Engaging “Care” Behaviors in Support of Employee and Organizational Wellbeing through Complexity Leadership Theory
2. Impact of the Pandemic on Wellbeing and the Challenges Leaders Faced
3. Leadership Communications
Leadership in an uncertain, fast-moving crisis means making oneself available to feel what it is like to be in another’s shoes—to lead with empathy…. It will be incumbent on leaders to put themselves in another’s suffering, to feel with empathy and think with intelligence, and then to use their position of authority to make a path forward for us all.
4. The Significance of Care and Relations
Care is a way of being, that is, it is the key way through which the human-being structures itself and through which it interacts with others in the world. In other words, it is a way of being-in-the-world in which the relations that are established with all things are founded .
5. The Importance of Both Male and Female Leadership Behaviors
6. The Impact of Care Behaviors on Relations within Organizations
7. Complexity Leadership Theory in Complex Adaptive Organizations
8. Conclusions and Future Study
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Uhl-Bien, M. Complexity and COVID-19: Leadership and Followership in a Complex World. J. Manag. Stud. 2021, 58, 1400–1404. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Uhl-Bien, M.; Marion, R.; McKelvey, B. Complexity Leadership Theory: Shifting Leadership From the Industrial Age to the Knowledge Era. Leadersh. Q. 2007, 18, 298–318. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- BC Centre for Disease Control. Available online: http://www.bccdc.ca/health-info/diseases-conditions/covid-19/prevention-risks (accessed on 18 March 2023).
- BC Centre for Disease Control. Available online: http://www.bccdc.ca/health-info/diseases-conditions/covid-19/about-covid-19 (accessed on 18 March 2023).
- Blake, H.; Yildirim, M.; Wood, B.; Knowles, S.; Mancini, H.; Coyne, E.; Cooper, J. COVID-Well: Evaluation of the Implementation of Supported Wellbeing Centres for Hospital Employees during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9401. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Llopis, G. Leadership Will Change Forever after the Coronavirus Pandemic. Available online: https://www.forbes.com/sites/glennllopis/2020/04/06/leadership-will-change-forever-after-the-coronavirus-pandemic/?sh=7e0d1da661eb (accessed on 20 January 2023).
- COVID-19: What to Do If You or Someone in Your Home Is Sick. Available online: https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/2019-novel-coronavirus-infection/prevention-risks/how-care-someone-covid-19-home.html (accessed on 11 March 2023).
- Global Wellness Institute What Is Wellness. Available online: https://globalwellnessinstitute.org/what-is-wellness/ (accessed on 11 March 2023).
- Koppe, H. Wellbeing: Part 1—What is it? Aust. Fam. Physician 2002, 31, 374–375. [Google Scholar]
- Bamberry, L.; Neher, A.; Jenkins, S.; Sutton, C.; Frost, M.; Roberts, R.; Dwivedi, A.; OMeara, P.; Wong, A. The Impact of COVID-19 on the Workplace Wellbeing of Police Services in Australia. Labour Ind. 2022, 32, 28–54. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Blake-Beard, S.; Shapiro, M.; Ingols, C. Feminine? Masculine? Androgynous Leadership as a Necessity in COVID-19. Gend. Manag. 2020, 35, 607–617. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Acai, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Saperson, K. An Iterative Approach to Promoting Departmental Wellbeing during COVID-19. J. Eval. Clin. Pract. 2022, 28, 57–62. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Social Distancing Comes with Psychological Fallout. Available online: https://www.sciencenews.org/article/coronavirus-covid-19-social-distancing-psychological-fallout (accessed on 15 October 2022).
- Yu, J.; Park, J.; Hyun, S. Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Employees’ Work Stress, Well-Being, Mental Health, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and Employee-Customer Identification. J. Hosp. Mark. Manag. 2021, 30, 529–548. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ollis, L.; Shanahan, P. Stress, Psychological Distress and Support in a Health Care Organization during COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional Study. J. Nurs. Manag. 2022, 30, 359–366. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Piotrowski, D.; Piotrowska, A.I. Operation of Gyms and Fitness Clubs during The COVID-19 Pandemic—Financial, Legal, and Organisational Conditions. J. Phys. Educ. Sport 2021, 21, 1021–1028. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ruiu, M.L. Mismanagement of COVID-19: Lessons Learned from Italy. J. Risk Res. 2020, 23, 1007–1020. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lazarus, J.V.; Ratzan, S.; Palayew, A.; Billari, F.C.; Binagwaho, A.; Kimball, S.; Larson, H.J.; Melegaro, A.; Rabin, K.; White, T.M.; et al. Covid-Score: A Global Survey to Assess Public Perceptions of Government Responses to COVID-19 (COVID-Score-10). PLoS ONE 2020, 15, e0240011. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Kerrissey, M.; Edmonson, A. What Good Leadership Looks Like during This Pandemic. Available online: https://hbr.org/2020/04/what-good-leadership-looks-like-during-this-pandemic (accessed on 20 January 2023).
