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Physiologia, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 2 articles

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12 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
Enhance Trial: Effects of NAD3® on Hallmarks of Aging and Clinical Endpoints of Health in Middle Aged Adults: A Subset Analysis Focused on Blood Cell NAD+ Concentrations and Lipid Metabolism
Physiologia 2022, 2(1), 20-31; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia2010002 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 9002
Abstract
Limited pre-clinical and clinical data suggest theacrine or theacrine-based supplements modulate biological processes associated with lipid metabolism and aging. Herein, we sought to examine if 12 weeks of daily supplementation with a theacrine-based supplement (termed NAD3®; 312 mg of combined Wasabia [...] Read more.
Limited pre-clinical and clinical data suggest theacrine or theacrine-based supplements modulate biological processes associated with lipid metabolism and aging. Herein, we sought to examine if 12 weeks of daily supplementation with a theacrine-based supplement (termed NAD3®; 312 mg of combined Wasabia japonica freeze-dried rhizome standardized for isothicyantes, theacrine, and copper (I)niacin chelate) altered serum lipids as well as select nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-associated metabolites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Twenty-eight participants (12 males, 16 females) were randomly assigned to receive either NAD3 (n = 13; age: 52 ± 7 years old, body mass index: 29.0 ± 5.0 kg/m2) or a cellulose placebo (n = 15; age: 51 ± 5 years old, body mass index: 28.3 ± 3.9 kg/m2). Blood samples were obtained in mornings following overnight fasts prior to supplementation (Pre) and following the 12-week intervention (Post). PBMCs were freshly isolated and prepared for targeted NAD+ metabolomics, and serum as well as whole blood was assayed for blood lipids and other safety markers through a commercial laboratory. Significant interactions (p < 0.05) were observed for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and LDL: HDL ratio and post hoc analyses indicated these biomarkers significantly decreased with NAD3 supplementation (Pre-to-Post percent decreases were 11.1, 15.2, and −18.9%, respectively). A significant interaction was also observed for PBMC NAD+: NADH values, where levels trended downward from Pre to Post in the CTL group (p = 0.081) and values at Post were greater in NAD3 versus CTL (p = 0.023). No interactions were observed for systolic/diastolic blood pressure, body mass, or blood markers indicative of clinical safety. Although participant numbers were limited, these first-in-human data demonstrate a theacrine-based NAD3 supplement can favorably alter biomarkers of lipid metabolism and cellular NAD+ status. However, the latter data are limited to targeted NAD+ metabolites, and the effects of supplementation on other cellular metabolites or mechanisms related to the observed outcomes need to be further explored. Full article
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19 pages, 1887 KiB  
Article
Hematological Parameters and Iron Status in Adult Men and Women Using Altitude Adjusted and Unadjusted Hemoglobin Values for Anemia Diagnosis in Cusco, Peru (3400 MASL)
Physiologia 2022, 2(1), 1-19; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia2010001 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3662
Abstract
(1) Background: Current diagnosis of anemia in high altitude populations uses an adjustment of observed hemoglobin (Hb) values. Such an approach has been challenged by findings in different populations in Tibet, Ethiopia and the Andes as inappropriate, as it might incorrectly classify an [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Current diagnosis of anemia in high altitude populations uses an adjustment of observed hemoglobin (Hb) values. Such an approach has been challenged by findings in different populations in Tibet, Ethiopia and the Andes as inappropriate, as it might incorrectly classify an individual with complete iron stores as anemic. We aimed to assess the suitability of this approach in adult men and women from Cusco, Peru (3400 m); (2) Methods: Complete blood count and iron status biomarkers were measured in 345 subjects (189 females and 156 males), iron status biomarkers were quantified with enzyme-linked immunoassays; (3) Results: Anemia prevalence was overestimated when the altitude-adjustment factor was applied. Hematological parameters were better correlated to iron status biomarkers in the non-adjusted anemia category. When stratified by sex, only women showed a significant association between Hb and other hematological parameters with iron storage and availability (Hepcidin and TFR-F); (4) Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia is overestimated with current guidelines. The rate of anemia using non-adjusted Hb values is more closely related to the rates of anemia or iron deficiency when used hematological parameters, markers of iron status, and measurements of hepcidin and erythropoietin. Sex differences related to iron status were observed, suggesting that men are at a higher risk of iron overload than women at high altitudes. It could be highlighted that a personalized approach is important when assessing a subject, taking in to account hematological parameters as well as origin (Southern Andean or other). Full article
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