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Future Transp., Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 12 articles

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21 pages, 1302 KiB  
Article
A Rural Transport Implementation Index for Connected, Autonomous and Electric Vehicles
by Joseph George Walters, Stuart Marsh and Lucelia Rodrigues
Future Transp. 2022, 2(3), 753-773; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2030042 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1824
Abstract
With connected, autonomous and electric vehicles (CAEV) developing rapidly, there is a need to better support their implementation into rural scenarios, where there are numerous transport challenges. The potential safety, efficiency and sustainability benefits of CAEVs could provide significant value for rural communities [...] Read more.
With connected, autonomous and electric vehicles (CAEV) developing rapidly, there is a need to better support their implementation into rural scenarios, where there are numerous transport challenges. The potential safety, efficiency and sustainability benefits of CAEVs could provide significant value for rural communities if implemented correctly. However, transport planner knowledge of CAEVs and their digital and physical infrastructure requirements in the UK is limited and, despite interest, there is little time or resources available to effectively explore rural CAEV implementation potential. This paper therefore describes the methodology behind, and development of, the CAEV Rural Transport Index (CARTI), based on existing literature and a combination of existing and developed indicators. The CARTI’s purpose is to identify the levels of need, capacity and overall potential of different rural areas to support rural CAEV implementation. Application of the CARTI to several case study areas reveals a range of benefits, reviewed through workshops with local transport professionals. Ultimately, the CARTI is identified as a much-needed tool to support the implementation of CAEVs in rural areas, with potential for further development to establish it as a successful and long-term planning tool. Full article
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19 pages, 1326 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Personal Rapid Transit System Configurations Regarding Efficiency and Service Quality
by Felix Gotzler, Franziska Neumann and Lennart Adenaw
Future Transp. 2022, 2(3), 734-752; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2030041 - 6 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2698
Abstract
In order to transform cities into more liveable, safe, and sustainable places, we must shift our mobility paradigms. As one auspicious concept amongst novel intelligent transportation systems, personal rapid transit (PRT) disaggregates urban transportation into small, electric vessels that are centrally operated on [...] Read more.
In order to transform cities into more liveable, safe, and sustainable places, we must shift our mobility paradigms. As one auspicious concept amongst novel intelligent transportation systems, personal rapid transit (PRT) disaggregates urban transportation into small, electric vessels that are centrally operated on dedicated infrastructure, yielding the potential to make public transit more convenient, affordable, and sustainable all at once. In light of this, we examined the potential performance of PRT in a medium-sized German city. Utilizing the traffic simulator SUMO, as well as a specifically developed open source mobility scenario consisting of infrastructure and travel demand, we assessed the level of service and efficiency. We found that a fleet of 30 vehicles can serve the mobility demand of the chosen city while passenger waiting times are guaranteed to stay below three minutes. Vehicle occupancies can be doubled when coordinating vehicles between stations instead of letting them idle randomly. Furthermore, our results show that different combinations of system designs and operating strategies succeed in meeting typical performance requirements—for instance, an operating strategy where unoccupied vehicles idle randomly can effectively compensate for a reduced fleetsize. Depending on the preliminaries of specific cities, such as the availability of space, travel behavior, political background, or acceptable investment and operational costs, a matching transportation system can be designed around the quantitative findings obtained in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Mobility and Transport Applications)
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23 pages, 14427 KiB  
Article
Traffic Flow Funnels Based on Aircraft Performance for Optimized Departure Procedures
by Martin Lindner, Thomas Zeh, Hannes Braßel, Judith Rosenow and Hartmut Fricke
Future Transp. 2022, 2(3), 711-733; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2030040 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 2047
Abstract
Aircraft departures often follow standardized and restrictive routes intended to guarantee a safe transition to the en-route network. Since the procedures must take the flight performance of many aircraft types into account, they represent a compromise between numerous optima and must be consistent [...] Read more.
Aircraft departures often follow standardized and restrictive routes intended to guarantee a safe transition to the en-route network. Since the procedures must take the flight performance of many aircraft types into account, they represent a compromise between numerous optima and must be consistent with noise abatement strategies. This paper investigates the concept of departure funnels, in which flights can adopt their optimal profile within a procedural space based on actual flight performance to replace standard routes. For this, an algorithm based on DBSCAN identifies typical traffic flow funnels for a set of radar tracks as reference and individually optimized flight trajectories as preferred funnels. For the latter, an innovative 3D pathfinding grid is developed, which expands dynamically using the specific flight performance of the aircraft type and enables evaluation of operating costs due to wind and fuel consumption. From the clustered traffic flows, a funnel starting at the runway is determined based on the variance of the flight profiles along their mean trajectory. This funnel provides a restricted space for individual trajectory optimization for the day of operation. The procedure is applied using the example of Munich Airport, where the funnel size and the associated fuel-saving potential are determined. The results indicate an average fuel-saving potential of 0.4% with respect to the trip fuel. Full article
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13 pages, 1479 KiB  
Article
Capacity Analysis of Intersections When CAVs Are Crossing in a Collaborative and Lane-Free Order
by Mahdi Amouzadi, Mobolaji Olawumi Orisatoki and Arash M. Dizqah
Future Transp. 2022, 2(3), 698-710; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2030039 - 4 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2029
Abstract
Connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) improve the throughput of intersections by crossing in a lane-free order as compared to a signalised crossing. However, it is challenging to quantify such an improvement because the available frameworks to analyse the capacity of the conventional intersections [...] Read more.
Connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) improve the throughput of intersections by crossing in a lane-free order as compared to a signalised crossing. However, it is challenging to quantify such an improvement because the available frameworks to analyse the capacity of the conventional intersections do not apply to the lane-free ones. This paper proposes a novel framework including a measure and an algorithm to calculate the capacity of the lane-free intersections. The results show that a lane-free crossing of CAVs increases the capacity of intersections by 127% and 36% as compared to a signalised crossing of, respectively, human-driven vehicles and CAVs. The paper also provides a sensitivity analysis indicating that, in contrast to the signalised ones, the capacity of the lane-free intersections improves by an increase in the initial speed, maximum permissible speed and acceleration of vehicles. Full article
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10 pages, 3171 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Public Transportation Stops on Bike-Sharing Destination Trips: Spatial Analysis of Budapest City
by Ahmed Jaber, Laila Abu Baker and Bálint Csonka
Future Transp. 2022, 2(3), 688-697; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2030038 - 2 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2449
Abstract
This research looks at how spatial factors of public transportation influence the use of bike-sharing in an urban context. Based on a grid-cell-based method, ordinary least square regression and geographically weighted regression (GWR) are developed to reveal the link between the spatial distribution [...] Read more.
This research looks at how spatial factors of public transportation influence the use of bike-sharing in an urban context. Based on a grid-cell-based method, ordinary least square regression and geographically weighted regression (GWR) are developed to reveal the link between the spatial distribution of bus, tram, rail stops, and bike-sharing trips. The public transportation coverage in Budapest City is rated as excellent, with all parts of the city covered within a 5 km radius. We find that areas with a high proportion of public transportation stops have a significantly higher number of bike-sharing trips. Bike-sharing trips are concentrated near regional railway stations, the central business district, and surrounding zones. The connection between bike-sharing and trams/rails appears to be stronger than the connection between bike-sharing and buses. According to the findings, nearly one-third of public transportation stops have accessible bike docks within 125 m walking distance. In GWR analysis, the coefficients of bus stops are increasing towards the center of the city, while the coefficients of tram/rail stops are decreasing. Finally, by examining the priority zones for establishing more bike-sharing facilities, it is discovered that the eastern side of the city requires more development than the western side because it has a high number of bike-sharing trips but no adequate facilities near public transportation facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Mobility and Transport Applications)
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13 pages, 644 KiB  
Article
Driver’s Perceived Satisfaction at Urban Roundabouts—A Structural Equation-Modeling Approach
by Efterpi Damaskou, Fotini Kehagia, Ioannis Karagiotas, Apostolos Anagnostopoulos and Magdalini Pitsiava-Latinopoulou
Future Transp. 2022, 2(3), 675-687; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2030037 - 1 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1518
Abstract
In recent years, the use of roundabouts in road networks has reflected a sustainable and modern solution for traffic intersections. Their implementation, integrated design, and proper evaluation are a necessity to achieve their beneficial results. According to the latest edition of the Highway [...] Read more.
