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Kidney Dial., Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 12 articles

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13 pages, 1329 KiB  
Article
Salt Reduction Using a Smartphone Application Based on an Artificial Intelligence System for Dietary Assessment in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Single-Center Retrospective Cohort Study
by Akane Yanai, Kiyotaka Uchiyama and Shinya Suganuma
Kidney Dial. 2023, 3(1), 139-151; https://doi.org/10.3390/kidneydial3010012 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1608
Abstract
This study evaluated the clinical usefulness of an artificial intelligence-powered smartphone application in reducing the daily salt intake of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study included 35 patients with CKD who were classified into app users (i.e., 13 outpatients who used [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the clinical usefulness of an artificial intelligence-powered smartphone application in reducing the daily salt intake of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study included 35 patients with CKD who were classified into app users (i.e., 13 outpatients who used the app for 3 months and whose salt intake was evaluated before and after using the app) and app nonusers (i.e., 22 outpatients not using the application; their salt intake was similarly evaluated). The primary outcome was estimated as salt intake after 3 months of using the application and at a 6-month follow-up. Linear mixed model analysis revealed that app users had a significant decrease in estimated salt intake after 3 months (−2.12 g/day; 95% CI, −4.05 to −0.19; p = 0.03) compared with app nonusers but not after 6 months (−0.96 g/day; 95% CI, −3.13 to 1.20; p = 0.38). App users showed a significant decrease in body mass index at 3 months (−0.42 kg/m2 [95% CI, −0.78 to −0.049; p = 0.03]) and 6 months (−0.65 kg/m2 [95% CI, −1.06 to −0.24; p = 0.002]). The application promoted short-term reduction in salt intake. These results provide a strong rationale for future trials. Full article
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18 pages, 8723 KiB  
Article
PTEN, MMP2, and NF-κB and Regulating MicroRNA-181 Aggravate Insulin Resistance and Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy: A Case-Control Study
by Manoj Khokhar, Purvi Purohit, Sojit Tomo, Riddhi G. Agarwal, Ashita Gadwal, Nitin Kumar Bajpai, Gopal Krishna Bohra and Ravindra Kumar Shukla
Kidney Dial. 2023, 3(1), 121-138; https://doi.org/10.3390/kidneydial3010011 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by an increase in urinary albumin excretion, diabetic glomerular lesions, and a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We assessed the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), and microRNA-181 in [...] Read more.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by an increase in urinary albumin excretion, diabetic glomerular lesions, and a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We assessed the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), and microRNA-181 in healthy controls (HC), individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) without nephropathy, and those with DN. Our study investigated the association between these genes, insulin resistance (IR), and eGFR to gain insight into their roles in the pathogenesis and progression of DN. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests were conducted on HC (N = 36), T2DM (N = 38) patients, and DN (N = 35) patients. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for whole blood gene expression analysis and performed bioinformatics analyses, including protein–protein interaction, gene ontology, and co-expression networks. We compared our expression data with other GEO-Microarray datasets. Our study highlights the role of IR in the progression of nephropathy in T2DM via the PTEN-Akt-mTOR signalling pathway. We also observed a decreasing trend in the expression of MMP2 and PTEN and an increasing trend in the expression of NF-κB and miR-181b-5p with the progression of nephropathy to the severe stage. The dysregulated expression of MMP2, PTEN, NF-κB, and miR-181b-5p in patients with T2DM contributes to the progression of T2DM to DN by aggravating IR, inflammation, accelerating basement membrane thickening, mesangial matrix expansion, and renal fibrosis. Full article
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10 pages, 1236 KiB  
Article
Xerostomia in Dialysis Patients—Oral Care to Reduce Hyposalivation, Dental Biofilms and Gingivitis in Patients with Terminal Renal Insufficiency: A Randomized Clinical Study
by Leonie C. Egbring, Tomas Lang, Burkhard Kreft, Karl W. Weich and Peter Gaengler
Kidney Dial. 2023, 3(1), 111-120; https://doi.org/10.3390/kidneydial3010010 - 09 Mar 2023
Viewed by 3490
Abstract
Objectives: Dialysis patients suffer from xerostomia based on hyposalivation even in stimulated saliva testing. Therefore, the aim of this study was (i) to evaluate an optimized oral hygiene system with an oral care gel reducing oral dryness, supporting dental plaque control and reducing [...] Read more.
