Next Issue
Volume 3, September
Previous Issue
Volume 3, March
 
 

Phycology, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 7 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
12 pages, 4197 KiB  
Communication
Cultivation of Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris in Open Reactor for Bioethanol Production
by Graziella Silva, Keilla Cerqueira, Jacqueline Rodrigues, Karollyna Silva, Diego Coelho and Roberto Souza
Phycology 2023, 3(2), 325-336; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3020021 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2391
Abstract
Microalgae have a high growth rate, high CO2 absorption capacity, and high content of chlorophyll, proteins, vitamins, mineral salts, carbohydrates, antioxidant substances, and fatty acids. In recent years, Chlorella vulgaris has been widely used as a feedstock for producing third-generation biofuels, such [...] Read more.
Microalgae have a high growth rate, high CO2 absorption capacity, and high content of chlorophyll, proteins, vitamins, mineral salts, carbohydrates, antioxidant substances, and fatty acids. In recent years, Chlorella vulgaris has been widely used as a feedstock for producing third-generation biofuels, such as bioethanol. Thus, this work aims to develop a strategy to increase the production scale of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris grown in distilled reused water, supplemented with a modified BG-11 medium, to use biomass in the production of bioethanol. The total cultivation of 72 L presented a concentration of 0.415 g·L−1·d−1, with 61.32 g of final biomass. To improve carbohydrate extraction, the biomass was pre-treated with sulfuric acid at different concentrations (1.5% and 3% v/v). The hydrolyzed solution was supplemented with YPD (yeast extract peptone dextrose) medium and inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisae yeast, initiating fermentation. In each sample, the Brix degree, cell concentration, reducing sugar concentration, and alcohol content were analyzed. The sample pre-treated with sulfuric acid 1.5% v/v was the one that presented the best result, with alcohol content after distillation of 68 °GL (Gay-Lussac). It appears that the cultivation of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris in scale-up, with reused water, has high potential in the production of third-generation biofuel. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 7103 KiB  
Article
Morphological and Molecular Characterization of the Benthic Dinoflagellate Amphidinium from Coastal Waters of Mexico
by Lorena María Durán-Riveroll, Oscar E. Juárez, Yuri B. Okolodkov, Ana Luisa Mejía-Camacho, Fabiola Ramírez-Corona, Dania Casanova-Gracia, María del Carmen Osorio-Ramírez, Victor A. Cervantes-Urieta and Allan D. Cembella
Phycology 2023, 3(2), 305-324; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3020020 - 30 May 2023
Viewed by 1593
Abstract
The genus Amphidinium Clap. & J. Lachm. comprises a high diversity of planktonic and benthic (epiphytic and sand-dwelling) dinoflagellates from marine and freshwater ecosystems. High morphological plasticity and vaguely defined genus characteristics (e.g., a small epicone size) have complicated the clear delineation of [...] Read more.
The genus Amphidinium Clap. & J. Lachm. comprises a high diversity of planktonic and benthic (epiphytic and sand-dwelling) dinoflagellates from marine and freshwater ecosystems. High morphological plasticity and vaguely defined genus characteristics (e.g., a small epicone size) have complicated the clear delineation of species boundaries. Although six Amphidinium morphospecies have been reported from Mexican coastal waters, species identifications are uncertain and not generally supported by molecular phylogenetic data. In this study, seven isolates of Amphidinium from diverse benthic coastal locations on the NE Pacific, Gulf of California, and southern Gulf of Mexico were subjected to critical morphological analysis using photonic and scanning electron microscopy. The phylogenetic reconstruction was based on nuclear-encoded, partial large-subunit (LSU) rDNA and internal transcribed spacer I and II (ITS1 and ITS2) sequences. The revised phylogenetic analysis was consistent with the traditional subdivision of the genus Amphidinium into two sister groups: Herdmanii and Operculatum clades. This study provided the first confirmed records of A. theodorei and A. massartii from coastal waters of Mexico. The molecular phylogenetic evidence indicated that the morphologically described A. cf. carterae from Baja California was in fact more closely allied with A. eilatiensis sequences. A few Amphidinium species are known to form toxigenic (i.e., fish-killing) harmful algal blooms worldwide, and therefore knowledge on species diversity and biogeography is critical in developing effective strategies for evaluating the potential emerging threat in Mexican coastal waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Harmful Microalgae)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2459 KiB  
Article
Assessing Diatom Community Dynamics in a Recovering Agricultural Stream in Middle Georgia, USA
by Sydney Brown and Kalina M. Manoylov
Phycology 2023, 3(2), 294-304; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3020019 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
Streams play vital roles in surrounding communities and provide essential ecosystem services. The protection of streams is important, they are legally protected under the Clean Water Act, and they can be monitored through the continuous analyses of biological data, such as algal or [...] Read more.
