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Biomechanics, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 14 articles

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11 pages, 1231 KiB  
Article
Capturing in Season Change-of-Direction Movement Pattern Change in Youth Soccer Players with Inertial Measurement Units
by Aki-Matti Alanen, Olivia L. Bruce, Lauren C. Benson, Mathieu Chin, Carla van den Berg, Matthew J. Jordan, Reed Ferber and Kati Pasanen
Biomechanics 2023, 3(1), 155-165; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics3010014 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1785
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the utility of inertial measurement unit (IMU) technology to identify angle, step-specific, and side-specific differences between youth soccer players with and without a history of lower limb injury during soccer-specific field tests. Thirty-two youths (mean age 16.4 years) [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the utility of inertial measurement unit (IMU) technology to identify angle, step-specific, and side-specific differences between youth soccer players with and without a history of lower limb injury during soccer-specific field tests. Thirty-two youths (mean age 16.4 years) who were elite soccer players (Females n = 13, Males n = 19) wore IMUs during pre- and postseason soccer-specific change-of-direction assessments. A response feature analysis was used to compare the change in peak resultant acceleration of the groups at a level of significance of p < 0.05. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in change of peak resultant acceleration of right leg final foot contact in a 180° pivot turn (p = 0.012, ES = 1.0) and a 90° cut (p = 0.04, ES = 0.75) between the two groups. These data suggest that players with a history of lower limb injury might experience greater angle and side-specific change within a season in peak resultant acceleration when compared with injury-free athletes. This study demonstrates that IMUs may present a useful method to analyze youth soccer players’ change of direction movement after returning to play. These results can inform future studies investigating player monitoring and may prove to be a useful tool for coaches when designing individualized training programs in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sport Injuries)
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19 pages, 1075 KiB  
Review
Spine Bracing: When to Utilize—A Narrative Review
by John L. Cerillo, Alexander N. Becsey, Chai P. Sanghadia, Kevin T. Root and Brandon Lucke-Wold
Biomechanics 2023, 3(1), 136-154; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics3010013 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3403
Abstract
Spinal bracing is a common non-surgical technique that allows clinicians to prevent and correct malformations or injuries of a patient’s spinal column. This review will explore the current standards of practice on spinal brace utilization. Specifically, it will highlight bracing usage in traumatic [...] Read more.
Spinal bracing is a common non-surgical technique that allows clinicians to prevent and correct malformations or injuries of a patient’s spinal column. This review will explore the current standards of practice on spinal brace utilization. Specifically, it will highlight bracing usage in traumatic injuries, pregnancy, pediatrics, osteoporosis, and hyperkyphosis; address radiological findings concurrent with brace usage; and provide an overview of the braces currently available and advancements in the field. In doing so, we aim to improve clinicians’ understanding and knowledge of bracing in common spinal pathologies to promote their appropriate use and improve patient outcomes. Full article
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12 pages, 521 KiB  
Review
An Overview of Selected Material Properties in Finite Element Modeling of the Human Femur
by Pourya Bazyar, Andreas Baumgart, Holm Altenbach and Anna Usbeck
Biomechanics 2023, 3(1), 124-135; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics3010012 - 08 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
Specific finite detail modeling of the human body gives a capable primary enhancement to the prediction of damage risk through automobile impact. Currently, car crash protection countermeasure improvement is based on an aggregate of testing with installed anthropomorphic test devices (i.e., ATD or [...] Read more.
