Behind the Velvet Rope: Exclusivity and Accessibility in Biological Anthropology
2. The Cost of Biological Anthropology
2.1. The Cost of Education
2.2. The Cost of Networking
2.3. Early Career Barriers
2.4. Middle Career Barriers
2.5. What Is Success?
- Virtual networking. With an increase in virtual lectures, training, and meetings, creating more opportunities for virtual networking is one possible way to help with making connections while lessening the financial burden of attending, but not presenting, at conferences. While there is obvious value to also being apprised of the research and trends that are currently going on in the field (see point 2), providing a space and opportunity to support individuals who might otherwise not be able to afford the cost or time to attend several conferences a year may help lessen the financial barriers. Creating an event where people at varying levels of education and career can connect virtually would have tremendous benefits and help reduce the financial burden of in-person networking while not negatively affecting one’s ability to network and collaborate;
- Split virtual/in-person conferences. During the heart of the COVID-19 pandemic, several professional organizations switched to virtual conferences or hybrid virtual/in-person meetings. Many of these ended once travel and occupancy restrictions ended and vaccine requirements were lifted, but the benefits they provided cannot be overlooked. Virtual conferences not only allow attendance by those individuals who might not be able to afford travel (especially with attending but not presenting, which is rarely funded), but it is an avenue for providing flexibility for participation. Conferences could provide recorded talks that stay up for a given amount of time for people to watch or revisit if necessary. If more organizations continued with hybrid conferences, individuals who have responsibilities that may prevent them from taking advantage of this learning and networking opportunity in-person (such as childcare, family obligations, or work) could watch the presentations when they had the opportunity and could therefore keep up with the current research in the field. The AABA, for example, has continued to provide both in-person and virtual options for their 2023 conference ;
- Regional conferences. The formation of smaller organizations and local conferences, such as the Texas Association of Biological Anthropology; Mountain, Desert, and Coastal Forensic Anthropology Conference; Midwest Bioarchaeology and Forensic Anthropology Conference; and Forest, Lakes, and Grasslands Forensic Anthropologists Conference, provide opportunities for networking and presenting closer to home, and, typically, at a much lower cost. However, because, by nature, these conferences are smaller, they are often thought not to provide as much of an opportunity to connect with anthropologists outside of a specific geographic region as larger conferences are and are, as a result, often overlooked. Encouraging students to see the value (not only financially) of attending these smaller meetings can help build connections not only within their home region but can act as links in a chain to peers and colleagues outside of that area by widening their available network while reducing the financial expectations of larger conferences;
- Payment plans. Spurred on by the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an increase in merchants and companies who offer payment plans for large purchases. Companies such as PayPal , Affirm , and Klarna  provide no-interest plans that can be split into four equal payments and paid in two-week intervals, allowing an individual to break a large expense into more manageable amounts. Particularly, for registration fees or membership dues, allowing payments by methods other than credit or debit would help relieve the financial shock that these expenses cause, particularly for individuals with less expendable income. Given that many students and early career professionals are expected to be a part of, and active in, many different professional organizations, providing payment options would go a long way to support or facilitate that. Considering that most professional organizations have dues invoices sent at the same time of year, and depending on how many organizations you are part of, this can add up quickly. Similarly, given that conference registration fees can vary wildly from USD 80 for student participants to USD 600 for non-member attendees, the financial burden of some conferences is unreasonable. Add on the fact that registration fees do not include workshops, luncheons, or career fairs, the cost to attend and reap the full benefits of these experiences is out of reach for some individuals. Providing the ability for participants to lessen the tremendous financial shock they experience at one time provides an avenue to make these meetings more accessible all around.