Streams play vital roles in surrounding communities and provide essential ecosystem services. The protection of streams is important, they are legally protected under the Clean Water Act, and they can be monitored through the continuous analyses of biological data, such as algal or other aquatic communities. The goals of this study were to analyze the long-term recovery of Tobler Creek, a recovering agricultural stream on the site of a National Historic Landmark, and yield comparisons to a local low-impact stream, Murder Creek, located within the Oconee National Forest. In 2011, Tobler Creek exceeded reference criteria values for total phosphorus (TP) but met the nitrate nitrogen criteria. With an 11-year recovery period, Tobler Creek met both nutrient reference criteria. In 2022, periphyton samples were collected according to standard protocols, confirming that diatoms are the dominant algal group in the community. With recovery, Tobler Creek showed an increase in diatom species richness (χ2 = 116.11, df = 5, p < 0.01) but this was significantly lower than the values documented in Murder Creek. The multi-metric index (MMI), calculated using diatom community analysis to estimate ecological health, indicated that Tobler Creek experienced degradation from 2011 to 2022 (χ2 = 55.97, df = 5, p < 0.05) and is below the regional 25th percentile. The percentage of sediment-tolerant taxa (surirelloid, naviculoid, and nitzschoid) was significantly higher in Tobler Creek in 2022 (χ2 = 500.96, df = 5, p < 0.01) compared to Murder Creek in 2022 (t = −4.67, df = 10, p < 0.01). Despite a reduction in nutrients given the 42-year recovery period, the diatom community in Tobler Creek was significantly different than other regional protected streams. Ecological degradation of the habitat was likely driven by sedimentation due to run-off in the recovering agriculture stream. These findings highlight the importance of protecting water quality, as the recovery of nutrients can be a decades-long process overlayed with many potentially new stressors influencing aquatic organisms. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1785 KiB  
Article
Growth of the Macroalgae Ulva lactuca Cultivated at Different Depths in a Biofloc Integrated System with Shrimp and Fish
by Andrezza Carvalho, Léa Carolina de Oliveira Costa, Mariana Holanda, Mayra Gonçalves, Jorge Santos, César S. B. Costa, Gamze Turan and Luís H. Poersch
Phycology 2023, 3(2), 280-293; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3020018 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2312
Abstract
The constant production of solids in intensive shrimp and tilapia culture can affect the performance of macroalgae when cultivated in an integrated system, and little is known about culture structures that enhance the performance of macroalgae in biofloc systems. The objective of this [...] Read more.
The constant production of solids in intensive shrimp and tilapia culture can affect the performance of macroalgae when cultivated in an integrated system, and little is known about culture structures that enhance the performance of macroalgae in biofloc systems. The objective of this work was to evaluate different depths of culture structure for the macroalgae Ulva lactuca in an integrated system with Litopenaeus vannamei and Oreochromis niloticus in a biofloc system. The experiment lasted 70 days, with six systems composed of: a 16 m3 shrimp tank, a 3 m3 tilapia tank, and a 3 m3 macroalgae tank, with water recirculation between tanks. Two treatments were carried out, shallow float, with a structural depth of 10 cm, and bottom float, where the depth was kept at 30 cm from the surface. The shallow float resulted in a growth rate of up to 0.95 ± 0.54% day−1, with biomass loss only at the end of the culture due to the high density of macroalgae, decreasing temperature, and increasing solids concentration. The bottom float had biomass loss throughout the culture cycle. The integrated culture of shrimp, fish, and macroalgae is feasible with the use of shallow floats within 10 cm from the surface. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1291 KiB  
Communication
Seasonal Response of Major Phytoplankton Groups to Environmental Variables along the Campeche Coast, Southern Gulf of Mexico
by Juan Alfredo Gómez-Figueroa, Jaime Rendón-von Osten, Carlos Antonio Poot-Delgado, Ricardo Dzul-Caamal and Yuri B. Okolodkov
Phycology 2023, 3(2), 270-279; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3020017 - 09 May 2023
Viewed by 1277
Abstract
To describe the seasonal response of the major phytoplankton groups to environmental variables along the Campeche coast, southeastern Gulf of Mexico, seven shallow-water (ca. 1 m) stations were monitored from January 2019 to January 2020. Orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and silicate were measured. [...] Read more.
