What If Moms Quiet Quit? The Role of Maternity Leave Policy in Working Mothers’ Quiet Quitting Behaviors
2. Literature Review and Hypothesis Development
2.1. Maternity Leave Policies across Industries
2.2. Mental Health Problems of Working Mothers and Quiet Quitting Behaviors
2.3. Peer Workers’ Quiet Quitting Behaviors and Support for Childcare
3.1. Data Collection
- “If your company offered a paid maternity leave policy but you did not have an opportunity to receive the benefits from the policy, do you believe you would have more motivation to ‘go above and beyond’ in your job performance”?
- “If your company offered a paid maternity leave policy and you received benefits from the policy, do you believe you would have more motivation to ‘go above and beyond’ in your job performance”?
- “If your company offered a paid maternity leave policy and you believed you would benefit from it in the future, do you believe you would have more motivation to ‘go above and beyond’ in your job performance”?
- “Please read the following statements about the latest trend known as ‘quiet quitting:’ ‘Quiet quitting’ does not involve actually quitting the job to seek higher wages or better benefits elsewhere but is defined as quitting the idea of going ‘above and beyond’ . Those who participate in quiet quitting no longer go ‘above and beyond’ in their work and simply do the bare minimum to get the job done . Quiet quitting may seem like a way to treat burnout and can take several forms, such as not answering emails or phone calls outside of work hours, saying no to new projects that aren’t in the job description or that one may not want to do, and leaving work on time every day .
- “Have you chosen to participate in quiet quitting? (Yes, No)”.
- “How motivated would you say you are to ‘go above and beyond’ at your job? (5-point Likert scale; 1 = extremely motivated, 5 = definitely not motivated)”.
5.1. Discussion of Study Findings
5.2. Implications for Theory and Practice
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- More than 120 Nations Provide Paid Maternity Leave. 1998. Available online: https://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_008009/lang--en/index.htm (accessed on 4 December 2022).
- DeSilver, D. Access to Paid Family Leave Varies Widely across Employers, Industries. Pew Research Center. 2020. Available online: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/03/23/access-to-paid-family-leave-varies-widely-across-employers-industries/#:~:text=March%2023%2C%202017%20Access%20to%20paid%20family%20leave,by%20the%20type%20and%20size%20of%20the%20employer (accessed on 15 December 2022).
- Krueger, A. Who Is Quiet Quitting for? The New York Times. 2022. Available online: https://www.nytimes.com/2022/08/23/style/quiet-quitting-tiktok.html (accessed on 16 December 2022).
- Scott, E. Could ‘Quiet Quitting’ Your Job Be the Answer to Burnout? What You Need to Know. Metro. 2022. Available online: https://metro.co.uk/2022/07/29/could-the-quiet-quitting-trend-be-the-answer-to-burnout-what-you-need-to-know-17085827/ (accessed on 17 December 2022).
- Aydin, E.; Azizoğlu, Ö. A New Term for an Existing Concept: Quiet Quitting—A Selfdetermination Perspective [Research Article]. In Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Critical Debates in Social Sciences, Burhaniye, Turkey, 7–9 October 2022. [Google Scholar]
- Harter, J. Is Quiet Quitting Real? Gallup.com. 2022. Available online: https://www.gallup.com/workplace/398306/quiet-quitting-real.aspx (accessed on 4 December 2022).
- Madell, R. What is Quiet Quitting? | on careers | U.S. News. US News. 2022. Available online: https://money.usnews.com/money/blogs/outside-voices-careers/articles/what-is-quiet-quitting (accessed on 17 December 2022).
- Mahand, T.; Caldwell, C. Quiet Quitting—Causes and Opportunities. Bus. Manag. Res. 2022, 12, 9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Harter, J.U.S. Employee Engagement Slump Continues. Gallup.com. 2022. Available online: https://www.gallup.com/workplace/391922/employee-engagement-slump-continues.aspx (accessed on 14 February 2023).
- Gooch. ‘Quiet Quitting’ is Happening in Health Care too. Advisory Board. Available online: https://www.advisory.com/daily-briefing/2022/09/01/quiet-quitting-hospitals#:~:text=There%27s%20an%20absolute,those%20we%20serve.%22 (accessed on 14 February 2023).
- Alnaeem, M.M.; Hamdan-Mansour, A.M.; Nashwan, A.J.; Abuatallah, A.; Al-Hussami, M. Healthcare Providers’ Intention to Leave Their Jobs during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study. Health Sci. Rep. 2022, 5, e859. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Gupta, N.; Dhamija, S.; Patil, J.; Chaudhari, B. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare workers. Ind. Psychiatry J. 2021, 30 (Suppl. S1), S282. [Google Scholar]
- Wilkinson, K. Maternal (perinatal) mental health and employment: An agenda for research and practice. Hum. Resour. Manag. J. 2022. Epub ahead of printing. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dur, R.; Zoutenbier, R. Intrinsic Motivations of Public Sector Employees: Evidence for Germany. Ger. Econ. Rev. 2015, 16, 343–366. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- What Is Quiet Quitting. Fidelity. 2022. Available online: https://www.fidelity.com/learning-center/smart-money/what-is-quiet-quitting#:~:text=%22Quiet%20quitting%22%20isn’t,more%20effective%20than%20quiet%20quitting (accessed on 17 December 2022).
- Rossin-Slater, M. Maternity and Family Leave Policy. NBER. 2017. Available online: https://www.nber.org/papers/w23069 (accessed on 4 December 2022).
- Low, H.; Sanchez-Marcos, V. Female labour market outcomes and the impact of maternity leave policies. IZA J. Labor Econ. 2015, 4, 411. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Bush, M.C.; Ryder, K. Parents at the best workplaces™. The Largest-Ever Study of Working Parents. 2020. Available online: https://www.mavenclinic.com/lp/parents-at-the-best-workplaces-2020 (accessed on 16 December 2022).
- Fortune Best Workplaces for Women™. Great Place To Work®. 2020. Available online: https://www.greatplacetowork.com/best-workplaces/women/2020 (accessed on 4 December 2022).
- Zagorsky, J.L. Divergent Trends in US Maternity and Paternity Leave, 1994–2015. Am. J. Public Health 2017, 107, 460–465. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Hawkins, D. Disparities in the usage of maternity leave according to occupation, race/ethnicity, and education. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2020, 63, 1134–1144. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lee, B.C.; Modrek, S.; White, J.S.; Batra, A.; Collin, D.F.; Hamad, R. The effect of California’s paid family leave policy on parent health: A quasi-experimental study. Soc. Sci. Med. 2020, 251, 112915. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Avendano, M.; Berkman, L.F.; Brugiavini, A.; Pasini, G. The Long-Run Effect of Maternity Leave Benefits on Mental Health: Evidence from European Countries. Soc. Sci. Med. 2015, 132, 45–53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Rossin, M. The effects of maternity leave on children’s birth and infant health outcomes in the United States. J. Health Econ. 2011, 30, 221–239. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Mandal, B. The Effect of Paid Leave on Maternal Mental Health. Matern. Child Health J. 2018, 22, 1470–1476. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Aitken, Z.; Garrett, C.C.; Hewitt, B.; Keogh, L.; Hocking, J.S.; Kavanagh, A.M. The maternal health outcomes of paid maternity leave: A systematic review. Soc. Sci. Med. 2015, 130, 32–41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Goodman, J.M.; Williams, C.; Dow, W.H. Racial/Ethnic Inequities in Paid Parental Leave Access. Health Equity 2021, 5, 738–749. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to and Use of Paid Family and Medical Leave: Evidence from four Nationally Representative Datasets: Monthly Labor Review. 2019. Available online: https://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2019/article/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-access-to-and-use-of-paid-family-and-medical-leave.htm (accessed on 17 December 2022).
- WHO News. Burn-Out An “Occupational Phenomenon”: International Classification of Diseases. 2019. Available online: https://www.who.int/news/item/28-05-2019-burn-out-an-occupational-phenomenon-international-classification-of-diseases (accessed on 5 September 2021).
- Salvagioni, D.A.J.; Melanda, F.N.; Mesas, A.E.; González, A.D.; Gabani, F.L.; De Andrade, S.M. Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies. PLoS ONE 2017, 12, e0185781. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Leonhardt, M. 9.8 Million Working Mothers in the U.S. Are Suffering from Burnout. CNBC. 2020. Available online: https://www.cnbc.com/2020/12/03/millions-of-working-mothers-in-the-us-are-suffering-from-burnout.html (accessed on 16 December 2022).
- Maurer, R. Labor shortages: The disconnect and possible solutions. SHRM. 2021. Available online: https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/hr-topics/talent-acquisition/pages/labor-shortages-the-disconnect-solutions-unemployment-benefits-childcare-covid-fear.aspx (accessed on 16 December 2022).