- Journal fees and data sharing. For individuals attached to universities or applied institutions that have subscriptions to journals, access to current research in the field (or even past research) is largely obtainable. Not every university or organization will have access to every journal, but just having the ability to read and download articles from any journal is integral to advancement in this field. Many researchers do their best to provide their own papers for free on websites such as Academia.edu and ResearchGate, but that is not always an option, particularly for older research. Many journals provide limited options for access if you are not a member of the organization they are attached to or have a subscription through your institution. For example, the Journal of Forensic Science offers three options for accessing articles that are behind a paywall : 48 h limited access, which allows an individual unlimited views of a single article for 48 h, but articles cannot be downloaded or printed; online access only, which allows for unlimited viewing of the article at any point, but articles cannot be downloaded or printed; and PDF download and online access, which allows for unlimited online viewing of an article and the ability to print and download. The cost for article access ranges from USD 12 to USD 49 for a single article. An annual online subscription is USD 392/year and only includes the volumes published during the subscription year, not previous issues. If a researcher is trying to find older research on a relevant topic or is studying for a certification exam, the financial requirement to do so is a significant barrier to many, if not most, early career professionals. Providing cheaper subscription options; widening the benefits of journal subscriptions to include things like downloads or back issues; increasing the scope of websites such as JSTOR , which provide a certain number of free article downloads a year; and finding ways to reduce the cost of open-access publishing would help balance the cost/benefit scale and make research more accessible to a wider audience.
- Changing how we, as a field, define “success.” A reliance on GPA or GRE test scores to define educational success has a myriad of issues related to all areas of diversity, inclusion, and accessibility that are beyond the scope of this paper. However, understanding that lower GPAs or poor test scores do not equate to failure and are not a great metric for determining stipend and funding disbursement can help lay the groundwork for increasing inclusion and making graduate school, in particular, more accessible. This is not a call to completely disregard GPA or GRE test scores when making decisions on school admittance, but a recommendation for redistributing how different factors are weighed when it comes to an evaluation rubric, which can help increase diversity within postsecondary and graduate institutions. Redefining what constitutes a successful applicant can widen the diversity of these programs taking into account background and circumstance and, ultimately, help encourage a larger, more diverse applicant pool. An increase in the diversity of who is accepted into a graduate program will have downstream effects for increasing the diversity of anthropologists as a whole, both in academia and for applied positions.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Tallman, S.D.; George, R.L.; Baide, A.J.; Bouderdben, F.A.; Craig, A.E.; Garcia, S.S.; Go, M.C.; Goliath, J.R.; Miller, E.; Pilloud, M.A. Barriers to Entry and Success in Forensic Anthropology. Am. Anthr. 2022, 124, 580–596. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tallman, S.D.; Stubblefield, P.R.; Anton, S.C. Introduction to the Forensic Anthropology Special Issue on Diversity and Inclusion. Forensic Anthr. 2022, 5, 79–83. [Google Scholar]
- Tallman, S.D. Opinion: The Forensic Sciences Have a Diversity, Inclusion Problem. Forensic: On the Scene and in the Lab 2020. Available online: https://www.forensicmag.com/569912-Opinion-The-Forensic-Sciences-Have-a-Diversity-Inclusion-Problem/ (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Winburn, A.P.; Tallman, S.D.; Scott, A.L.; Bird, C.E. Changing the Mentorship Paradigm Survey Data and Interpretations from Forensic Anthropology Practitioners. Forensic Anthr. 2021, 5, 115–132. [Google Scholar]