Objectives: Dialysis patients suffer from xerostomia based on hyposalivation even in stimulated saliva testing. Therefore, the aim of this study was (i) to evaluate an optimized oral hygiene system with an oral care gel reducing oral dryness, supporting dental plaque control and reducing the number of gingivitis affected teeth; (ii) to document the efficacy in a randomized controlled trial with dental indices; and (iii) to record the individual’s oral health related quality of life. Methods: After ethical approval (EC-UWH 103/2019), 44 dialysis patients provided signed informed consent and were divided into two groups followed up for four weeks. Subjects of the verum group (A) received daily oral care gel OROFAN® based on biopolymers with a mild antibacterial and saliva stimulating action. They were compared to the control group (B) who executed routine oral hygiene with conventional dentifrice and toothbrushes. At baseline (T0), the medical report and all dental indices (sialometry, DMF/S, plaque index, periodontal index, tongue coating and denture hygiene index) were assessed. After 2 weeks and 4 weeks, T1 and T2 dry mouth frequency and all dental indices were assessed. An Oral Health Impact Profile was documented at baseline (T0) and at the end of the study (T2). Results: Twenty-two subjects were allocated to group A and to group B. At baseline, there were no statistical differences concerning renal insufficiency (years on dialysis and complications), systemic diseases and dental background (caries experience, periodontal diseases, plaque index and number of gingivitis affected teeth). All subjects exhibited hyposalivation (<0.7–1.0 mL/min). The control group (B) showed no statistical differences from baseline (T0) to the end of the study (T2) in dry mouth parameters, in all dental plaque and inflammation indices and in their Oral Health Impact Profile. In contrast, the verum group (A) exhibited a highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in xerostomia frequency, in the number of gingivitis affected teeth and in their plaque index. Furthermore, their Oral Health Impact Profile improved considerably (p < 0.01). Significance of Results: Terminally ill patients may gain better oral health and, consequently, an improved quality of life by rather simple oral care using long-lasting, edible anti-inflammatory oral hygiene gel and a dentist’s devotion. Full article
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16 pages, 695 KiB  
Article
Fractures in CKD Patients—Risk Analysis in RRT Lombardy Patients
by Ferruccio Conte, Daniela Paola Roggeri, Mario Gennaro Cozzolino, Carlotta Rossi, Carlo Zocchetti and Alessandro Roggeri
Kidney Dial. 2023, 3(1), 95-110; https://doi.org/10.3390/kidneydial3010009 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1601
Abstract
The increase in the number of patients with CKD starting dialysis treatment has become a major health problem in recent years. Osteoporosis is a typical feature of advanced age, which, in the dialysis population, is almost always accompanied by uremic osteodystrophy (CKD-MBD). These [...] Read more.
