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Volume 1, December
 
 

Phycology, Volume 1, Issue 1 (September 2021) – 5 articles

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4 pages, 393 KiB  
Editorial
Phycology: Algae for Food, Feed, Fuel and the Planet
by Peer M. Schenk
Phycology 2021, 1(1), 76-78; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology1010005 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3231
Abstract
I often like to tell my students: “It does not matter what the question is, “algae” is the answer [...] Full article
27 pages, 6562 KiB  
Article
Caribbean-Wide, Negative Emissions Solution to Sargassum spp. Low-Cost Collection Device and Sustainable Disposal Method
by Luke A. Gray, Andres G. Bisonó León, Folkers E. Rojas, Samuel S. Veroneau and Alexander H. Slocum
Phycology 2021, 1(1), 49-75; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology1010004 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 7257
Abstract
Sargassum spp. blooms exacerbated by climate change and agricultural runoff are inundating Caribbean beaches, emitting toxic fumes and greenhouse gases through decomposition. This hurts tourism, artisanal fishing, shore-based industry, human health, standards-of-living, coastal ecology, and the global climate. Barriers, collection machinery, and Sargassum [...] Read more.
Sargassum spp. blooms exacerbated by climate change and agricultural runoff are inundating Caribbean beaches, emitting toxic fumes and greenhouse gases through decomposition. This hurts tourism, artisanal fishing, shore-based industry, human health, standards-of-living, coastal ecology, and the global climate. Barriers, collection machinery, and Sargassum valorization have been unable to provide sufficient, sustainable, or widespread relief. This article presents a total Sargassum management system that is effective, low-impact, and economically scalable across the Caribbean. Littoral Collection Modules (LCMs), attached to artisanal fishing boats, collect Sargassum in nets which are brought to a barge. When full, the barge is towed to the deep ocean where Sargassum is pumped to ~150–200 m depth, whereafter it continues sinking (Sargassum Ocean Sequestration of Carbon; “SOS Carbon”). Costing and negative emissions calculations for this system show cleanup costs <$1/m3 and emissions reduction potential up to 1.356 → 3.029 tCO2e/dmt Sargassum. COVID-19 decimated Caribbean tourism, adding to the pressures of indebtedness and natural disasters facing the region. The “SOS Carbon strategy” could help the Caribbean “build back better” by establishing a negative emissions industry that builds resilience against Sargassum and flight shame (“flygskam”). Employing fishermen to operate LCMs achieves socioeconomic goals while increasing Sargassum cleanup and avoiding landfilling achieves sustainable development goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Sargassum Golden Tides, a Global Problem)
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22 pages, 535 KiB  
Article
Challenges of Turning the Sargassum Crisis into Gold: Current Constraints and Implications for the Caribbean
by Hazel A. Oxenford, Shelly-Ann Cox, Brigitta I. van Tussenbroek and Anne Desrochers
Phycology 2021, 1(1), 27-48; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology1010003 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 10049
Abstract
Over the last decade, the Caribbean has seen massive, episodic influxes of pelagic sargassum negatively impacting coastal ecosystems, people’s livelihoods and climate-sensitive sectors. Addressing this issue solely as a hazard has proven extremely costly and attention is slowly turning towards the potential opportunities [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, the Caribbean has seen massive, episodic influxes of pelagic sargassum negatively impacting coastal ecosystems, people’s livelihoods and climate-sensitive sectors. Addressing this issue solely as a hazard has proven extremely costly and attention is slowly turning towards the potential opportunities for sargassum reuse and valorization. However, turning the ‘sargassum crisis into gold’ is not easy. In this study we use a multi-method approach to learn from sargassum stakeholders (researchers, entrepreneurs and established businesses) across the Caribbean about the constraints and challenges they are facing. These can be grouped into five broad categories: (1) unpredictable supply of sargassum; (2) issues related with the chemical composition of the seaweed; (3) harvest, transport and storage; (4) governance; and (5) funding. Specific issues and potential solutions associated with each of these categories are reviewed in detail and recommended actions are mapped to five entry points along a generalized value chain to demonstrate how these actions can contribute to the development of sustainable sargassum value chains that promote economic opportunities and could help alleviate impacts of massive influxes. This paper offers guidance to policy makers and funding agencies on existing gaps and challenges that need to be addressed in order to scale-up successful and sustainable solutions to the sargassum crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Sargassum Golden Tides, a Global Problem)