- Tallman, S.D.; Bird, C.E. Diversity and Inclusion in Forensic Anthropology Where We Stand and Prospects for the Future. Forensic Anthr. 2022, 5, 84–101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Diversity Outreach Committee. Available online: https://www.aafs.org/diversity-outreach-committee (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Society for American Archeology. Statement and Commitments from SAA Editors to Change the Underrepresentation of Black, Indigenous, and Other Scholars from Diverse Backgrounds in Our Publications. Available online: https://www.saa.org/quick-nav/saa-media-room/saa-news/2020/07/01/statement-and-commitments-from-saa-editors-to-change-underrepresentation (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- American Anthropological Association. Members’ Programmatic, Advisory, and Advocacy Committee (MPAAC)-Participate & Advocate. Available online: https://www.americananthro.org/mpaac (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- American Association of Biological Anthropologists. Diversity. Available online: https://bioanth.org/about/committees/diversity/ (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Yim, A.-D.; Juarez, J.; Goliath, J.; Melado, I. Drawing Parallels: Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) Representation in Other Medicolegal Fields. In Proceedings of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences Conference, Seattle, WA, USA, 21–25 February 2022. [Google Scholar]
- Chu, E.Y.; Yuki, N.; Go, M.C. Homework for Modern Forensic Anthropologists. In Proceedings of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences Conference, Seattle, WA, USA, 21–25 February 2022. [Google Scholar]
- Anton, S.C.; Malhim, R.S.; Fuentes, A. Race and diversity in U.S. Biological Anthropology: A decade of AAPA initiatives. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 2018, 165, 158–180. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Bolnick, D.A.; Smith, R.W.A.; Fuentes, A. Vital Topics Forum: How Academic Diversity is Transforming Scientific Knowledge in Biological Anthropology. Am. Anthr. 2019, 121, 464–496. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Brodkin, K.; Morgen, S.; Hutchinson, J. Anthropology as White Public Space? Am. Anthr. 2019, 113, 545–556. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Go, M.C.; Chu, E.Y.; Yukyi, N.; Yim, A.; Dwyer, A.E.; Craig, J.R.; Goliath, J.R.; Clemmons, C.M.J.; Ramos, T.; Nesbitt, A.; et al. Pioneers of Color: Diversifying the Pantheon of Forensic Anthropology Luminaries. In Proceedings of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences Conference, Seattle, WA, USA, 21–25 February 2022. [Google Scholar]
- Goliath, J.R.; Go, M.C.; Nesbitt, A.; Young, A.J.; Garcia, S.S. A Counter-Pantheon to Forensic Anthropology’s Classic Luminaries. In Proceedings of the American Academy of Forensic Anthropologists Conference, Seattle, WA, USA, 21–25 February 2022. [Google Scholar]
- Dwyer, I.; Clemmons, C.M.J.; Turner-Byfield, E.; Goliath, J.R.; Nesbitt, A.; Clinton, C.; Isable, K. Back to Black: The Legacy and Contributions of Black Pioneers of the 20th Century. In Proceedings of the American Academy of Forensic Anthropologists Conference, Seattle, WA, USA, 21–25 February 2022. [Google Scholar]
- Runyan, A.S.; American Association of University Professors. What is Intersectionality and Why Is It Important? Available online: https://www.aaup.org/article/what-intersectionality-and-why-it-important#.ZBI9rnZuhhF (accessed on 1 March 2023).
- Bécares, L.; Priest, N. Understanding the Influence of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Class on Inequalities in Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes among Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from an Intersectionality Approach. PLoS ONE 2015, 10, e0141363. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Zhang, W.; Koshmanova, T. Understanding the impact of race, socioeconomic status on student achievement for secondary school students. Int. J. Educ. Hum. Dev. 2020, 6, 5–10. [Google Scholar]
- Morgan, A.C.; LaBerge, N.; Larremore, D.B.; Galesic, M.; Brand, J.E.; Clauset, A. Socioeconomic roots of academic faculty. Nat. Hum. Behav. 2022, 6, 1625–1633. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sirin, S.R. Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytical Review of Research. Rev. Educ. Res. 2005, 75, 417–453. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bowen, W.G.; Kurzweil, M.A.; Tobin, E.M.; Pichler, S.C. Equity and Excellence in American Higher Education; University of Virginia Press: Charlottesville, VA, USA, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Solovey, M. Social Science for What? Battles over Public Funding for the “Other Sciences” at the National Science Foundation; MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Paul-Hus, A.; Diaz-Faes, A.A.; Sainte-Marie, M.; Desrochers, N.; Costas, R.; Lariviere, V. Beyond Funding: Acknowledgement Patterns in Biomedical, Natural and Social Sciences. PLoS ONE 2017, 12, e0185578. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Klebnikov, S. Liberal Arts vs. STEM: The Right Degrees, The Wrong Debate. Forbes, 2015. Available online: https://www.forbes.com/sites/sergeiklebnikov/2015/06/19/liberal-arts-vs-stem-the-right-degrees-the-wrong-debate/?sh=62aa8a3c7bbe(accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Flaherty, C. Inside Higher ED, Making the Case for Liberal Arts. Available online: https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2013/06/19/new-academy-arts-and-sciences-report-stresses-importance-humanities-and-social (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Gaddis, S.M. The Century Foundation, Restricting Liberal Arts: A Dangerous Higher Education Policy. Available online: https://tcf.org/content/commentary/restricting-liberal-arts-a-dangerous-higher-education-policy/ (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Newfield, C.J.; Humanities Commons. The Humanities Crisis Is a Funding Crisis. Available online: https://president.mla.hcommons.org/2022/08/10/the-humanities-crisis-is-a-funding-crisis/ (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Hanson, M. Education Data Initiative, College Tuition Inflation Rate. Available online: https://educationdata.org/college-tuition-inflation-rate (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- National Center for Education Statistics. Average and Percentiles of Graduate Tuition and Required Fees in Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions, by Control of Institution: 1989–90 through 2020–21. Available online: https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d21/tables/dt21_330.50.asp (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Kerr, E.; Wood, S. A Look at College Tuition Growth over 20 Years. News & World Report, 2022. Available online: https://www.usnews.com/education/best-colleges/paying-for-college/articles/see-20-years-of-tuition-growth-at-national-universities(accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Nelson, G.R.; Wolniak, G.C.; George, C.E. American Educational Research Association, Study Snapshot: Unmasking College Costs: Challenges in the Era of Differential Tuition Practices. Available online: https://www.aera.net/Newsroom/News-Releases-and-Statements/Study-Snapshot-Unmasking-College-Costs-Challenges-in-the-Era-of-Differential-Tuition-Practices (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- American Psychological Association. Ethnic and Racial Minorities & Socioeconomic Status. Available online: https://www.apa.org/pi/ses/resources/publications/minorities (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- National Center for Education Statistics. Fast Facts: Enrollment (98). Available online: https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=98 (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- National Center for Education Statistics. Fast Facts: Degrees Conferred by Race/Ethnicity and Sex (72). Available online: https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=72 (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Perry, A.M.; Steinbaum, M.; Romer, C. Brookings, Report: Student Loans, the Racial Wealth Divide, and Why We Need Full Student Debt Cancellation. Available online: https://www.brookings.edu/research/student-loans-the-racial-wealth-divide-and-why-we-need-full-student-debt-cancellation/ (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Canchola, A.; Frotman, S.; Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. The Significant Impact of Student Debt on Communities of Color. Available online: https://www.consumerfinance.gov/about-us/blog/significant-impact-student-debt-communities-color/ (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Jimenez, D.; Glater, J.D. Student Debt is a Civil Rights Issue: The Case for Debt Relief and Higher Education Reform. Harv. CR-CLL Rev. 2020, 55, 131–198. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mulig, L. The High Cost of Graduate School Loans: Lesson in Cost Benefit Analysis, Budgeting and Payback Periods. Acad. Account. Financ. Stud. J. 2014, 18, 56. [Google Scholar]
- Bureau of Labor Statistics. Anthropologists and Archeologists. Available online: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/anthropologists-and-archeologists.htm (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- American Anthropological Association. Becoming an Anthropologist. Available online: https://www.americananthro.org/LearnAndTeach/ResourceDetail.aspx?ItemNumber=13044 (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Passalacqua, N.V.; Garvin, H.M. Experiences in applying to and attending biological anthropology programs focused on human skeletal biology. Forensic Anthr. 2018, 1, 201–214. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- ETS. The GRE Tests. Available online: https://www.ets.org/gre/test-takers.html (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Heath-Stout, L.E.; Hannigan, E.M. Affording Archeology: How Field School Costs Promote Exclusivity. Adv. Archaeol. Pract. 2020, 8, 123–133. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Eide, E.; Brewer, D.J.; Ehrenberg, R.G. Does It Pay to Attend an Elite Private College? Evidence on the Effects of Undergraduate College Quality on Graduate School Attendance. Econ. Educ. Rev. 1998, 17, 371–376. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Speakman, R.J.; Hadden, C.S.; Colvin, M.H.; Cramb, J.; Jones, K.C.; Jones, T.W.; Lulewicz, I.; Napora, K.G.; Reinberger, K.L.; Ritchison, B.T.; et al. Market share and recent hiring trends in anthropology faculty positions. PLoS ONE 2018, 13, e0202528. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Roosa, T. Examining Predictors of Professional Master Degree Completion at a Highly Diverse Research University; University of Houston: Houston, TX, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Keane, H. Join Us for Drinks: Intoxication, Work, and Academic Conferences. In Routledge Handbook of Intoxicants and Intoxication; Hunt, G., Antin, T., Frank, V.A., Eds.; Taylor and Francis: Abingdon, UK, 2022. [Google Scholar]