The increase in the number of patients with CKD starting dialysis treatment has become a major health problem in recent years. Osteoporosis is a typical feature of advanced age, which, in the dialysis population, is almost always accompanied by uremic osteodystrophy (CKD-MBD). These two factors are involved in the pathogenesis of fractures, which represent an important risk factor for the outcome of patients. The real consistency of fractures in CKD patients on kidney replacement therapy (KRT) requiring hospitalization in the Lombardy region (over 9,000,000 inhabitants) was analyzed using data from the regional administrative databases in the years 2011–2012. Among 8109 prevalent patients, 251 (45.8% women), with fractures after 1 January 2011, entered the analysis. A follow-up of two years (2011–2012) was considered to evaluate the incidence of more frequent fractures (femur, pelvis, hip, and spine) using ICD-9-CM codes. The most frequent sites of fractures were the femur (68.5%), hip and pelvis (47.4%), and vertebrae (12%). The patients on hemodialysis (HD) had more events than PD (3.3% vs. 1.4%; p = 0.03), while patients undergoing kidney transplantation (KTx) had a significantly lower percentage of fractures (0.6% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.001). Observed mortality was very high: the estimated gross mortality rate for any cause was 25.9% at 90 days and 34.7% at 180 days. Diabetes, peripheral vasculopathy, and heart failure were associated with a numerical increase in fractures, although this was not significant. Proton pump inhibitor drugs (PPI), vitamin K antagonists, and diphosphonates were more frequently associated with fracture occurrence. The average total cost of fractured patients was 11.4% higher than that of non-fractured patients. On multivariate analysis, age >65 years, female gender, PPI therapy, and cerebrovascular disease were found to be strongly associated with fractures in dialysis patients, whereas undergoing renal transplantation presented a reduced risk. Full article
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11 pages, 1622 KiB  
Article
miR-148b as a Potential Biomarker for IgA Nephropathy
by Santosh Kumar, C. Priscilla, Sreejith Parameswaran, Deepak Gopal Shewade, Pragasam Viswanathan and Rajesh Nachiappa Ganesh
Kidney Dial. 2023, 3(1), 84-94; https://doi.org/10.3390/kidneydial3010008 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1522
Abstract
Background: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most common glomerular diseases worldwide. Approximately 25 percent of IgAN patients reach the kidney failure stage within twenty years of diagnosis. The histopathological examination of kidney biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis of IgAN. [...] Read more.
Background: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most common glomerular diseases worldwide. Approximately 25 percent of IgAN patients reach the kidney failure stage within twenty years of diagnosis. The histopathological examination of kidney biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis of IgAN. microRNA (miRNA) is a small RNA that plays an important role at the post-transcriptional level by downregulating mRNAs (messenger RNA). We tried to establish a miRNA-based biomarker for IgAN. Methods: We recruited 30 IgAN patients and 15 healthy controls as study participants after taking their informed written consent. A real-time PCR-based method was used for the absolute quantification of miRNAs. A logistic regression method and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to find the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of miR-148b and let-7b for IgAN in histopathological MEST-C scores. Results: miR-148b and let-7b levels were higher in IgAN patients compared to the healthy controls. miR-148b was positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and negatively correlated with segmental glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (T), and blood pressure (BP). The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for miR-148b against T were 0.87, 0.77, and 0.85, respectively. The threshold value of the miR-148b copy number was 8479 to differentiate the severe condition of IgAN. Conclusion: miR-148b can be used as a potential biomarker for IgAN. Full article
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9 pages, 243 KiB  
Case Report
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: A Case Series and Review for an Uncommon Cause of Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Infection
by Lauren Floyd, Henry H. L. Wu, Rajkumar Chinnadurai and Arvind Ponnusamy
Kidney Dial. 2023, 3(1), 75-83; https://doi.org/10.3390/kidneydial3010007 - 24 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1819
Abstract
Peritonitis is a common and potentially serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Common organisms include Staphylococcus Aureus, enterococci, and coagulase-negative staphylococcus. However, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is an uncommon cause of PD-related infection. We describe a series of three cases [...] Read more.