- McCarthy, J.; Langfitt, F.; Kuhn, A. The Global Leaders Who Have Been Effective during the Coronavirus. Available online: https://www.npr.org/2020/04/16/835710001/the-world-leaders-who-have-been-effective-during-the-coronavirus (accessed on 20 January 2023).
- COVID-19: How World Leaders Responded to the Crisis. Available online: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/12/covid-19-how-world-leaders-responded-to-the-crisis. (accessed on 20 January 2023).
- Williams, R. Crisis Leadership during COVID-19. Available online: https://ceoworld.biz/2020/05/08/crisis-leadership-during-covid-19/ (accessed on 20 January 2023).
- D’Auria, G.; De Smet, A. Leadership in a Crisis: Responding to the Coronavirus Outbreak and Future Challenge. Available online: https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/people-and-organizational-performance/our-insights/leadership-in-a-crisis-responding-to-the-coronavirus-outbreak-and-future-challenges (accessed on 22 January 2023).
- Eagly, A.; Johnson, B.T. Gender and Leadership Style: A Meta-Analysis. Psychol. Bull. 1990, 108, 233–256. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sergent, K.; Stajkovic, A.D. Women’s Leadership is Associated with Fewer Deaths during the COVID-19 Crisis: Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of United States Governors. J. Appl. Psychol. 2020, 105, 771–783. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Windsor, L.C.; Yannitell, G.; Windsor, A.J.; Ostergard, R.; Allen, S.; Burns, C.; Wood, R. Gender in the time of COVID-19: Evaluating national leadership and COVID-19 fatalities. PLoS ONE 2020, 5, e0244531. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nicholson, J.; Kuruc, E. Relational Leadership for Sustainability: Building an Ethical Framework from the Moral Theory of ‘Ethics of Care’. J. Bus. Ethics 2019, 156, 25–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Held, V. The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Singh, D. Foreword in R. Thompson. In Proleptic Leadership on the Commons: Ushering in a New Global Order; Emerald Publishing: Bingley, UK, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Boff, L. Essential Care: An Ethics of Human Nature; Baylor University Press: Waco, TX, USA, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Noddings, N. The Cared-for. In Caregiving: Readings in Knowledge, Practice, Ethics, and Politics; Gordon, S., Benner, P., Noddings, N., Eds.; University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia, PA, USA, 1996; pp. 21–39. [Google Scholar]
- Ciulla, J.B. Leadership and the Ethics of Care. J. Bus. Ethics 2009, 88, 3–4. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schultz, C. Practicing Care-Center Leadership in a Pandemic: Narratives and Notes on a Care Ethics Experiences and Practices in Extraordinary Times. Can. J. Educ. Adm. Policy 2022, 200, 115–201. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tronto, J. Caring Democracy: Markets, Equality, and Justice; New York University Press: New York, NY, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Elliot, C.; Stead, V. Constructing Women’s Leadership Representation in The UK Press during a Time of Financial Crisis: Gender Capitals and Dialectical Tensions. Organ. Stud. 2018, 39, 19–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- DeFrank-Cole, L.; Tan, S.J. Women and Leadership: Journey Toward Equity; SAGE: Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2022; ISBN 978-1-5443-6147-5. [Google Scholar]
- Lawton-Misra, N.; Pretorius, T. Leading with Heart; Academic Leadership during the COVID-19 Crisis. S. Afr. J. Psychol. 2021, 51, 205–214. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Post, C.; Latu, I.M.; Belkin, L.Y. A Female Leadership Trust Advantage in Times of Crisis: Under What Conditions? Psychol. Women Q. 2019, 43, 215–231. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Decoding Leadership: What Really Matters. Available online: https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/leadership/decoding-leadership-what-really-matters (accessed on 22 January 2023).
- Park, D. Sex-Role Identity and Leadership Style: Looking for an Androgynous Leadership Style. J. Leadersh. Stud. 1996, 3, 49–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McLean, W.P.; Unter, K.A. Sex Role Stereotyping and Requisite Management Characteristics: An Examination of the Think Manager-Think Male Phenomenon Among Public Administration Students. Econ. Manag. Financ. Mark. 2010, 5, 127–132. [Google Scholar]
- Hutchins, G.; Storm, L. Regenerative Leadership; Wordzworth Publishing: Tunbridge Wells, UK, 2019; pp. 9–19. ISBN 978-1-78324-119-4. [Google Scholar]
- Berkery, E.; Morley, M.; Tiernan, S. Beyond Gender Role Stereotypes and Requisite Managerial Characteristics: From Communal to Androgynous, the Changing Views of Women. Gend. Manag. 2013, 28, 278–298. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Appelbaum, A.L.; Miller, J.C. Gender and Leadership? Leadership and Gender? A Journey Through the Landscape of Theories. Leadersh. Organ. Dev. J. 2003, 24, 43–51. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Metcalf, L.; Benn, S. Leadership for Sustainability: An Evolution of Leadership Ability. J. Bus. Ethics 2013, 112, 369–384. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chamorro-Premuzi, T.; Gallop, C. 7 Leadership Lessons Men Can Learn from Women. Available online: https://hbr.org/2020/04/7-leadership-lessons-men-can-learn-from-women (accessed on 23 January 2023).