- Cabana, G.S. Proceedings of the 88th Business Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Am. J. Phys. Anthr. 2019, 171, 361–402. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Edwards, K.J.; Hershberger, P.J.; Russell, R.K.; Markert, R.J. Stress, Negative Social Exchange, and Health Symptoms in University Students. J. Am. Coll. Health 2001, 50, 75–79. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- U.S. Travel Association. Travel Price Index. Available online: https://www.ustravel.org/research/travel-price-index (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Whitmore, G. Increase in Travel Is Causing Travel Prices to Rise. Forbes, 2021. Available online: https://www.forbes.com/sites/geoffwhitmore/2021/05/27/increase-in-travel-is-causing-travel-prices-to-rise/?sh=632d48e074c1(accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Thomas, I. Why Marriott, Hilton and Hyatt Say Hotel Prices Are Only Going Up. CNBC, 2022. Available online: https://www.cnbc.com/2022/06/11/why-marriott-hilton-and-hyatt-say-hotel-prices-are-only-going-up.html(accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Twenge, J.M.; Stacy, M.C. Generation differences in psychological traits and their impact on the workplace. J. Manag. Psychol. 2008, 23, 862–877. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sotak, K.L.; Serban, A.; Friedman, B.A.; Palanski, M. Perceptions of Ethicality: The Role of Attire Style, Appropriateness, and Context. J. Bus. Eth. 2023. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Danziger, P.N. Fashion Retailers Welcome the Rise In Clothing Prices But The Industry’s Recovery Remains Tenuous. Forbes, 2021. Available online: https://www.forbes.com/sites/pamdanziger/2021/08/05/fashion-retailers-welcome-the-rise-in-clothing-prices-but-the-industrys-recovery-remains-tenuous/?sh=35b275154a91(accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Repko, M. People Are Paying More for Clothes Even as Retailers Like Walmart and Gap Mark down Prices to Cut Inventory. CNBC, 2022. Available online: https://www.cnbc.com/2022/07/13/inflation-apparel-prices-remain-high-even-as-retailers-try-to-clear-inventory.html(accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Nova, A. Finally Heading Back to the Office? How to Buy New Work Clothes on a Budget. CNBC, 2022. Available online: https://www.cnbc.com/2022/04/26/as-office-hours-return-how-to-buy-new-work-clothes-on-a-budget-.html(accessed on 29 April 2023).
- Premack, R. This Is Exactly How Much You Should Spend on a Professional Wardrobe Each Month. Available online: https://www.businessinsider.com/how-much-do-i-spend-on-clothes-how-to-clothes-budget-2018-7 (accessed on 29 April 2023).
- Hess, A.J. New Study Finds that 36% of College Students Don’t Have Enough to Eat. CNBC Make it. Available online: https://www.cnbc.com/2018/04/06/new-study-finds-that-36-percent-of-college-students-dont-have-enough-to-eat.html (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Thoelke, O. Feeding America. Why College Students Face Hunger. Available online: https://www.feedingamerica.org/hunger-blog/why-college-students-face-hunger (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Ballentine, C.; Egkolfopoulou, M. College Students Face Costlier Rent, Food Even as Tuition Soars. Bloomberg, 2022. Available online: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2022-08-17/can-t-afford-rent-college-students-tap-parents-buy-rvs-for-housing(accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Pentecost, R.; Andrews, L. Fashion retailing and the bottom line: The effects of generational cohorts, gender, fashion fanship, attitudes and impulse buying on fashion expenditure. J. Retail. Consum. Serv. 2010, 17, 43–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Freestone, C. A Deeper Look at How Men’s and Women’s Fashion Differ. Coveteur, 2020. Available online: https://coveteur.com/2020/10/02/mens-womens-fashion-differences/(accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Pierre-Louis, K. How to Buy Clothes That Are Built to Last. New York Times, 2019. Available online: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/climate/sustainable-clothing.html(accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Bureau of Labor Statistics. Food and Beverage. Available online: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/food-preparation-and-serving/food-and-beverage-serving-and-related-workers.htm (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- National Institutes of Health. Allowable and Unallowable Costs. Available online: https://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/nihgps/html5/section_14/14.10_allowable_and_unallowable_costs.htm (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Society for American Archeology. Meeting Access Grants. Available online: https://www.saa.org/annual-meeting/registration-info (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Delisle, J.; Cohn, J. Master’s Degree Debt and Earnings; Urban Institute Center on Education Data and Policy Research Report: Washington, DC, USA, 2022; pp. 1–48. [Google Scholar]