Peritonitis is a common and potentially serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Common organisms include Staphylococcus Aureus, enterococci, and coagulase-negative staphylococcus. However, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is an uncommon cause of PD-related infection. We describe a series of three cases of S. maltophilia PD infection (two cases of PD peritonitis and one case of PD exit-site infection) that were identified over a seven-week period in a single centre. The cases were treated with antibiotics (the primary antibiotic being co-trimoxazole) for a mean duration of 30 ± 7.9 days. All of the patients required PD catheter removal due to treatment failure with antibiotics. Hospital admission was required in two of the cases and one case resulted in mortality, with the cause of death directly associated with complications from S. maltophilia infection. A multi-disciplinary team using root-cause analysis did not identify a common link between our cases but highlighted possible risk factors contributing to these presentations. Given the relative rarity of S. maltophilia, evidence on its management options remains limited. In this article, we draw upon our own experiences and examine the literature available from previously published case reports and series. These reports highlight S. maltophilia as a complex and challenging organism to treat. Our experience demonstrated the importance of early PD catheter removal in S. maltophilia PD infection, as this is likely more effective than prolonged antibiotic therapy and hence a safer management option, considering the resistant nature of S. maltophilia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Teaching Cases in Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation)
2 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Kidney and Dialysis in 2022
by Kidney and Dialysis Editorial Office
Kidney Dial. 2023, 3(1), 73-74; https://doi.org/10.3390/kidneydial3010006 - 17 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1430
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
17 pages, 1375 KiB  
Review
Renal Mechanisms of Diuretic Resistance in Congestive Heart Failure
by Norbert Lameire
Kidney Dial. 2023, 3(1), 56-72; https://doi.org/10.3390/kidneydial3010005 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 7362
Abstract
This study reviews the renal aspects of diuretic resistance occurring in diuretic treatment, mostly with loop diuretics of congestive heart failure. A short discussion on the different classes of diuretics, including the recently introduced sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitors, and their mechanism of action [...] Read more.
This study reviews the renal aspects of diuretic resistance occurring in diuretic treatment, mostly with loop diuretics of congestive heart failure. A short discussion on the different classes of diuretics, including the recently introduced sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitors, and their mechanism of action in the nephron is provided, followed by a summary of recent data discussing the different causes and pathophysiological mechanisms of diuretic resistance. The major cause of diuretic resistance appears to be localized within the distal tubule. Traditionally, the concept of compensatory post-diuretic sodium reabsorption (CPDSR) was considered the major cause of diuretic resistance; however, recent studies have disputed this traditional concept and demonstrated that patients with congestive heart failure are in constant sodium-avid state. Finally, the different options of therapeutic strategies, combining different classes of diuretics are summarized. Full article
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10 pages, 843 KiB  
Review
Chronic Kidney Disease—Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD), from Bench to Bedside
by Kosaku Nitta, Norio Hanafusa, Kenichi Akiyama, Yuki Kawaguchi and Ken Tsuchiya
Kidney Dial. 2023, 3(1), 46-55; https://doi.org/10.3390/kidneydial3010004 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4937
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease—mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a systemic disorder that increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. CKD-MBD is highly prevalent in dialysis patients, and appropriate treatment is important for improving their outcomes. Inorganic phosphate, fibroblast growth factor [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease—mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a systemic disorder that increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. CKD-MBD is highly prevalent in dialysis patients, and appropriate treatment is important for improving their outcomes. Inorganic phosphate, fibroblast growth factor 23, parathyroid hormone, and calciprotein particles are markers for critical components and effectors of CKD-MBD, and higher circulating levels of these markers are linked to cardiovascular diseases. In this short review, we focus on the pathogenesis and management of CKD-MBD in CKD patients, especially those on dialysis therapy, and discuss the prospects for improving the management in CKD patients, including those on dialysis. Full article
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10 pages, 2711 KiB  
Review
The Age–Stiffness Relationships of Elastic and Muscular Arteries in a Control Population and in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients
by Gerard M. London, Michel E. Safar and Bruno Pannier
Kidney Dial. 2023, 3(1), 36-45; https://doi.org/10.3390/kidneydial3010003 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1396
Abstract
Arterial dysfunction is major risk factor for cardiovascular complications, and arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor in end-stage renal disease patients. As the distance from the heart increases, arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity) becomes progressively more marked. This generates a centrifugal stiffness [...] Read more.
