean age 62.24) and a dance group using technology (N = 27, mean age 67.37). The intervention lasted six months and was performed twice a week for 75-min sessions. Dances were chosen from all over Greece. Participants’ physical and cognitive status was evaluated before and after the intervention. The results show that the dance group improved balance (p = 0.001), lower body strength (p = 0.006) and aerobic capacity (p = 0.006), while the dance group with the use of technology shower greater improvement in the same tests (p = 0.002, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001). Both groups improved on walking balance and danger of falling (p < 0.0001). Depression (p = 0.007) and sociability (p = 0.001) significantly improved in the dance group. Dance, an enjoyable activity, contributes to the well-being of older adults by maintaining their physical status and functional capacity at acceptable levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry)
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15 pages, 1507 KiB  
Review
Ecology Meets Physiology: Phenotypic Plasticity and the Ability of Animals to Adjust to Changing Environmental Conditions
Physiologia 2023, 3(2), 366-380; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3020025 - 08 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1099
Abstract
Hyperplasia and hypertrophy, or their counterparts hypoplasia and hypotrophy, are elements of the adjustment of organ size and function in animals according to their needs under altered environmental conditions. As such processes are costly in terms of energy and biomaterials, it is assumed [...] Read more.
Hyperplasia and hypertrophy, or their counterparts hypoplasia and hypotrophy, are elements of the adjustment of organ size and function in animals according to their needs under altered environmental conditions. As such processes are costly in terms of energy and biomaterials, it is assumed that they are beneficial for the survival of the individual. The ability of animals to perform such adjustments and the limitations in the scope of the adjustments are considered to be adaptive genetic traits which enable individual animals to survive regularly occurring changes in the environmental conditions in their habitats as long as such changes stay within critical limits. The restructuring of mono-functional glands in ducklings, which serve the animals in getting rid of excess amounts of ingested salt from the body, is presented as an example of complex plastic changes in organ structure. Phenotypic adjustments in these salt glands encompass both reversible processes, when environmental conditions switch back to the original state (‘phenotypic elasticity’), and irreversible ones (‘phenotypic plasticity’ in the narrow sense). As more information on genomes or transcriptomes of non-model animal species becomes available, we will better understand the biological significance of such phenotypic adjustments in animals in their natural environments and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Full article
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19 pages, 4271 KiB  
Article
Interrelation of the Radial Increment of Trees with Various Factors
Physiologia 2023, 3(2), 347-365; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3020024 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1027
Abstract
Radial increment objectively reflects the quality of the assimilation apparatus of a woody plant. Its features indicate the influence of various anthropogenic, biotic and abiotic factors as well as the stability of the plant under stress. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Radial increment objectively reflects the quality of the assimilation apparatus of a woody plant. Its features indicate the influence of various anthropogenic, biotic and abiotic factors as well as the stability of the plant under stress. The aim of this study was to survey the long-term dynamics of the radial growth of six tree species: Betula pendula, Ulmus glabra, Quercus robur, Tilia cordata, Picea abies and Pinus silvestris, depending on the impact of creating a reservoir and the fluctuations of the water level in it. Additionally, another aim was to determine whether there is a dependence between the annual radial increment of these tree species and the change in the temperature factor during the growing season. We studied cores of trees growing in a park on the coast of the Sheksna river, the level of which is regulated by the water level in the Rybinsk Reservoir and changes along with it. This research presents the dynamics of the annual radial growth of Betula pendula over 59 years, Ulmus glabra over 50 years, Quercus robur over 59 years, Tilia cordata over 82 years, Picea abies over 128 years and Pinus silvestris over 125 years. The average annual radial growth decreases in the series Ulmus glabra > Betula pendula, Quercus robur > Tilia cordata > Picea abies > Pinus silvestris. The radial increase does not correlate with the annual water level in the Rybinsk Reservoir. However, years with extreme minimum and maximum reservoir filling affect the radial growth of Quercus robur (r = 0.56) and Tilia cordata (r = 0.52). It was found that after the creation of the reservoir, the radial increment of Picea abies was significantly reduced by 1.10 mm. The clearest dependence of ring width index was obtained for Picea abies on temperature in May (r = −0.30 at p ≤ 0.05) and for Pinus sylvestris on temperature in July (r = −0.25 at p ≤ 0.05). Similarly, a weak correlation of ring width index with temperature in some months was noted for deciduous trees. Picea abies is notable for its particular display of moderate inverse correlation to the radial growths of other trees. Full article
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18 pages, 3401 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Effectiveness of Plant-Mediated Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles as Larvicidal Agents against the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti
Physiologia 2023, 3(2), 329-346; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3020023 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for the transmission of some of the most serious vector-borne diseases affecting humans, including dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika. The only effective method for minimizing their transmission is vector control. In this work, an environmentally friendly method for [...] Read more.
Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for the transmission of some of the most serious vector-borne diseases affecting humans, including dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika. The only effective method for minimizing their transmission is vector control. In this work, an environmentally friendly method for synthesizing cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) is highlighted, and the larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti was studied. This method uses the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves (BL) as an oxidizer and stabilizing agent. UV–Vis spectroscopy presented a distinctive absorbance band at 303 nm for CeO2 NPs with a band gap of 3.17 eV. The functional groups from the plant extract connected to CeO2 NPs were identified by FT-IR analysis, while X-ray diffraction revealed the cubic fluorite orientation of CeO2 NPs. Zeta potential revealed a surface charge of −20.7 mV on NPs. The formation of CeO2 NPs was confirmed by an energy dispersive spectral analysis, and TEM and DLS revealed an average diameter of 40–60 nm. The LC50 of synthesized CeO2 against Ae. aegypti fourth instar larvae was reported to be 46.28 μg/mL in 24 h. Acetylcholinesterase (47%) and glutathione S-transferase (13.51%) activity were significantly decreased in Ae. aegypti larvae exposed to synthesized CeO2 NPs versus the control larvae. All these findings propose the potential for using B. cylindrica leaves-synthesized CeO2 NPs as an efficient substitute for insecticides in the management of mosquitoes. Full article
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24 pages, 1421 KiB  
Review
The Involvement of Lipid Mediators in the Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage
Physiologia 2023, 3(2), 305-328; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3020022 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1756
Abstract
Lipid mediators are a class of signaling molecules that play important roles in various physiological processes, including inflammation, blood pressure regulation, and energy metabolism. Exercise has been shown to affect the production and metabolism of several types of lipid mediators, including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, [...] Read more.
Lipid mediators are a class of signaling molecules that play important roles in various physiological processes, including inflammation, blood pressure regulation, and energy metabolism. Exercise has been shown to affect the production and metabolism of several types of lipid mediators, including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, sphingolipids, platelet-activating factors and endocannabinoids. Eicosanoids, which include prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune function. Endocannabinoids, such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, are involved in the regulation of pain, mood, and appetite. Pro-resolving lipid mediators are involved in the resolution of inflammation. Sphingolipids have a role in the function of skeletal muscle during and after exercise. There are many studies that have examined the effects of exercise on the production and release of these and other lipid mediators. Some of these studies have focused on the effects of exercise on inflammation and immune function, while others have examined the effects on muscle function and metabolism. However, much less is known about their involvement in the phenomenon of exercise-induced muscle damage that follows after intense or unaccustomed exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry)
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10 pages, 260 KiB  
Article
The Acute Effects of Plyometric Exercises on Sprint Performance and Kinematics
Physiologia 2023, 3(2), 295-304; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3020021 - 09 May 2023
Viewed by 1628
Abstract
Background: Post-activation potentiation refers to the acute and temporary enhancement of performance in explosive movements after performing a conditioning activity, such as plyometrics. The current study aimed to investigate the acute effects of horizontal leg bounding on 30 m acceleration performance, 5 m [...] Read more.