- Larue, B. COVID--19 and labor issues: An assessment. Can. J. Agric. Econ. Can. D’Agroeconomie 2021, 69, 269–279. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Howard, L.M.; Khalifeh, H. Perinatal mental health: A review of progress and challenges. World Psychiatry 2020, 19, 313–327. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mental health in the Workplace. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2019. Available online: https://www.cdc.gov/workplacehealthpromotion/tools-resources/workplace-health/mental-health/index.html (accessed on 4 December 2022).
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Mental illness. National Institute of Mental Health. Available online: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/mental-illness (accessed on 4 December 2022).
- Van Niel, M.S.; Bhatia, R.; Riano, N.S.; De Faria, L.; Catapano-Friedman, L.; Ravven, S.; Weissman, B.; Nzodom, C.; Alexander, A.; Budde, K.; et al. The Impact of Paid Maternity Leave on the Mental and Physical Health of Mothers and Children: A Review of the Literature and Policy Implications. Harv. Rev. Psychiatry 2020, 28, 113–126. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Paid Family Leave Policies and Population Health. 2022. Available online: https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hpb20190301.484936/ (accessed on 16 February 2023).
- Richter, F. Infographic: ‘Quiet Quitting’ Is All the Rage—Or Is It? Statista Infographics. 2022. Available online: https://www.statista.com/chart/28146/awareness-and-understanding-of-the-term-quiet-quitting-among-us-adults/ (accessed on 16 December 2022).
- Liu, K.; Lin, F. Call It What you Want, but ‘Quiet Quitting’ is not Slacking Off. NBCNews.com. 2022. Available online: https://www.nbcnews.com/think/opinion/tik-tok-quiet-quitting-trend-is-not-about-slacking-off-rcna45450 (accessed on 16 December 2022).
- Masterson, V. What Is Quiet Quitting? World Economic Forum. 2022. Available online: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2022/09/tiktok-quiet-quitting-explained/ (accessed on 16 December 2022).
- Jonathan Lord Lecturer in Human Resource Management and Employment Law. Quiet Quitting is a New Name for an Old Method of Industrial Action. The Conversation. 2022. Available online: https://theconversation.com/quiet-quitting-is-a-new-name-for-an-old-method-of-industrial-action-189752 (accessed on 4 December 2022).
- Formica, S.; Sfodera, F. The Great Resignation and Quiet Quitting paradigm shifts: An overview of current situation and future research directions. J. Hosp. Mark. Manag. 2022, 31, 899–907. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ellis, L.; Whalen, J.R. How ‘Quiet Quitting’ Is Changing the Workplace—Your Money Briefing—WSJ Podcasts. The Wall Street Journal. 2022. Available online: https://www.wsj.com/podcasts/your-money-matters/how-quiet-quitting-is-changing-the-workplace/2f879ca4-0942-4841-97ce-e832a334e27a#:~:text=For%20two%20consecutive%20years%2C%20employee,%2C%20coming%20in%20at%2031%25 (accessed on 16 December 2022).
- Simms, K. What We Know about Gen Z in the Workplace. Great Place To Work®. Available online: https://www.greatplacetowork.com/resources/blog/what-we-know-about-gen-z-in-the-workplace (accessed on 4 December 2022).
- Anadolu 10th International Conference on Social Science—Researchgate.net. 2022. Available online: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ibrahim-Yikilmaz/publication/364821194_QUIET_QUITTING_A_CONCEPTUAL_INVESTIGATION/links/635c018312cbac6a3e045d34/QUIET-QUITTING-A-CONCEPTUAL-INVESTIGATION.pdf?origin=publication_detail (accessed on 4 December 2022).