Arterial dysfunction is major risk factor for cardiovascular complications, and arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor in end-stage renal disease patients. As the distance from the heart increases, arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity) becomes progressively more marked. This generates a centrifugal stiffness gradient, which leads to partial, continuous local wave reflections, which in turn attenuate the transmission of pulsatile pressure into the microcirculation, thus limiting the potentially deleterious outcomes both upstream (on the heart: left-ventricular hypertrophy and coronary perfusion) and downstream (on the renal and cerebral microcirculation: reduced glomerular filtration and impaired cognitive functions). The impact of arterial aging is greater on the aorta and central capacitive arteries, and it is characterized by a loss or reversal of the physiological stiffness gradient between central and peripheral arteries. Recently, however, in contrast to observations on the aorta, several studies have shown less pronounced, absent, or even negative associations between muscular peripheral arteries and age–stiffness relationships, which may be associated with a decrease in or reversal of the stiffness gradient. These findings point to a potential benefit of assessing the muscular peripheral arteries to predict the risk of cardiovascular disease and suggest that reversal of the stiffness gradient may be an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality. Full article
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0 pages, 543 KiB  
Article
The Prevalence and Lived Experience of Pain in People Undertaking Dialysis
by Ivy Moore, Pauline Byrne, Narelle Ilic, Jenny Heng-Chen Chen and Kelly Lambert
Kidney Dial. 2023, 3(1), 24-35; https://doi.org/10.3390/kidneydial3010002 - 01 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1897
Abstract
(1) Background: Pain is a prevalent and debilitating symptom associated with kidney failure. However, the impact of pain on quality of life remains unclear. We aimed to identify the prevalence, severity and characteristics of people undertaking dialysis impacted by pain and explore the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Pain is a prevalent and debilitating symptom associated with kidney failure. However, the impact of pain on quality of life remains unclear. We aimed to identify the prevalence, severity and characteristics of people undertaking dialysis impacted by pain and explore the lived experience of pain (2) Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered to people undertaking haemodialysis or via telephone to those undertaking peritoneal and home haemodialysis in a single tertiary centre. Open-ended questions were analysed using thematic analysis. (3) Results: Responses were received from 131 participants (response rate 66.8%). Most were undergoing haemodialysis (87.0%). Pain was present in 92% (n = 121) of patients with 62% (n = 81) reporting pain as severe to excruciating. Common sites of pain were joints, muscle cramps, headaches, fistula pain, non-specific back pain and neuropathy. The overarching theme from the thematic analysis was that pain was a “debilitating and accepted burden” (4) Conclusions: Pain is highly prevalent, severe and debilitating in those on dialysis. There is a need for health care providers to be proactive and attentive to the management of pain. More research is needed to identify effective treatment approaches to decrease pain burden and improve the quality of life in those with kidney failure. Full article
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23 pages, 751 KiB  
Review
Multifaceted Nutritional Disorders in Elderly Patients Undergoing Dialysis
by Katsuhito Mori, Masafumi Kurajoh, Masaaki Inaba and Masanori Emoto
Kidney Dial. 2023, 3(1), 1-23; https://doi.org/10.3390/kidneydial3010001 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2124
Abstract
Advances in medicine have resulted in increased longevity, which has consequently led to unexpected geriatric syndromes, such as frailty and sarcopenia. Patients with end-stage kidney disease, especially those receiving dialysis treatment, often show characteristic reductions in body protein and energy storage, termed protein [...] Read more.
Advances in medicine have resulted in increased longevity, which has consequently led to unexpected geriatric syndromes, such as frailty and sarcopenia. Patients with end-stage kidney disease, especially those receiving dialysis treatment, often show characteristic reductions in body protein and energy storage, termed protein energy wasting (PEW). Therefore, maintenance of nutritional condition has a key role in defending against both geriatric syndromes and PEW, which share several components in elderly individuals undergoing hemodialysis. To counteract the development of an undesirable condition, nutritional evaluation is indispensable. In addition to simple measurements of body mass index, and serum albumin and creatinine, a composite nutritional assessment including a malnutrition inflammation score is useful, although subjective elements are included and a well-trained examiner is required. On the other hand, the geriatric nutritional risk index and nutritional risk index for Japanese hemodialysis patients (NRI-JH) are objective tools, and easy to use in clinical settings. Undernutrition is closely related to infectious events and the results of an infection are often serious in elderly patients, even those with survival, with large medical costs incurred. Together with appropriate nutritional evaluation, it is necessary to clarify the underlying relationship of PEW with infection for improvement of prognosis in affected elderly individuals. Full article
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