Background: Post-activation potentiation refers to the acute and temporary enhancement of performance in explosive movements after performing a conditioning activity, such as plyometrics. The current study aimed to investigate the acute effects of horizontal leg bounding on 30 m acceleration performance, 5 m split times, and sprint kinematics (step frequency and length, flight and contact time). Methods: Fourteen young sprinters, nine females and five males, performed two experimental conditions and one control condition in randomized and crossover orders. The experimental conditions included 3 × 10 repetitions of alternate-leg horizontal bounding or 3 × 5 repetitions of single-leg horizontal bounding for each leg. Active recovery was performed in the control condition. A 30 m sprint test was executed before and 5 min after each condition. Results: Sprint times at 5 m (p = 0.014) and 10 m (p = 0.041) were improved after performing alternate-leg horizontal bounding. Additionally, an increase in running velocity (p = 0.017) and step frequency (p = 0.028) was observed in the 0–5 m segment of the sprint. Sprint performance and kinematics showed no significant differences after performing single-leg horizontal bounding. Conclusions: Alternate-leg horizontal bounding, which is a sprint-specific exercise that emphasizes a horizontal impulse, can be used effectively to improve performance in the initial phase of sprint acceleration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry)
14 pages, 3659 KiB  
Article
The Ins and Outs of Urea: Identification of Putative DUR3-like Urea Transporters in the Oligohaline Nerite Snail Theodoxus fluviatilis and Their Expression under Changing Salinities
Physiologia 2023, 3(2), 281-294; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3020020 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda: Neritidae) is an oligohaline aquatic gastropod that inhabits most of Europe and adjacent areas of Asia. Two different ecotypes can be distinguished: One in freshwater (FW) and another along the Baltic Sea coast in brackish water habitats (BW). [...] Read more.
Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda: Neritidae) is an oligohaline aquatic gastropod that inhabits most of Europe and adjacent areas of Asia. Two different ecotypes can be distinguished: One in freshwater (FW) and another along the Baltic Sea coast in brackish water habitats (BW). Individuals of either ecotype use free amino acids and urea as organic osmolytes to adjust body fluid osmolality to the external medium; however, the BW ecotype is able to accumulate them in larger quantities. The use of urea as an organic osmolyte in aquatic gastropods such as T. fluviatilis has only recently been initially described and raised the question of how urea transport between body fluids and the environment is balanced. Upon examining transcriptome and preliminary genome sequence data of T. fluviatilis, we identified putative homologues of DUR3 genes, which code for urea transporters (UTs) in other organisms. In this study, we provide evidence for the presence of four different subtypes of DUR3-like UTs that belong to two distinct families. Two of the UT subtypes were subject to qRT-PCR analyses to investigate differences in mRNA expression during the acclimation of individuals of both ecotypes to different salinities. Our results indicate that only BW animals regulate DUR3 gene expression in the context of osmoregulation. Full article
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9 pages, 1305 KiB  
Article
Response of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) to Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Food Sources in Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) and Honeybees (Apis mellifera)
Physiologia 2023, 3(2), 272-280; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3020019 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
The conception of “floral strips” is a strategy to provide more and different food sources for pollinators. The impact of “homogeneous” Phacelia tanacetifolia (“Phacelia”) and “heterogeneous” (flower mix) food sources on the enzyme activity of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) and honeybees ( [...] Read more.
The conception of “floral strips” is a strategy to provide more and different food sources for pollinators. The impact of “homogeneous” Phacelia tanacetifolia (“Phacelia”) and “heterogeneous” (flower mix) food sources on the enzyme activity of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) and honeybees (Apis mellifera) under urban conditions has not been reported. Organisms responding to challenging environmental conditions are known to exhibit increases in oxidative stress parameters which in turn affect both physiological and metabolic parameters. A field study was conducted in Berlin-Dahlem, Germany, using the response of the “marker” enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) on food sources for assessment. SOD data is also shown from the wild bee Megachile rotundata (Fabricius 1787), obtained from three different locations in the federal state Brandenburg, Germany. The results demonstrate that the enzyme activity of SOD significantly increased in bumblebees visiting the flower mix compared to the Phacelia. The experimental approach had individual effects at the level of the species, bumblebees and honeybees, respectively. The activity of the biomarker SOD could be successfully used to assess the effects of the compositions of homogeneous and heterogeneous flower fields. Full article
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13 pages, 1704 KiB  
Article
Hemodynamic Responses to a Handgrip Exercise Session, with and without Blood Flow Restriction, in Healthy Volunteers
Physiologia 2023, 3(2), 259-271; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3020018 - 26 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
Exercising at submaximal intensity with a hand dynamometer causes mild hemodynamic adaptations that can improve cardiovascular function. However, hemodynamic responses and fatigue have not been adequately studied in an isometric exercise protocol combined with blood flow restriction (BFR). Our study aimed to examine [...] Read more.
