Previously Unrecorded Invasive Species and the Unsatisfying Knowledge of Turtle Communities in Northern Vietnam
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Taxonomic Note
2.2. Study Areas
2.4. Statistical Analysis
3.1. Socio-Economic Profile of the Fishers
3.2. Habitat Protection and Conservation
3.3. Fishers and Turtles
3.4. Turtle Diversity
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A.1. DEMOGRAPHY OF FISHERS
- What is your marital status? (a) single (b) married (c) divorced (d) widowed;
- What is your highest level of education: (a) illiterate (b) primary (c) secondary (d) university (e) other;
Appendix A.2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROWTH INDICATOR
- When did you begin fishing in your life? (a) <5 years old, (b) 5–10 years old, (c) 10–20 years old, (d) 20–30 years old, (e) 30–40 years old.
- Did you start fishing in this area? (a) Yes (b) No. If not, where did you start your fishing and when?
- How did you become a fisherman? (a) trained by family members (b) motivated by friends (c) only source of income available (d) vocational training (e) traditional knowledge (f) other
- How intensively do you fish? (a) full time (b) part-time (c) other
- Will your children become fishers as well? (a) Yes (b) No (c) not necessarily (d) I don’t know (e) Preferably not.
Appendix A.3. HABITAT PROTECTION AND CONSERVATION
- How would you describe the condition of fish stocks within this area? (a) fully exploited (b) unexploited (c) depleted with loss of species (d) not depleted (e) I don’t know.
- Has fishing depleted stocks of any exploited species? (a) Yes (b) No (c) I don’t know. If the answer is Yes, please name the species that you consider having been depleted.
- By what means have fish stocks been depleted? (a) illegal gears (b) increased number of fishers (c) narrowing focus on few target species (d) increased price for fish (e) continued fishing within the same grounds (f) others;
- Are your fishing grounds in a good state? (a) Yes (b) No (c) I don’t know.
- How would you describe the fishing grounds in this area 10 years ago/compared with now?(a) highly productive (b) moderately productive—sign of degradation observed (c) scarcely productive—degradation evident (d) non-productive—heavily degraded and depleted (e) I don’t know.
- Are there any places in this area that were once productive fishing grounds but are now depleted? (a) Yes (b) No (c) I don’t know.
- How many days in a month do you go fishing? (a) once a week (b) twice a week (c) three times a week (d) four times a week (e) five times a week (f) six times a week (g) everyday (h) zero.
Appendix A.4. FISHERS AND TURTLES
- What types of fishing gear is used to catch freshwater turtle in this area? (a) stationary gill nets (b) cast nets (c) hooks and long line (d) other;
- How many individual turtles do you catch every month during your fishing activities? (a) zero (b) less than one (c) one turtle (d) two turtles (e) three turtles (f) four turtles (g) more than five turtles.
- How would you describe the conditions of the turtle stock in this area? (a) fully exploited (b) unexploited (c) depleted with loss of species (d) other;
- To whom do you sell turtles? (a) private individuals (b) traders (c) retailers (d) others;
- What is the value of in cash of different turtle species?
- Are you aware that the freshwater turtles are threatened with extinction, and have been included under the IUCN Red List? (a) Yes (b) No.
- Do you want to be involved in turtle protection? (a) Yes (b) No. If your answer is Yes, how do you think that it could be possible to protect/conserve threatened turtles?
- What is your view concerning the creation of a community protected/gazette area in this location? Strongly disagree [a], disagree [b], indifferent [c], agree [d], strongly agree [e].
- Please, indicate the location of the main turtle breeding grounds in this area.
- Have you seen turtles with big red spots on their heads? (a) Yes (b) No (the interviewer shows a series of photographs of Trachemys scripta elegans), pretending that this species is the main focus of our interview. When was the last time you saw them? Can you describe their habitat?
- Are there very large turtles (> 50 kg weight) in this area? (a) Yes (b) No. If yes, when did you see them last? Can you describe their habitat? Do all turtles try to bite you? The interviewer then displays photographs of turtle species for the interviewee to choose from: Amyda cartilaginea, Rafetus swinhoei, Palea steindachneri, and Centrochelys sulcata.
- What are the best turtle breeding sites in this area? (a) riparian sandy beaches surrounding the River (b) sandy-grassed shallow banks surrounding the River (c) riparian grasslands surrounding the River (d) deep water (e) riparian wetlands and ponds (f) small creeks (g) lakes (h) I don’t know (f) other;
- What is the main turtle reproductive season in this area? (a) January, (b) February, (c) March, (d) April, (e) May, (f) June, (g) July, (h) August, (i) September, (j) October, (k) November, (l) December, (m) I don’t know;
- How long does it take for turtle eggs to hatch? (a) 1–2 weeks, (2) 2–4 weeks, (c) 4–5 weeks, (d) 5–6 weeks, (e) 6–7 weeks, (f) more than 8 weeks, (g) I don’t know;
- To what extent do you agree/disagree with the following statements?
- Local people tend to eat turtle eggs once they find them.Strongly disagree      strongly agree
- Local people choose to protect/preserve turtle eggs once they find them.Strongly disagree      strongly agree
- Local people prefer to sell turtle eggs once they find them.Strongly disagree      strongly agree
- Local people believe that eating turtle meat will allow them to live longer.Strongly disagree      strongly agree
- Local people value traditional and cultural uses of turtle shells and;Strongly disagree      strongly agree
- Local people believe that eating turtle meat can heal diseases.Strongly disagree      strongly agree
- Local people hunt turtles because there is demand in the market.Strongly disagree      strongly agree
- Do you keep any skull, shell, picture, specimen of turtle among your properties?
- How far from your home do you travel when fishing?
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Ducotterd, C.; Le Duc, O.; Van Pham, T.; Leprince, B.; Bordes, C.; Nghiêm, T.L.; Thu, P.H.; Le, A.T.; Tran, B.Q.; Luu, V.Q.; et al. Previously Unrecorded Invasive Species and the Unsatisfying Knowledge of Turtle Communities in Northern Vietnam. Conservation 2023, 3, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/conservation3010001
Ducotterd C, Le Duc O, Van Pham T, Leprince B, Bordes C, Nghiêm TL, Thu PH, Le AT, Tran BQ, Luu VQ, et al. Previously Unrecorded Invasive Species and the Unsatisfying Knowledge of Turtle Communities in Northern Vietnam. Conservation. 2023; 3(1):1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/conservation3010001Chicago/Turabian Style
Ducotterd, Charlotte, Olivier Le Duc, Thong Van Pham, Benjamin Leprince, Cédric Bordes, Thinh Ly Nghiêm, Phuong Ho Thu, An Thanh Le, Bao Quang Tran, Vinh Quang Luu, and et al. 2023. "Previously Unrecorded Invasive Species and the Unsatisfying Knowledge of Turtle Communities in Northern Vietnam" Conservation 3, no. 1: 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/conservation3010001