To describe the seasonal response of the major phytoplankton groups to environmental variables along the Campeche coast, southeastern Gulf of Mexico, seven shallow-water (ca. 1 m) stations were monitored from January 2019 to January 2020. Orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and silicate were measured. Several tests, including ANOVA, the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, Tukey TSD, Bartlett’s test and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), were applied. The physicochemical variables (temperature, salinity and pH) recorded are typical for the central coast of Campeche. Seasonal characteristics are affected by the shallowness of the study area. The variation of inorganic nutrient concentrations is likely to be related to specific polluting activities. While the abundance of phytoplankton presented a minimum value of 4.1 × 104 cells L−1 in March, the maximum value of 8.8 × 106 cells L−1 occurred in May; the general average was 5.3 × 105 cells L−1. Based on CCA, the correlation between major phytoplankton groups and physical–chemical variables was high (r ≈ 0.8), indicating a significant relationship. The CCA graphs separated the samples of diatoms by higher values of pH and silicate and separated the samples of cyanobacteria with high values of temperature (>30 °C) from the samples with dinoflagellates and nanoflagellates. Nanoflagellates were abundant in the samples with high values of ammonium and phosphate. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2477 KiB  
Article
Metabolome of Cadmium Stressed Gracilaria caudata (Rhodophyta)
by Luiza Araujo-Motta, Cicero Alves-Lima, Leonardo Zambotti-Vilella and Pio Colepicolo
Phycology 2023, 3(2), 255-269; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3020016 - 26 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1414
Abstract
We report here the effects of cadmium on the metabolome of the macroalga Gracilaria caudata. The IC50 of 3 mg/L (12 µM) was obtained after 48 hrs exposure and induced lower photosynthesis efficiency. Threshold concentrations determined by the Brazilian Environmental Council [...] Read more.
We report here the effects of cadmium on the metabolome of the macroalga Gracilaria caudata. The IC50 of 3 mg/L (12 µM) was obtained after 48 hrs exposure and induced lower photosynthesis efficiency. Threshold concentrations determined by the Brazilian Environmental Council (CONAMA) in marine waters (0.04 mg/L) and effluent discharge (0.2 mg/L) were also tested, and the latter changed photosynthetic efficiency similarly to IC50. A total of 43 metabolites were identified, including monosaccharides, carboxylic acids, and amino acids. By an unsupervised PCA, we identified significative alterations in the metabolome by the IC50. An OPLS-DA analysis showed that Cd2+ exposure caused the variation of 20 metabolites, mainly glyoxylate-related, ascorbate, floridoside and proline. Five metabolic pathways altered by Cd2+ showed an accumulation of amino acids, carbon metabolism intermediates and antioxidant responses to Cd2+. We recommend a review of the toxicity parameters and methods that guide environmental policies on cadmium levels in Brazilian marine waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Algae in Bioremediation of Heavy Metals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1106 KiB  
Article
Coolia Species (Dinophyceae) from the Tropical South Atlantic Region: Evidence of Harmfulness of Coolia cf. canariensis Phylogroup II
by Agatha Miralha, Silvia M. Nascimento and Raquel A. F. Neves
Phycology 2023, 3(2), 242-254; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3020015 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Benthic dinoflagellates of the Coolia genus have been associated with cytotoxicity and lethal and sublethal effects on marine species. This study aimed to assess the harmful effects of C. cf. canariensis phylogroup II (PII) and C. malayensis strains through bioassays. Experimental exposures (24, [...] Read more.
Benthic dinoflagellates of the Coolia genus have been associated with cytotoxicity and lethal and sublethal effects on marine species. This study aimed to assess the harmful effects of C. cf. canariensis phylogroup II (PII) and C. malayensis strains through bioassays. Experimental exposures (24, 48, and 72 h) of Artemia salina nauplii to Coolia species (330–54,531 cells mL−1) were performed independently. When a concentration-dependent response was achieved, additional experiments were carried out to evaluate the cell-free medium toxicity. The two Coolia species were harmful to Artemia nauplii, inducing significant mortality and sublethal responses. Coolia cf. canariensis PII was the most toxic species, inducing significant lethality at lower concentrations and shorter exposure times, followed by C. malayensis. Only the survival curves achieved after 24 and 48 h of exposure to C. cf. canariensis PII fitted to a concentration–response curve with valid LC50s of 18,064 and 19,968 cells mL−1, respectively. Moreover, extracellular compounds (i.e., culture filtrates) of C. cf. canariensis PII induced significant mortality to nauplii after 48 and 72 h. The toxicity of C. cf. canariensis PII was demonstrated for the first time using bioassays, and it was surprisingly higher than that of the C. malayensis strain, which was previously demonstrated to induce biological activity at the cellular and subcellular levels. Our findings highlight the harmful and lethal effects induced by Coolia cells and the importance of bioassays for toxicity assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Harmful Microalgae)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop