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Phycology, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 14 articles

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31 pages, 3133 KiB  
Review
Macroalgae Biorefinery for the Cosmetic Industry: Basic Concept, Green Technology, and Safety Guidelines
by Mariana de Sousa Santos Hempel, Pio Colepicolo and Leonardo Zambotti-Villela
Phycology 2023, 3(1), 211-241; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3010014 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3678
Abstract
With the growth in the number of people searching for ways to improve personal care, the consumer finds the solution in cosmetic products. However, this demand is currently made concomitantly with the demand for products of natural origin, including seaweed. Algae, in their [...] Read more.
With the growth in the number of people searching for ways to improve personal care, the consumer finds the solution in cosmetic products. However, this demand is currently made concomitantly with the demand for products of natural origin, including seaweed. Algae, in their composition, are full of bioactive compounds with several applications. Therefore, their insertion in cosmetics is evidenced in the high number of scientific studies, which makes this natural resource potentially useful for the cosmetic industry. From this, a review was conducted with the aim of highlighting some of these active compounds and the latent applicability and versatility of others. In addition, the best way to add to the production of these substances while staying in alignment with green consumption, the design of biorefineries, and the promising production of macroalgae on a large scale using green technologies was sought. Full article
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9 pages, 1693 KiB  
Communication
Extracts of Ulva lactuca Induce Responses against Penicillium digitatum on Oranges
by Douaa Salim, Josephine Al-Alam, Othmane Merah, Asma Chbani and Pascale de Caro
Phycology 2023, 3(1), 202-210; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3010013 - 19 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1550
Abstract
Penicillium digitatum causes severe damage to postharvest and stored citrus fruits, making it necessary to seek acceptable solutions limiting environmental and sanitary impacts. The seaweed liquid extracts (SLEs) obtained from the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca have previously shown anti-fungal activities towards postharvest green [...] Read more.
Penicillium digitatum causes severe damage to postharvest and stored citrus fruits, making it necessary to seek acceptable solutions limiting environmental and sanitary impacts. The seaweed liquid extracts (SLEs) obtained from the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca have previously shown anti-fungal activities towards postharvest green mold due to P. digitatum. Moreover, treatment with aqueous and ethanolic extracts had an influence on disease incidence and lesion severity on wounded oranges “Valentia late”. Therefore, we studied the abilities of the U. lactuca extracts and chlorophyll a (as a standard) to activate defense mechanisms in oranges. The analyses showed modifications in the protein concentrations and activities of β-1,3-glucanase and peroxidase in orange tissues, with a maximum activity level reached at 72 h after treatments. It appears that the SLEs were able to fight P. digitatum infections in the absence of direct contact with the pathogen, reflecting that the induction of host resistance is also a probable mode of action. Ulva lactuca fractions are rich in chlorophyll a, polyphenols, organic acids and ulvans, which might be the key molecules involved in the defense mechanism of oranges’ albedo. The use of these natural substances could be an alternative way to control postharvest citrus rot. Full article
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16 pages, 1566 KiB  
Review
Potential Role of Spirogyra sp. and Chlorella sp. in Bioremediation of Mine Drainage: A Review
by Ângelo Almeida, João Cotas, Leonel Pereira and Paula Carvalho
Phycology 2023, 3(1), 186-201; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3010012 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4618
Abstract
One of the biggest global challenges in the mining industry is managing the risks associated with contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) resulting from their activity. The oxidation of sulfides is the main cause of polluted mine drainage through the leaching of PTEs [...] Read more.
One of the biggest global challenges in the mining industry is managing the risks associated with contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) resulting from their activity. The oxidation of sulfides is the main cause of polluted mine drainage through the leaching of PTEs from mine waste and mine galleries to the water systems. Mine drainage can be highly acidic and often has a high concentration of PTEs, particularly arsenic, one of the environment’s most toxic elements. PTEs endanger the ecosystem’s equilibrium and raise worries about human and animal health. Some species of algae which can be naturally present in mine drainage waters, such as Spirogyra sp. And Chlorella sp., have a high capacity for absorbing PTEs from wastewater and may thrive in harsh environments. As a result, algal-based systems in bioremediation were studied and carefully analyzed, since their capacity to remove heavy metals and hazardous contaminants from polluted mine water have already been shown in previous studies. Biofuels derived from microalgal biomasses are a viable alternative to fossil fuels that can lead to a circular bioeconomy. This study reviews and analyses Chlorophyta-based bioremediation systems with application to mine waters focusing on Spirogyra sp. and Chlorella sp., since they are naturally present in mine drainage and can serve as a study model to better understand their application in bioremediation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Algae in Bioremediation of Heavy Metals)
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18 pages, 2915 KiB  
Article
Effect of Iron Availability on the Growth and Microcystin Content of Natural Populations of Microcystis spp. from Reservoirs in Central Argentina: A Microcosm Experiment Approach
by Silvana Raquel Halac, Ana Laura Ruibal-Conti, Luciana del Valle Mengo, Florencia Ullmer, Aldana Cativa, Raquel Bazan and Maria Ines Rodriguez
Phycology 2023, 3(1), 168-185; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3010011 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
The eutrophication of aquatic systems is a problem related to the contribution of excess nutrients—phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)—to water bodies, which produces an increase in cyanobacterial blooms. Under eutrophic conditions, P and N concentrations are sufficient for cyanobacteria growth, and some micronutrients [...] Read more.
The eutrophication of aquatic systems is a problem related to the contribution of excess nutrients—phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)—to water bodies, which produces an increase in cyanobacterial blooms. Under eutrophic conditions, P and N concentrations are sufficient for cyanobacteria growth, and some micronutrients are considered to become limiting for population growth. This work aimed to assess the effect of iron on cyanobacteria growth and the content of MCs in natural populations of Microcystis spp. Microcosm setting experiments were carried out with natural samples collected during two bloom events of Microcystis spp., kept under controlled light, temperature and pH conditions. The first bloom sample was exposed to different iron concentrations (400, 700 and 1100 µg Fe·L−1) to determine the optimum concentration for growth. The second was exposed to different iron addition modes (one: T1P, and two pulses: T2P) to imitate the iron increase produced by the downward migration of Microcystis spp. colonies. Our results show that iron is a growth-promoting factor and that its optimal range of concentrations for the growth of Microcystis spp. under the experimental setting conditions is between 700 and 1100 µg Fe·L−1. On the other hand, growth rates were not significantly different between T1P and T2P; thus, different addition modes did not have an effect on growth. Regarding microcystin content, the MC quota in natural populations of Microcystis spp. did not show a clear relationship with the iron supply. This work contributes to the understanding of the underlying factors affecting cyanobacteria bloom formation and the production of MCs, which in turn would impact the development of management strategies to control cyanobacteria blooms. Full article
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21 pages, 1827 KiB  
Review
Lacustrine Cyanobacteria, Algal Blooms and Cyanotoxins in East Africa: Implications for Human and Ecological Health Protection
by Timothy Omara, Christine Betty Nagawa, Christine Kyarimpa, Stefan Böhmdorfer, Thomas Rosenau, Solomon Omwoma Lugasi, Henry Matovu, Silver Odongo and Patrick Ssebugere
Phycology 2023, 3(1), 147-167; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3010010 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3013
Abstract
Advected cyanobacteria, algal blooms and cyanotoxins have been increasingly detected in freshwater ecosystems. This review gives an insight into the present state of knowledge on the taxonomy, dynamics, toxic effects, human and ecological health implications of cyanobacteria, algal blooms and cyanotoxins in the [...] Read more.
Advected cyanobacteria, algal blooms and cyanotoxins have been increasingly detected in freshwater ecosystems. This review gives an insight into the present state of knowledge on the taxonomy, dynamics, toxic effects, human and ecological health implications of cyanobacteria, algal blooms and cyanotoxins in the East African Community lakes. The major toxigenic microalgae in East African lakes include Microcystis, Arthrospira, Dolichospermum, Planktolyngbya and Anabaenopsis species. Anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a, microcystins (MCs), cylindrospermopsin and nodularin have been quantified in water from below method detection limits to 81 µg L−1, with peak concentrations characteristically reported for the wet season. In whole fish, gut, liver and muscles, MCs have been found at concentrations of 2.4 to 1479.24 μg kg−1, which can pose human health risks to a daily consumer. While there have been no reported cases of cyanotoxin-related poisoning in humans, MCs and anatoxin-a (up to 0.0514 μg kg−1) have been identified as the proximal cause of indiscriminate fish kills and epornitic mortality of algivorous Phoeniconaias minor (lesser flamingos). With the unequivocal increase in climate change and variability, algal blooms and cyanotoxins will increase in frequency and severity, and this will necessitate swift action towards the mitigation of nutrient-rich pollutants loading into lakes in the region. Full article
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9 pages, 1185 KiB  
Communication
The Effect of Temperature on the Growth of Holopelagic Sargassum Species
by Edén Magaña-Gallegos, Eva Villegas-Muñoz, Evelyn Raquel Salas-Acosta, M. Guadalupe Barba-Santos, Rodolfo Silva and Brigitta I. van Tussenbroek
Phycology 2023, 3(1), 138-146; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3010009 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4068
Abstract
Holopelagic Sargassum species have bloomed recurrently in the northern tropical Atlantic since 2011, causing socioeconomic and environmental problems. Little is known about their basic biology and responses to the abiotic environment. The aim of this study was to determine how temperature affects the [...] Read more.
Holopelagic Sargassum species have bloomed recurrently in the northern tropical Atlantic since 2011, causing socioeconomic and environmental problems. Little is known about their basic biology and responses to the abiotic environment. The aim of this study was to determine how temperature affects the growth rates of the genotypes S. fluitans III, S. natans I, and S. natans VIII that predominate in these blooms. The growth rates were evaluated in specially designed ex situ systems between 22 and 31 °C, which corresponds with the natural temperature range of these seaweeds in the northern tropical Atlantic. All the genotypes had decreased growth rates at 31 °C, and they varied in their response to temperature, with S. fluitans III presenting a maximal rate of 0.096 doublings· day−1 (doubling its weight in 10.5 d) at 28 °C and S. natans VIII a minimal rate of 0.045 doublings· day−1 (doubling its weight in 22.2 d) at 31 °C. In addition, the response to the temperature varied depending on the time of the year. Understanding the role of temperature in the growth of holopelagic Sargassum genotypes, amongst other factors influencing their physiology (such as nutrients, salinity tolerance, or light, including their interactions), could help to understand the dynamics of the recent blooms in the tropical North Atlantic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Sargassum Golden Tides, a Global Problem)
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11 pages, 1874 KiB  
Article
Monthly Variation in Mycosporine-like Amino Acids from Red Alga Dulse (Devaleraea inkyuleei, Formerly Palmaria palmata in Japan)
by Ryuya Yamamoto, Martin Alain Mune Mune, Yoshikatsu Miyabe, Hideki Kishimura and Yuya Kumagai
Phycology 2023, 3(1), 127-137; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3010008 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2013
Abstract
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are natural ultraviolet-absorbing compounds found in microalgae and macroalgae. MAA content changes seasonally and in response to environmental factors. We previously investigated MAAs from the red alga dulse (Devaleraea inkyuleei, formerly Palmaria palmata in Japan) in Usujiri, [...] Read more.
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are natural ultraviolet-absorbing compounds found in microalgae and macroalgae. MAA content changes seasonally and in response to environmental factors. We previously investigated MAAs from the red alga dulse (Devaleraea inkyuleei, formerly Palmaria palmata in Japan) in Usujiri, Hokkaido, Japan, from 2019 to 2020. At that time, some factors affecting MAA content were still unclear. In this study, we investigated MAA variation during the period from January to June 2021, and evaluated new methods of MAA extraction from dulse. We recorded a maximum MAA extraction yield (7.03 µmol/g dry weight) on 25 March 2021. Over the course of our three years of investigations from 2019 to 2021, we found that dulse was most suitable for MAA preparation from the middle of February to late April. In the later work reported in this paper, we improved our extraction method by using a lower-risk organic solvent (ethanol) rather than methanol. In addition, we evaluated MAA extraction using different levels of ethanol concentration (25, 50, and 99%) and different extraction times (2, 6, and 24 h). We found that extraction with 25% ethanol for 24 h increased MAA content by a factor of 3.2, compared with our previous extraction method. In summary, we determined the most suitable sampling period for Usujiri dulse, to extract the highest content of MAAs. We also improved the effectiveness of the extraction process. Full article
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21 pages, 2128 KiB  
Review
Legacy of “New Normal” Plastics and “New Nitrogen” in the Cyanotoxin Footprint in Mangrove Ecosystems
by Dilantha Gunawardana, Sashika Abeysiri and Pathmalal Manage
Phycology 2023, 3(1), 106-126; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3010007 - 7 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1748
Abstract
In a paradigm shift in plastic wastes due to the COVID-19 pandemic, wetlands such as mangroves are threatened by a new form of pollution, plastics, on top of the eutrophication of estuarine waters due to nitrogen and phosphorus wastes/effluents that lead to cyanobacterial [...] Read more.