- Bertram, S. Androgynous Leadership Is the Future. 2021. CISION. Available online: https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/androgynous-leadership-is-the-future-301438610.html (accessed on 18 April 2023).
- Deci, O.A.H.; Ryan, R.M. Self-Determination Theory in Work Organizations: The State of a Science. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav. 2017, 4, 19–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Roche, M.; Harr, J.M. A Metamodel Approach Towards Self-Determination Theory: A Study of New Zealand Managers’ Organisational Citizenship Behaviours. Int. J. Hum. Resour. Manag. 2013, 24, 3397–3417. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pinos, V.; Twigg, N.W.; Parayitam, S.; Olson, B.J. Leadership in the 21st Century: The Effect of Emotional Intelligence. Acad. Strateg. Manag. J. 2006, 5, 61–76. [Google Scholar]
- Leadership Skills You Need to Learn Fast (Especially 1 to 7). Available online: https://www.imd.org/imd-reflections/reflection-page/leadership-skills/ (accessed on 16 February 2023).
- Mutale, J. Leading the Modern Organization: 6 Skills Leaders Need. Available online: https://trainingindustry.com/articles/leadership/leading-the-modern-organization-6-skills-leaders-need/ (accessed on 16 February 2023).
- Caro, C. Mastering the Duality of Feminine and Masculine Energies in the Workplace. Available online: https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbescoachescouncil/2019/04/25/mastering-the-duality-of-feminine-and-masculine-energies-in-the-workplace/?sh=da6d8601af73.com (accessed on 20 February 2023).
- About Gallup. Available online: https://www.gallup.com/corporate/212381/pressing-problems-solved.aspx (accessed on 15 March 2023).
- Clarke, N. Relational Leadership: Theory, Practice and Development; Routledge: London, UK, 2018; ISBN 978-1-31562-043-5. [Google Scholar]
- Cunliffe, A.L.; Eriksen, M. Relational Leadership. Hum. Relat. 2011, 64, 1425–1449. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Uhl-Bien, M. Relational Leadership Theory: Exploring the Social Processes of Leadership and Organizing. Leadersh. Q. 2006, 17, 654–676. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Geer-Frazier, B. Complexity Leadership Generates Innovation, Learning, and Adaptation Of The Organization. Emergence 2014, 16, 105–116. [Google Scholar]
- Héraud, J.-A.; Kerr, F.; Burger-Helmchen, T. Creative Management of Complex Systems; Wiley: London, UK, 2018; pp. 55–98. ISBN 978-1-11933-246-6. [Google Scholar]
- Benigson, M.; Goldstein, E. It’s Lonely at the Top: How Senior Leaders Can Stay Resilient and Look after Their Mental Health during COVID-19. Available online: https://www.thembsgroup.co.uk/internal/its-lonely-at-the-top-how-senior-leaders-can-stay-resilient-and-look-after-their-mental-health-during-covid-19/ (accessed on 10 March 2023).
- Gray, P. Leaders: It’s Important to Maintain Your Mental Health in the COVID-19 Era. Available online: https://www.techrepublic.com/article/leaders-its-important-to-maintain-your-mental-health-in-the-covid-19-era/ (accessed on 22 January 2023).
|Stereotypical Male or Masculine (m), and Female or Feminine Leadership Behaviors (w)|
|Independent (m)||Certain (m)||Sensitive (w)||Cooperative (w)|
|Self-confident (m)||Goal-oriented(m)||Expressive (w)||Intuitive (w)|
|Objective (m)||Bias for action (m)||Tactful (w)||Sympathetic (w)|
|Logical–rational (m)||Business-oriented (m)||Nurturing (w)||Warm (w)|
|Active (m)||Achievement-||Understanding (w)||Receptive (w)|
|Energetic(m)||oriented (m)||Helpful (w)||Bias for flow (w)|
|Self-reliant (m)||Competitive (m)||Relationship-oriented (w)||Socio-expressive (w)|
|Risk-taker (m)||Self-promotional (m)||Holistic (w)||Other-oriented (w)|
|Context-independent (m)||Individual (m)||Context-dependent (w)||Interdependent (w)|
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.
© 2023 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Kolga, M. Engaging “Care” Behaviors in Support of Employee and Organizational Wellbeing through Complexity Leadership Theory. Merits 2023, 3, 405-414. https://doi.org/10.3390/merits3020023
Kolga M. Engaging “Care” Behaviors in Support of Employee and Organizational Wellbeing through Complexity Leadership Theory. Merits. 2023; 3(2):405-414. https://doi.org/10.3390/merits3020023Chicago/Turabian Style
Kolga, Merike. 2023. "Engaging “Care” Behaviors in Support of Employee and Organizational Wellbeing through Complexity Leadership Theory" Merits 3, no. 2: 405-414. https://doi.org/10.3390/merits3020023