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13 pages, 3018 KiB  
Article
Primary Characterization of a Life-Cycle Mutant akasusabi of the Red Alga Neopyropia yezoensis
by Koji Mikami, Takaharu Matsumura and Yuji Yamamoto
Phycology 2021, 1(1), 14-26; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology1010002 - 25 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2878
Abstract
Gametophyte-to-sporophyte transition in the haploid-diploid life cycle depends on fertilization of male and female gametes. We describe here a mutant of the marine red seaweed Neopyropia yezoensis, designated akasusabi (aks), where the gametophyte-to-sporophyte transition occurs independently of fertilization. Although conchocelis [...] Read more.
Gametophyte-to-sporophyte transition in the haploid-diploid life cycle depends on fertilization of male and female gametes. We describe here a mutant of the marine red seaweed Neopyropia yezoensis, designated akasusabi (aks), where the gametophyte-to-sporophyte transition occurs independently of fertilization. Although conchocelis filaments were produced from carpospores, severe defects in the maturation of carposporangia via mitosis to generate conchospores were observed. In the aks mutant, however, somatic cells of gametophytic thalli were able to produce conchocelis filaments without fertilization. Thus, apogamy occurs in aks. In addition, aks was highly sensitive to wounding that promotes both asexual and apogamous reproductive responses by producing spores, which develop either into blades or conchocelis filaments, indicating that aks responds to wounding by enhanced reproduction. These findings indicated that the aks mutation enables the transformation of vegetative cells to carpospores to produce sporophytes by apogamy and wound-inducible life cycle trade-off, stimulating a reset of the timing of reproduction during the life cycle. Therefore, AKS is involved in regulations of the gametophyte-to-sporophyte transition and asexual spore production in N. yezoensis. Full article
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13 pages, 4615 KiB  
Article
The Importance of Propagule Dispersal in Maintaining Local Populations of Rare Algae on Complex Coastlines: Padina pavonica on the South Coast of England
by Roger J.H. Herbert, Jay Willis and John Baugh
Phycology 2021, 1(1), 1-13; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology1010001 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2725
Abstract
On dynamic coastlines, populations of protected algal species with poor dispersal might be especially vulnerable to infrequent recruitment events and local extinction. As a model, we here consider the dispersal of the alga Padina pavonica from the largest remaining and physically isolated enclaves [...] Read more.
On dynamic coastlines, populations of protected algal species with poor dispersal might be especially vulnerable to infrequent recruitment events and local extinction. As a model, we here consider the dispersal of the alga Padina pavonica from the largest remaining and physically isolated enclaves on the south coast of England. A bio-physical model was used to investigate the likely importance of local propagule dispersal in maintaining populations. Dispersal kernels that simulate the position of propagules at different time steps over 5 days were examined from five release sites. Exceptionally steep declines in model propagule density were observed over the first few hours from release, yet over the first day, 75–85% of model propagules remained close to their source but had not reached other enclaves. After five days, the dispersal from source populations ranged from 0 to 50 km, with only ~5% remaining within the source 1 km2 area. Although distances of modelled propagule dispersal might be adequate for maintaining a regional population network, vegetative perrenation also appears to be important for persistence of P. pavonica. For rare and protected species on isolated and energetic coastlines, local conservation efforts, rather than a reliance on a wider meta-population network, remain very important to ensure long-term protection and survival. Full article
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