In a paradigm shift in plastic wastes due to the COVID-19 pandemic, wetlands such as mangroves are threatened by a new form of pollution, plastics, on top of the eutrophication of estuarine waters due to nitrogen and phosphorus wastes/effluents that lead to cyanobacterial proliferation. Both plastic and nutrient pollution lead to prosperity of cyanotoxin-producing cyanobacteria that flourish in both and disperse leading to the detriment of fauna and flora in the mangrove ecosystem due to resulting toxicities. Although cyanotoxins are still a relatively poorly studied phenomenon in mangroves, their presence does create a focus of attention due to biofilm formation and the resultant flotation and sinking properties that are linked to cyanobacterial mats on plastic debris. Sri Lanka, being the first country in the world to conserve all its mangrove wetlands, does have a responsibility to prevent the invasion of plastics to this protected ecosystem, and binding with the Ramsar Convention, precluding plastic waste and their concomitant footprint, is a task at hand to the relative authorities. The path ahead mandates that we study the properties of plastics for cyanobacterial proliferation, biofilm formation, the fates of such plastics (flotation, dispersal and sinking), the cyanotoxin production changes that are attributed—or linked—to plastic pollution and the resultant impacts on mangrove ecosystems. Cyanotoxins are long-lived, and it is paramount that we find the necessary mechanisms to eliminate or curtail their production in mangrove ecosystems while establishing surveillance and monitoring of both the producers and the harmful agents. Cyanobacteria although vehicles for nitrogen fixation and replenishing of nutrients to an N-depleted ecosystem such as the mangroves, could lead to enhancements in cyanotoxins production. However, this phenomenon remains ambiguous and poorly studied in applied phycology in relation to mangroves. “New normal” plastics are lodged mostly on the surfaces of bark, prop roots, and pneumatophores, which are the localities where the highest level of new nitrogen is fixed, and this may lead to the proliferation of N-fixing, cyanotoxin-producing cyanobacteria, which may have repercussions on both flora and fauna of mangroves. Therefore, it is crucial that we monitor plastic pollution and find mechanisms for sanitizing plastics-imprinted mangroves to lessen the harmful footprint resulting from plastic overload. Full article
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27 pages, 5546 KiB  
Article
Morphological, Phylogenetic and Toxinological Characterization of Potentially Harmful Algal Species from the Marine Coastal Waters of Buenos Aires Province (Argentina)
by Jonás Adrián Tardivo Kubis, Francisco Rodríguez, Araceli E. Rossignoli, Pilar Riobó, Eugenia A. Sar and Inés Sunesen
Phycology 2023, 3(1), 79-105; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3010006 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2553
Abstract
In the framework of a monitoring program of harmful microalgae from the marine coastal waters of the Buenos Aires Province, seven strains were isolated and characterized by morphological and molecular analysis (LSU rDNA partial sequencing, D1–D3 regions). Established strains belonged to Alexandrium catenella [...] Read more.
In the framework of a monitoring program of harmful microalgae from the marine coastal waters of the Buenos Aires Province, seven strains were isolated and characterized by morphological and molecular analysis (LSU rDNA partial sequencing, D1–D3 regions). Established strains belonged to Alexandrium catenella, Protoceratium reticulatum and Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. The toxinological profile of the target strains were determined by UHPLC-FLD equipment for paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and LC-MS/MS for lipophilic (LSTs) and amnesic toxins (ASTs). The toxin profile varied in the four strains of A. catenella, the predominant compounds were gonyautoxins (GTXs) GTX2,3 and GTX1,4 for strains LPCc001 and LPCc004, and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins (Cs) C1,2 and GTX1,4 for strains LPCc002 and LPCc008. The obtained cellular toxicity values were moderate-to-high (12.38–46.40 pg saxitoxin equiv. cell−1). The toxin profile of P. reticulatum was dominated by yessotoxins (YTXs) (up to 94.40 pg cell−1) accompanied by homo-yessotoxin (Homo-YTX) traces. In P. multiseries, the toxin profiles were dominated by domoic acid (DA) (1.62 pg cell−1 and 1.09 pg cell−1) and secondarily by Isomer A (Iso-A), Epi-domoic acid (Epi-DA), Isomer-E (Iso-E) and Isomer-D (Iso-D). This study provides detailed information about representative HAB species in the area, useful for resource management, risk evaluation and related research on toxic dinoflagellates and diatoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Harmful Microalgae)
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14 pages, 1774 KiB  
Article
Germination of Pyrodinium bahamense Cysts from a Pristine Lagoon in San José Island, Gulf of California: Implications of Long-Term Survival
by Tomasa Cuellar-Martinez, Lourdes Morquecho, Rosalba Alonso-Rodríguez, Ana Carolina Ruiz-Fernández and Joan-Albert Sanchez-Cabeza
Phycology 2023, 3(1), 65-78; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3010005 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1868
Abstract
The production of cysts by dinoflagellates can be part of the life cycle of some species, improving their survival under adverse environmental conditions; cyst germination may explain the recurrence of algal blooms in some cases. In order to evaluate the germination rates of [...] Read more.