Exercising at submaximal intensity with a hand dynamometer causes mild hemodynamic adaptations that can improve cardiovascular function. However, hemodynamic responses and fatigue have not been adequately studied in an isometric exercise protocol combined with blood flow restriction (BFR). Our study aimed to examine and compare acute hemodynamic responses and muscle fatigue after an isometric exercise session using a handgrip dynamometer, with and without BFR. Twelve volunteers performed the exercise protocol, with and without BFR, at random, with the BFR pressure set at 140 mmHg. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and muscle fatigue were measured before, during, and 15 min after the completion of the exercise session. Without BFR, we noticed a slight, albeit statistically insignificant, HR increase. The variations found in systolic and diastolic pressure were small and statistically insignificant. Furthermore, blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) did not change significantly. Significantly higher levels of fatigue were found in exercise with BFR, compared to without BFR, at the end of each set of isometric contractions. In conclusion, a handgrip exercise session with mild BFR does not alter the acute hemodynamic responses to exercise in healthy volunteers. However, it results in higher muscle fatigue compared to that experienced after exercise without BFR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry)
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12 pages, 1843 KiB  
Article
Physiological Responses of Anemic Women to Exercise under Hypoxic Conditions
Physiologia 2023, 3(2), 247-258; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3020017 - 22 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1493
Abstract
When combining two conditions of reduced oxygen availability, anemia and hypoxia, human physiological responses are highly challenged to maintain arterial oxygen delivery, especially during whole-body exercise. The aim of this study was to compare the cardiorespiratory responses of mildly anemic women with those [...] Read more.
When combining two conditions of reduced oxygen availability, anemia and hypoxia, human physiological responses are highly challenged to maintain arterial oxygen delivery, especially during whole-body exercise. The aim of this study was to compare the cardiorespiratory responses of mildly anemic women with those of healthy controls, while cycling in normobaric hypoxia. Two groups of young females were matched for age, weight, height, and involvement in physical activity, one with normal hemoglobin, hematocrit, and ferritin levels and another suffering from mild iron deficiency anemia (10 < (Hb) < 12 g/dL, 34 < Hct < 37%, ferritin < 15 μg/L). They cycled to exhaustion under normoxia and hypoxia (FIO2 0.21 and 0.14), and their physiological responses were compared at 40, 80, and 100% VO2max of the specific condition. The two groups differed (p < 0.05) mainly at the higher exercise intensities; the anemic participants exhibited similar heart rate but lower oxygen pulse than their control counterparts, as well as a larger drop in maximal oxygen uptake. However, they sustained maximal effort by employing the anaerobic metabolism to a larger extent, which stimulated a greater ventilatory response. It appears that iron deficiency anemia of mild severity, which is commonly observed in young athletic females, impacts physiological responses during whole-body exercise in the presence of moderate hypoxia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry)
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14 pages, 913 KiB  
Article
The Effects of a Multi-Ingredient Supplement Containing Wasabia Japonica Extract, Theacrine, and Copper (I) Niacin Chelate on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell DNA Methylation, Transcriptomics, and Sirtuin Activity
Physiologia 2023, 3(2), 233-246; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3020016 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Herein, we determined if a multi-ingredient supplement (NAD3; 312 mg of combined Wasabia japonica extract, theacrine, and copper (I)niacin chelate) versus a placebo (CTL) affected peripheral blood mononuclear (PMBC) transcriptomic, DNA methylation, and sirtuin activity profiles in middle-aged adults after 12 weeks of [...] Read more.