- Hideg, I.; Krstic, A.; Trau, R.N.C.; Zarina, T. The unintended consequences of maternity leaves: How agency interventions mitigate the negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves. J. Appl. Psychol. 2018, 103, 1155–1164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Poduval, J.; Poduval, M. Working Mothers: How Much Working, How Much Mothers, And Where Is The Womanhood? Mens Sana Monogr. 2009, 7, 63–79. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Perry-Jenkins, M.; Smith, J.Z.; Wadsworth, L.P.; Halpern, H.P. Workplace policies and mental health among working-class, new parents. Community, Work. Fam. 2015, 20, 226–249. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Kirwin, M.A.; Ettinger, A.K. Working mothers during COVID-19: A cross-sectional study on mental health status and associations with the receipt of employment benefits. BMC Public Health 2022, 22, 1–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Suan, C.L.; Nasurdin, A.M. Role Clarity, Supervisory Support, Peer Support and Work Engagement of Customer-Contact Employees in Hotels: A Future Research Agenda. Int. Bus. Manag. 2012, 6, 692–698. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Zagenczyk, T.J.; Powell, E.E. Social networks and citizenship behavior: The mediating effect of organizational identification. Hum. Resour. Manag. 2022. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Singh, B.; Selvarajan, T.; Solansky, S.T. Coworker influence on employee performance: A conservation of resources perspective. J. Manag. Psychol. 2019, 34, 587–600. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jou, J.; Kozhimannil, K.B.; Abraham, J.M.; Blewett, L.A.; McGovern, P.M. Paid Maternity Leave in the United States: Associations with Maternal and Infant Health. Matern. Child Health J. 2017, 22, 216–225. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Shepherd-Banigan, M.; Bell, J.F. Paid leave benefits among a national sample of working mothers with infants in the United States. Matern. Child Health J. 2014, 18, 286–295. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Andres, E.; Baird, S.; Bingenheimer, J.B.; Markus, A.R. Maternity Leave Access and Health: A Systematic Narrative Review and Conceptual Framework Development. Matern. Child Health J. 2015, 20, 1178–1192. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Haar, J.M. Challenge and hindrance stressors in New Zealand: Exploring social exchange theory outcomes. Int. J. Hum. Resour. Manag. 2006, 17, 1942–1950. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Li, C.-Y. Persuasive messages on information system acceptance: A theoretical extension of elaboration likelihood model and social influence theory. Comput. Hum. Behav. 2013, 29, 264–275. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|Dependent Variable||Independent Variables||F Score||Hypothesis Test |
|Quiet quitting behaviors||Maternity leave||5.71 *||H1 supported|
|Paid maternity leave||0.87 ns||H2 failed|
|Duration of maternity leave||1.21 ns||H3 failed|
|Emotional wellbeing||Maternity leave||5.76 **||H4 supported|
|Paid maternity leave||0.27 ns||H5 failed|
|Duration of maternity leave||27.93 ***||H6 partially supported|
|Quiet quitting behaviors||Supportive/flexible work policy for childcare needs||8.37 ***||H7 supported|
|Peer workers’ quiet quitting impacts||9.57 ***||H8 supported|
|Dependent Variable: EmotionalWell|
|(I) Weeks||(J) Weeks||Mean Difference (I–J)||Std. Error||Sig.||95% Confidence Interval|
|Lower Bound||Upper Bound|
|Dependent Variable: SelfQuietQuitting|
|(I) Race||(J) Race||Mean Difference (I–J)||Std. Error||Sig.||95% Confidence Interval|
|Lower Bound||Upper Bound|
|White||Black or African American||0.19 *||0.086||0.032||0.02||0.36|
|American Indian or Alaska Native||0.19||0.155||0.231||−0.12||0.49|
|Black or African American||White||−0.19 *||0.086||0.032||−0.36||−0.02|
|American Indian or Alaska Native||0||0.175||1||−0.34||0.34|
|American Indian or Alaska Native||White||−0.19||0.155||0.231||−0.49||0.12|
|Black or African American||0||0.175||1||−0.34||0.34|
|Black or African American||0.04||0.093||0.641||−0.14||0.23|
|American Indian or Alaska Native||0.04||0.159||0.785||−0.27||0.36|
|Dependent Variable: SelfQuietQuitting|
|(I) Age||(J) Age||Mean Difference (I–J)||Std. Error||Sig.||95% Confidence Interval|
|Lower Bound||Upper Bound|
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.
© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Zhang, T.; Rodrigue, C. What If Moms Quiet Quit? The Role of Maternity Leave Policy in Working Mothers’ Quiet Quitting Behaviors. Merits 2023, 3, 186-205. https://doi.org/10.3390/merits3010012
Zhang T, Rodrigue C. What If Moms Quiet Quit? The Role of Maternity Leave Policy in Working Mothers’ Quiet Quitting Behaviors. Merits. 2023; 3(1):186-205. https://doi.org/10.3390/merits3010012Chicago/Turabian Style
Zhang, Tingting, and Chloe Rodrigue. 2023. "What If Moms Quiet Quit? The Role of Maternity Leave Policy in Working Mothers’ Quiet Quitting Behaviors" Merits 3, no. 1: 186-205. https://doi.org/10.3390/merits3010012