The production of cysts by dinoflagellates can be part of the life cycle of some species, improving their survival under adverse environmental conditions; cyst germination may explain the recurrence of algal blooms in some cases. In order to evaluate the germination rates of Pyrodinium bahamense, its cysts were retrieved from surface sediments collected in San José Lagoon, SW Gulf of California, and germination assays were carried out through the cysts incubation under two contrasting light and nutrient concentration conditions. Also, to evaluate cysts viability, we isolated P. bahamense cysts and other dinoflagellate species from different depth layers of a 210Pb-dated sediment core (~100 years) to examine their germination for 20 days. Germination rates were higher under light (28–56%) than in darkness (23–34%); there were indications that the nutrient-enriched media was more effective in promoting germination than seawater. Furthermore, germination was observed in cysts isolated from all selected core depths, even those corresponding to ~100 years. These results demonstrate that cysts remain viable for long periods, and P. bahamense cysts germinate in any light and nutrient conditions. The results of this research provide relevant information to understand its physiology and complex population dynamics. This species should be closely monitored in the area in the context of climate change, as current natural conditions are likely to change. Full article
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18 pages, 1437 KiB  
Review
Cyanobacteria-Based Bioprocess for Cosmetic Products—Cyanobium sp. as a Novel Source of Bioactive Pigments
by Fernando Pagels, A. Catarina Guedes, António A. Vicente and Vitor Vasconcelos
Phycology 2023, 3(1), 47-64; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3010004 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3244
Abstract
As a producer of pigments with known bioactive potential, cyanobacteria are a great source of active ingredients for cosmetics (i.e., carotenoids and phycobiliproteins). Multiple phases in the cyanobacteria-based bioprocess led to the obtention of these compounds. The marine Cyanobium sp. LEGE 06113 has [...] Read more.
As a producer of pigments with known bioactive potential, cyanobacteria are a great source of active ingredients for cosmetics (i.e., carotenoids and phycobiliproteins). Multiple phases in the cyanobacteria-based bioprocess led to the obtention of these compounds. The marine Cyanobium sp. LEGE 06113 has been proposed as a promising source for pigments for cosmetic uses, and it has been optimized in the past few years in terms of production, extraction, and application of pigment extracts. This report aims at providing an overview of the cyanobacteria-based bioprocess, regarding optimization strategies, consolidating into a proposed bioprocess for this cyanobacterium. The optimization of Cyanobium sp. included strategies regarding its production (culture medium, light, temperature, pH and salinity) and extraction (successive solvent extraction and ohmic heating). After the optimization, the two pigment-rich extracts (carotenoids and phycobiliproteins) were assessed in terms of their cosmetic potential and compatibility as an ingredient. Finally, aiming a scale-up proposal, life cycle assessment (LCA) was used as tool for a sustainable process. Ultimately, the proposed process gives the possibility to obtain two stable cosmetic ingredients from the same biomass and applied as anti-agent agents, especially due to their high anti-hyaluronidase capacity. Moreover, there remain challenges and information regarding novel cosmetic ingredient regulations were also discussed. Full article
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22 pages, 3003 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Faceted Approach to Quantifying Recovery of Stream Phytobenthos Following Acute Herbicide Incidents
by Helen Rosenkranz, Martyn G. Kelly, Alexandre M. Anesio and Marian L. Yallop
Phycology 2023, 3(1), 25-46; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3010003 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Phytobenthos, major primary producers in freshwater, may be periodically exposed to herbicides through runoff, spray drift, and leaching, but experimental work on their response to herbicides is limited. Outdoor flumes were used to measure the recovery of intact phytobenthic biofilms, following a short-term [...] Read more.