In recent years, the use of roundabouts in road networks has reflected a sustainable and modern solution for traffic intersections. Their implementation, integrated design, and proper evaluation are a necessity to achieve their beneficial results. According to the latest edition of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) and the Highway Capacity and Quality Service (HCQS), a comprehensive evaluation of a roundabout is based on the interchangeable use of the LOS (level of service) and QOS (quality of service). Both manuals describe the LOS criteria, which are the same as those currently used for unsignalized at-grade intersections, while the QOS methodological description and criteria are not specifically defined. The quality of service, which corresponds to road users’ perceived satisfaction, is determined by identifying and evaluating certain factors that have an impact on users. While the previous work on evaluating the quality of roundabouts is limited, this work aimed to present and evaluate the concept of QOS for urban roundabouts in Greece and to assess the factors that affect drivers’ perceived feeling of comfort. The methodology used for the research, included data collection via an on-line questionnaire addressed to the users of the Greek road network and a statistical analysis based on the performance of six latent variables named quality components (exploratory factor analysis). A structural equation model (SEM) was used to determine the causal relationship between primary factors and quality components. It was noted that the SEM cannot predict the travel behavior but it has ability to express relationships between unobserved and observed variables. The results of the revealed model are of great value for the development of: (a) a comprehensive conceptual framework of the QOS and (b) a critical analysis of the parameters that should be considered for the assessment of the QOS of a roundabout. Identifying the factors that influence road users’ perception in terms of safety and comfort (quality of service) leads to a better knowledge and understanding of the road network characteristics that are important to road users and that influence their behavior and level of satisfaction. Full article
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16 pages, 1530 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Signal Systems Using Automated Traffic Signal Performance Measures
by Bangyu Wang, Grant G. Schultz, Gregory S. Macfarlane and Sabrina McCuen
Future Transp. 2022, 2(3), 659-674; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2030036 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
Automated traffic signal performance measures (ATSPMs) are used to collect data concerning the current and historical performance of signalized intersections. However, transportation agencies are not using ATSPM data to the full extent of this “big data” resource, because the volume of information can [...] Read more.
Automated traffic signal performance measures (ATSPMs) are used to collect data concerning the current and historical performance of signalized intersections. However, transportation agencies are not using ATSPM data to the full extent of this “big data” resource, because the volume of information can overwhelm traditional identification and prioritization techniques. This paper presents a method that summarizes multiple dimensions of intersection- and corridor-level performance using ATSPM data and returns information that can be used for prioritization of intersections and corridors for further analysis. The method was developed and applied to analyze three signalized corridors in Utah, consisting of 20 total intersections. Four performance measures were used to develop threshold values for evaluation: platoon ratio, split failures, arrivals on green, and red-light violations. The performance measures were scaled and classified using k-means cluster analysis and expert input. The results of this analysis produced a score for each intersection and corridor determined from the average of the four measures, weighted by expert input. The methodology is presented as a prototype that can be developed with more performance measures and more extensive corridors for future studies. Full article
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15 pages, 2238 KiB  
Article
Consumer Acceptance in Measuring Greece’s Readiness for Transport Automation
by Evangelia Gaitanidou and Evangelos Bekiaris
Future Transp. 2022, 2(3), 644-658; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2030035 - 19 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1631
Abstract
Transport automation is a reality that is quite rapidly penetrating our lives. Relevant technologies are there, continuously evolving and improving their performance, while countries all over the world are already adopting policy and legislation measures to appropriately introduce their deployment. What is however [...] Read more.
Transport automation is a reality that is quite rapidly penetrating our lives. Relevant technologies are there, continuously evolving and improving their performance, while countries all over the world are already adopting policy and legislation measures to appropriately introduce their deployment. What is however of major interest is how people and societies as a whole welcome this revolutionary transformation. To measure the preparedness of countries towards autonomous mobility, KPMG has been releasing reports, calculating the Autonomous Vehicles Readiness Index since 2017, thus investigating countries’ level of readiness. In this paper we present the calculations with focus on Consumer Acceptance Pillar for Greece, placing it among the rest of the countries considered. The results show that Greece is still low in the ratings, indicating that, although primary steps have been undertaken, still significant work needs to be carried out in terms of legislation, technological development, infrastructure, testing, awareness and training to foster public acceptance in Greece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Mobility and Transport Applications)
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19 pages, 2108 KiB  
Article
Measuring, Mapping, and Evaluating Daytime Traffic Noise Levels at Urban Road Intersections in Doha, Qatar
by Khadija Abdur-Rouf and Khaled Shaaban
Future Transp. 2022, 2(3), 625-643; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2030034 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3539
Abstract
In this study, equivalent hourly traffic noise levels at different intersections in the city of Doha, Qatar were measured and compared to the local and World Health Organization (WHO) thresholds. As part of the study, equivalent sound pressure levels, ambient temperature, humidity, and [...] Read more.
In this study, equivalent hourly traffic noise levels at different intersections in the city of Doha, Qatar were measured and compared to the local and World Health Organization (WHO) thresholds. As part of the study, equivalent sound pressure levels, ambient temperature, humidity, and wind speed were recorded during the morning, afternoon, and evening hours on weekdays and weekends. The results showed that regardless of the day (weekday or weekend), the mean 16-h daytime traffic noise levels at all sites exceeded the local and the WHO’s recommended thresholds. The values of the mean weekday noise levels at the sites ranged between 67.6 dB(A) and 77.5 dB(A), whereas the weekend values ranged between 68.8 dB(A) and 76.9 dB(A). The measured noise levels were also compared with traffic noise levels reported in other countries. Finally, some recommendations to reduce excessive traffic noise levels were suggested. The results of the study could be used as a benchmark of traffic noise levels in the country after the implementation of any countermeasures in the future. Full article
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20 pages, 12519 KiB  
Review
Anticipating Changes in Lifestyles That Shape Travel Behavior in an Autonomous Vehicle Era—A Method-Oriented Systematic Literature Review
by Thomas Le Gallic and Anne Aguilera
Future Transp. 2022, 2(3), 605-624; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2030033 - 8 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2334
Abstract
This article proposes a systematic review of the recent literature on the impacts of the deployment of autonomous vehicles through the lens of lifestyle changes that will modify our mobility practices. It discusses the main findings of the studies, analyzes their links with [...] Read more.
This article proposes a systematic review of the recent literature on the impacts of the deployment of autonomous vehicles through the lens of lifestyle changes that will modify our mobility practices. It discusses the main findings of the studies, analyzes their links with the foresight methods used by their authors, and identifies research gaps. Four components of lifestyles are considered: residential location, car ownership, activity patterns, and tourism. Particular attention is given to the diversity of the reviewed foresight approaches, to the way they complement one another in the construction of knowledge, and to their influence on the forecasts and the lessons learned. Our work shows a convergence of results across methods, especially for expected impacts on household location and car ownership, and the influence of the way autonomous vehicles are deployed. Our analysis also makes it possible to draw up a more comprehensive and nuanced picture of the anticipated changes in lifestyles, and the main sources of uncertainty. Finally, our work identifies several research gaps and avenues for future studies such as the impacts on job choices and tourism, the need for a better understanding of the links between the different deployment models for autonomous vehicles, and the need to explore more scenarios that are compatible with environmentally- and socially-oriented goals. Full article
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16 pages, 741 KiB  
Review
The State of the Art of Cooperative and Connected Autonomous Vehicles from the Future Mobility Management Perspective: A Systematic Review
by Md. Saniul Alam and Panagiotis Georgakis
Future Transp. 2022, 2(3), 589-604; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2030032 - 5 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2492
Abstract
Cooperative and connected autonomous vehicles (CCAVs) are considered to be a promising solution for addressing congestion and other operational deficiencies, as part of a holistic future mobility management framework. As a result, a significant number of studies have recently been published on this [...] Read more.
Cooperative and connected autonomous vehicles (CCAVs) are considered to be a promising solution for addressing congestion and other operational deficiencies, as part of a holistic future mobility management framework. As a result, a significant number of studies have recently been published on this topic. From the perspective of future mobility management, this review paper discusses three themes, which are traffic management, network performance, and mobility management, including congestion, and incident detection using the PRISMA methodology. Three databases were considered for this study, and peer-reviewed primary studies were selected that were published within the last 10 years in the English language, focusing on CCAV in the context of the future transportation and mobility management perspective. For synthesis and interpretation, like-for-like comparisons were made among studies; it was found that extensive research-supported information is required to ensure a smooth transition from conventional vehicles to the CCAVs regime, to achieve the projected traffic and environmental benefits. Research investigations are ongoing to optimize these benefits and associated goals via the setting of different models and simulations. The tools and technologies for the testing and simulation of CCAV were found to have limited capacity. Following the review of the current state-of-the-art, recommendations for future research have been discussed. The most notable is the need for large-scale simulations to understand the impact of CCAVs beyond corridor-based and small-scale networks, the need for understanding the interactions between the drivers of CCAVs and traffic management centers, and the need to assess the technological transition, as far as infrastructure systems are concerned, that is necessary for the progressive penetration of CCAVs into traffic streams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Mobility and Transport Applications)
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22 pages, 1217 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Approaches for Tidal-Flow Lanes in Urban-Road Networks
by Sören Striewski, Ingo Thomsen and Sven Tomforde
Future Transp. 2022, 2(3), 567-588; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2030031 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2152
Abstract
Every year, traffic congestion costs the global economy billions of dollars in lost productivity, particularly in urban areas. Traffic congestion is a complex problem, as traffic conditions may change at any time. Tidal-flow lanes can be utilised as a feasible traffic-congestion-mitigation strategy to [...] Read more.
Every year, traffic congestion costs the global economy billions of dollars in lost productivity, particularly in urban areas. Traffic congestion is a complex problem, as traffic conditions may change at any time. Tidal-flow lanes can be utilised as a feasible traffic-congestion-mitigation strategy to balance the fluctuating traffic demands throughout the day. This paper proposes an adaptive-lane-reversal approach for tidal-flow lanes, to decrease the impact of traffic congestion in urban areas. In order to evaluate the adaptive approach under various traffic conditions, several algorithms and parameter sets are examined, using various network models and traffic demands. As a result, the total travel time of the vehicles in the various networks was decreased by up to 81%. Full article
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