- Navarro, T. But Some of Us Are Broke: Race, Gender, and the Neoliberalization of the Academy. Am. Anthr. 2017, 119, 506–517. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wiley. Author Services. Available online: https://authorservices.wiley.com/author-resources/Journal-Authors/open-access/article-publication-charges.html (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Elsevier. Pricing. Available online: https://www.elsevier.com/about/policies/pricing (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Solomon, D.J.; Björk, B.C. Publication fees in open access publishing: Sources of funding and factors influencing choice of journal. J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. Technol. 2012, 63, 98–107. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- National Center for Education Statistics. Fast Facts: Race/Ethnicity of College Faculty. Available online: https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=61 (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Passalacqua, N.V. Are careers in biological anthropology sustainable? Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 2018, 166, 772–776. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Glassdoor. Available online: https://www.glassdoor.com/Job/index.htm (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Available online: https://www.bls.gov/ (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Adjunct Professor of Sociology and Anthropology Salary. Available online: https://www.comparably.com/salaries/salaries-for-adjunct-professor-of-sociology-and-anthropology (accessed on 9 April 2023).
- The American Board of Forensic Anthropology. Certification. Available online: https://www.theabfa.org/ (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- FORDISC 3.1 Personal Computer Forensic Discriminant Function. Available online: https://fac.utk.edu/fordisc-3-1-personal-computer-forensic-discriminant-functions/ (accessed on 9 April 2023).
- The Register of Professional Archeologists. How to Apply. Available online: https://rpanet.org/how-to-apply (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Sutherland, K.A. Constructions of success in academia: An early career perspective. Stud. High. Educ. 2017, 42, 743–759. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gardner, S.K. Conceptualizing Success in Doctoral Education: Perspectives of Faculty in Seven Disciplines. Rev. High. Educ. 2009, 32, 383–406. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- O’Shea, S.; Delahunty, J. Getting through the day and still having a smile on my face! How do students define success in the university learning environment? High. Educ. Res. Dev. 2018, 37, 1062–1075. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- American Association of Biological Anthropologists. 92nd Annual Meeting, Reno, Nevada (2023). Available online: https://bioanth.org/meetings-and-webinars/annual-meeting-2023/ (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- PayPal. Buy Now, Pay Later. Available online: https://www.paypal.com/us/digital-wallet/ways-to-pay/buy-now-pay-later/ (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Shop Pay. About Shop Pay Installments. Available online: https://shoppay.affirm.com/s/article/about-sp (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Klarna. What is Klarna. Available online: https://www.klarna.com/us/what-is-klarna/ (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- Wiley Online Library. Journal of Forensic Sciences. Available online: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/15564029 (accessed on 3 March 2023).
- JSTOR. Available online: http://www.jstor.org (accessed on 3 March 2023).
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.
© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Tegtmeyer Hawke, R.; Hulse, C.N. Behind the Velvet Rope: Exclusivity and Accessibility in Biological Anthropology. Humans 2023, 3, 64-81. https://doi.org/10.3390/humans3020008
Tegtmeyer Hawke R, Hulse CN. Behind the Velvet Rope: Exclusivity and Accessibility in Biological Anthropology. Humans. 2023; 3(2):64-81. https://doi.org/10.3390/humans3020008Chicago/Turabian Style
Tegtmeyer Hawke, Rylan, and Cortney N. Hulse. 2023. "Behind the Velvet Rope: Exclusivity and Accessibility in Biological Anthropology" Humans 3, no. 2: 64-81. https://doi.org/10.3390/humans3020008