Phytobenthos, major primary producers in freshwater, may be periodically exposed to herbicides through runoff, spray drift, and leaching, but experimental work on their response to herbicides is limited. Outdoor flumes were used to measure the recovery of intact phytobenthic biofilms, following a short-term pulse to a glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) and chlorotoluron (CLT), singly or as a mixture (GBHC). Two days following the removal of the herbicides, significant declines in biomass and rates of areal gross maximum photosynthesis were recorded in GBH and GBHC-treated flumes. Herbicide pulses negatively impacted the biomass of phytobenthos, measured as chlorophyll a, which in turn may have alleviated resource limitation, evidenced by significant increases in biomass-specific rates of gross maximum photosynthesis. After 4.5 days, biomass concentrations were similar in controls and treatments, indicating biofilm recovery in the GBH and GBHC biofilms, though the proportion of green algae relative to diatoms was significantly higher in GBH and GBHC-impacted biofilms. Significant increases were recorded in the Trophic Diatom Index (TDI), indicating benthic diatom development along different trajectories, following the herbicide pulse. Collectively, these results indicate greater insights into herbicide impacts on phytobenthos may be gained by working with the whole phytobenthic community. Full article
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12 pages, 3388 KiB  
Article
Neutral Spores—An Easier Way to Cultivate Pyropia leucosticta (Thuret) Neefus & J.Brodie, 2011 (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) along the Romanian Black Sea Shore
by Oana Alina Marin, Valentina Coatu and Elena Stoica
Phycology 2023, 3(1), 13-24; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3010002 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2194
Abstract
Macroalgal cultures are currently of great interest worldwide. Although along the Romanian Black Sea coast, there is no tradition in this sense, currently, a major interest in developing this direction exists, taking into consideration that the overexploitation of wild seaweed resources involves the [...] Read more.
Macroalgal cultures are currently of great interest worldwide. Although along the Romanian Black Sea coast, there is no tradition in this sense, currently, a major interest in developing this direction exists, taking into consideration that the overexploitation of wild seaweed resources involves the disturbance of the marine environment, with implications that can sometimes be irreversible. Porphyra and Pyropia species (also known as nori algae) are considered the world’s most valuable mariculture algal products due to their high nutritional value and multiple active principles, considered unique representatives of marine algae. Considering these aspects, attention was focused on the only nori species from the Romanian Black Sea coast, namely, Pyropia leucosticta. The species was cultivated in controlled laboratory conditions for 5.5 months by manipulating its reproductive elements. The aim was to establish a simple, low-cost method by avoiding the complicated conchocelis phase of the species; therefore, reproduction and further species development were achieved by collecting the released neutral spores and isolating them in culture vessels, ensuring, at the same time, proper nutrient conditions, using sterile enriched seawater and mimicking ambient conditions. At the end of the experiment, specimens of almost 80−90 mm were obtained, making this method suitable for obtaining ex situ P. leucosticta blades on the Romanian Black Sea shore. Full article
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12 pages, 1395 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Redox Sensitive Brown Algal Mannitol-1-Phosphatases
by Yoran Le Strat, Thierry Tonon, Catherine Leblanc and Agnès Groisillier
Phycology 2023, 3(1), 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3010001 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Macroalgae (seaweeds) are key primary producers in marine coastal habitats and largely contribute to global ocean carbon fluxes. They also represent attractive renewable feedstock for the production of biofuels, food, feed, and bioactive. Brown algae are seaweeds that produce alginates and fucose containing [...] Read more.
Macroalgae (seaweeds) are key primary producers in marine coastal habitats and largely contribute to global ocean carbon fluxes. They also represent attractive renewable feedstock for the production of biofuels, food, feed, and bioactive. Brown algae are seaweeds that produce alginates and fucose containing sulfated polysaccharides in their cell wall and laminarin and mannitol for carbon storage. The availability of genomes of the kelp Saccharina japonica and of the filamentous Ectocarpus sp. paved the way for the biochemical characterization of recombinant enzymes involved in their polysaccharide and carbohydrates synthesis, including, notably, mannitol. Brown algal mannitol biosynthesis starts with the conversion of fructose-6-phospate into mannitol-1-phosphate (mannitol-1P), and this intermediate is hydrolysed by a haloacid dehalogenase phosphatase (M1Pase) to produce mannitol. We report here the biochemical characterization of a second M1Pase in Ectocarpus sp. (EsM1Pase1). Both Ectocarpus M1Pases were redox-sensitive enzymes, with EsM1Pase1 active only in presence of the reducing agent. Such catalytic properties have not been observed for any M1Pases yet. EsM1Pases were specific to mannitol-1-P, in contrast to S. japonica M1Pases that could act on other phosphorylated sugars. Finally, brown algal M1Pases formed two well-supported clades, with possible distinct subcellular localization and physiological role(s) under diverse environmental conditions and/or life cycle stages. Full article
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