Herein, we determined if a multi-ingredient supplement (NAD3; 312 mg of combined Wasabia japonica extract, theacrine, and copper (I)niacin chelate) versus a placebo (CTL) affected peripheral blood mononuclear (PMBC) transcriptomic, DNA methylation, and sirtuin activity profiles in middle-aged adults after 12 weeks of supplementation. Several mRNAs demonstrated interactions (n = 148 at ±1.5-fold change, p < 0.01), and more stringent filtering indicated that 25 mRNAs were upregulated and 29 were downregulated in the NAD3 versus CTL group. Bioinformatics on these 64 mRNAs suggested that DNA conformational alterations may have been promoted with NAD3 supplementation, and this was corroborated with more CpG sites being hypermethylated (p < 0.001) in the CTL versus the NAD3 group when examining pre- to post-intervention changes (369 versus 35). PBMC SIRT activity decreased in CTL participants (p < 0.001), but not in NAD3 participants (p = 0.289), and values at 12 weeks trended higher in NAD3 participants (p = 0.057). Interestingly, the pre- to post- changes in SIRT activity values significantly correlated with changes in PBMC NAD+: NADH values obtained from a previous investigation in these participants (r = 0.534, p = 0.015). In conclusion, the current mRNA and DNA methylation data indirectly suggest that NAD3 supplementation may affect PBMC DNA conformation, while other direct assays suggest that NAD3 supplementation maintains SIRT activity through the potential maintenance of NAD+: NADH levels. However, these results are preliminary due to limited n-sizes and the study being performed in middle-aged adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Human Physiology–2nd Edition)
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12 pages, 4169 KiB  
Article
Curcumin Epigenetically Represses Histone Acetylation of Echinocandin B Producing Emericella rugulosa
Physiologia 2023, 3(2), 221-232; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3020015 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Echinocandin B is a natural product that possesses potent antifungal property against a wide array of fungi. This antifungal agent is produced by Emericella rugulosa. The biosynthetic genes of echinocandin B are physically organized in two gene clusters (ecd and hty [...] Read more.
Echinocandin B is a natural product that possesses potent antifungal property against a wide array of fungi. This antifungal agent is produced by Emericella rugulosa. The biosynthetic genes of echinocandin B are physically organized in two gene clusters (ecd and hty). The ecd gene cluster comprises 12 genes (ecdA–L). On the other hand, hty contains six genes (htyA–F). These gene clusters regulate Echinocandin B expression and play an essential role in chromatin modifications. The present study elucidates the epigenetic regulatory network of echinocandin B production using Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor; curcumin using transcriptional gene expression analysis. The High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed suppression of the echinocandin B levels in the cells treated with curcumin. Curcumin was also found to repress the expression of different ecd genes by several folds. Taken together, we conclude that curcumin targets echinocandin B production by inhibiting histone acetylation as well as disrupting interspecies consortium communication, which eventually leads to a decrease in the echinocandin B synthesis. Full article
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13 pages, 964 KiB  
Review
The Role of Gut Microbiome in Psoriatic Arthritis—A Literature Review
Physiologia 2023, 3(2), 208-220; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3020014 - 04 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2479
Abstract
Psoriatic arthritis is a heterogeneous chronic autoimmune disorder characterized principally by skin lesions, arthritis, dactylitis and enthesitis. The exact etiology of the disease is yet to be discovered, with genetic predisposition alongside environmental factors being a well-known theory. In recent years, new discoveries [...] Read more.
Psoriatic arthritis is a heterogeneous chronic autoimmune disorder characterized principally by skin lesions, arthritis, dactylitis and enthesitis. The exact etiology of the disease is yet to be discovered, with genetic predisposition alongside environmental factors being a well-known theory. In recent years, new discoveries have emphasized the role of gut microbiome in perpetuating inflammation in spondylarthritis. The exact mechanism through which dysbiosis underlies the pathophysiology of psoriatic arthritis is not defined. One of the current areas of focus in rheumatic research with new studies emerging annually is the link between microbiome and psoriatic arthritis. In this review, we synthesized the recent knowledge on intestinal microbiome and psoriatic arthritis. We screened two databases for articles, PubMed and Medline, using the following keywords: “microbiome”, “microbiota” and “psoriatic arthritis”. We described the current expertise on diversity and composition of gut microbiome in psoriatic arthritis, comparing the results with other inflammatory diseases. In the future, preventing the dysbiosis process that leads to the development of psoriatic arthritis could open the door to new therapeutic modalities. Moreover, fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics’ benefits in modulating the gut microbiome are being intensively researched at the moment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Human Physiology–2nd Edition)
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35 pages, 25135 KiB  
Review
Anticancer Potential and Molecular Mechanisms of Cinnamaldehyde and Its Congeners Present in the Cinnamon Plant
Physiologia 2023, 3(2), 173-207; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3020013 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2502
Abstract
Background: Today, cancer is the leading cause of death. It appears that using large amounts of natural resources reduces the damaging consequences of cancer therapy. Over the last decade, phytoconstituents in food have shown potential as anticancer agents. Cinnamaldehyde and its congeners have [...] Read more.
Background: Today, cancer is the leading cause of death. It appears that using large amounts of natural resources reduces the damaging consequences of cancer therapy. Over the last decade, phytoconstituents in food have shown potential as anticancer agents. Cinnamaldehyde and its congeners have shown their ability to act against several cancers. Objective: This article’s purpose is to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms that entail cinnamaldehyde’s potential for use in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Methods: The anticancer effects of cinnamaldehydes were researched by searching a variety of academic databases (such as Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, and Google scholar) in accordance with a predetermined set of criteria. Results: Studies were conducted in order to investigate the mechanism(s) by which cinnamaldehyde causes cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. Additionally, research has shown that cinnamaldehydes have an effect that inhibits the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. This class of compounds was investigated for their possible application in the treatment of cancers, such as leukaemia, colon, hepatocellular carcinoma, prostate, mouth, and breast cancers. Conclusion: According to an in-depth examination of the relevant published research, cinnamaldehyde and its analogs demonstrate several signalling pathways that are effective against cancers. This review provides a summary of recent research on cinnamaldehyde and its congeners as potential candidates for anticancer drugs. Full article
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28 pages, 2197 KiB  
Review
Internal Flesh Browning in Apple and Its Predisposing Factors—A Review
Physiologia 2023, 3(2), 145-172; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3020012 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5160
Abstract
This review article is focused on internal flesh browning (IFB)-related physiological disorders affecting apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit. The expression of different physiological and metabolic IFB-related disorders during post-harvest storage are investigated along with the pre-harvest factors contributing to development. The effectiveness [...] Read more.
This review article is focused on internal flesh browning (IFB)-related physiological disorders affecting apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit. The expression of different physiological and metabolic IFB-related disorders during post-harvest storage are investigated along with the pre-harvest factors contributing to development. The effectiveness of commercially available pre-harvest technologies for preventing IFB-related disorders are also examined. Internal flesh browning-related disorders are erratic and devastating disorders that result in post-harvest deterioration of fruit quality in apples. Internal flesh browning-related disorders can result in severe economic losses to the apple industry through reduced consumer trust and market acceptability of susceptible cultivars. There are several IFB-related disorders and incidence can range from 0 to 100% of a crop, with severity ranging from no brown flesh to browning of the entire fruit flesh. While IFB-related disorders are found in several apple cultivars, some cultivars are more prone than others. The development of IFB-related disorders involve complex mechanisms depending upon the different types and causes, or factors involved in loss of structural integrity and functional stability of the cell membranes and cell components. Membrane disruption followed by enzymatic oxidation of fruit phenolic compounds by polyphenol oxidases and the production of brown polymers is considered to be the general underlying mechanism causing the browning of flesh tissue. It can be observed in different patterns based on the injured portion of the fruit flesh and the cause of membrane disruption. Three broad categories of IFB-related disorders, including chilling injury, internal CO2 injury, and senescent-related browning disorders, are discussed along with their sub-types. The development of IFB-related disorders can be influenced by both pre-harvest factors and post-harvest conditions and their interactions. Although commonly associated with storage, IFB can also be found immediately after harvest and sometimes in unharvested fruit prior to full maturity. As pre-harvest conditions are a strong contributor to IFB-related disorders, the influence of several pre-harvest orchard conditions, including fruit size, crop load, maturity at harvest, cultivar, climatic conditions, seasonal temperatures, growing degree days, and major mineral nutrients, such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca) are reported. Although there are contradictory findings in the studies reported, in general, factors such as larger fruit size, light crop load and delayed harvesting, along with cool temperatures after bloom and warmer temperatures before harvest, increase the risk of IFB-related disorders. In relation to fruit mineral concentrations, high N and low Ca have been associated with increasing IFB, while there is conflicting evidence in relation to the impact of both P and K. This review also examines the effectiveness of commercial pre-harvest technologies such as 1-methylcyclopropene, aminoethoxyvinylglycine and diphenylamine in the prevention of IFB-related disorders, but none of these technologies were found promising due to varied and contradictory results. Full article
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