Specific finite detail modeling of the human body gives a capable primary enhancement to the prediction of damage risk through automobile impact. Currently, car crash protection countermeasure improvement is based on an aggregate of testing with installed anthropomorphic test devices (i.e., ATD or dummy) and a mixture of multibody (dummy) and finite element detail (vehicle) modeling. If an incredibly easy finite element detail version can be advanced to capture extra statistics beyond the abilities of the multi-body structures, it might allow advanced countermeasure improvement through a more targeted prediction of overall performance. Numerous research has been done on finite element analysis of broken femurs. However, there are two missing pieces of information: 1- choosing the right material properties, and 2- designing a precise model including the inner structure of the bone. In this research, most of the chosen material properties for femur bone will be discussed and evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tissue and Vascular Biomechanics)
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9 pages, 2165 KiB  
Article
3D-Printed Encapsulation of Thin-Film Transducers for Reliable Force Measurement in Biomedical Applications
by Raffaele Pertusio and Silvestro Roatta
Biomechanics 2023, 3(1), 115-123; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics3010011 - 08 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
In biomedical studies as well as in clinical trials, it is often useful to have a reliable measure of the force exerted by the body (e.g., clenching force at the teeth or pinch force at fingertips) or on the body by external stimuli [...] Read more.
In biomedical studies as well as in clinical trials, it is often useful to have a reliable measure of the force exerted by the body (e.g., clenching force at the teeth or pinch force at fingertips) or on the body by external stimuli (e.g., taps to elicit reflexes or local pressure for nociceptive stimulation). Thin-film sensors such as FlexiForce® provide a very handy and versatile solution for these applications, but can be easily damaged and offer poor accuracy and repeatability, being heavily affected by the surface material they come into contact with. The aim of the study is the realization of a 3D-printed housing that completely embeds the sensor, thus providing mechanical protection and increasing the reliability of the measurement. The increasing availability of 3D printers and of printing materials for medical use allows the user to shape the housing according to specific needs, with short developing time and low cost. Full article
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12 pages, 16231 KiB  
Article
Effect of Aging on the Trunk and Lower Limb Kinematics during Gait on a Compliant Surface in Healthy Individuals
by Keita Honda, Yusuke Sekiguchi and Shin-Ichi Izumi
Biomechanics 2023, 3(1), 103-114; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics3010010 - 24 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1853
Abstract
Older adults have a smaller effective living space and reduced physical activity. Although walking ability in various living spaces is necessary to maintain a healthy life and a high level of physical activity, it is unclear how older adults adapt to compliant surfaces [...] Read more.
Older adults have a smaller effective living space and reduced physical activity. Although walking ability in various living spaces is necessary to maintain a healthy life and a high level of physical activity, it is unclear how older adults adapt to compliant surfaces when walking. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the trunk and lower limb kinematics while walking on a level versus compliant surface, and the effect of aging on these kinematic changes. Twenty-two healthy individuals (aged from 20–80 years) were asked to walk along a 7-m walkway at a comfortable speed on a level and compliant surface. Gait kinematics were measured using a three-dimensional camera-based motion analysis system. We found that knee and hip flexion and ankle plantarflexion angles in the early stance phase and thoracic flexion angle throughout the gait cycle were significantly increased when walking on a compliant surface versus a level surface. The change in the thoracic flexion angle, ankle plantarflexion angle, and cadence between level and compliant surfaces was significantly correlated with age. Therefore, older adults use increased thoracic flexion and ankle plantarflexion angles along with a higher cadence to navigate compliant surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Movement Analysis)
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10 pages, 1564 KiB  
Article
Lower-Extremity Kinematics of Soccer Players with Chronic Ankle Instability during Running: A Case-Control Study
by Akihiro Tamura, Keita Shimura and Yuri Inoue
Biomechanics 2023, 3(1), 93-102; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics3010009 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2108
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of lower-extremity kinematics during the running of soccer players with chronic ankle instability (CAI) in comparison to those without CAI. Twenty-two male college soccer players participated in this study. Twelve players were assigned [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of lower-extremity kinematics during the running of soccer players with chronic ankle instability (CAI) in comparison to those without CAI. Twenty-two male college soccer players participated in this study. Twelve players were assigned to the CAI group and ten players to the non-CAI group, and players were diagnosed according to the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Kinematic data of the hip, knee, ankle, foot, and ground reaction force components during the stance phase of running were obtained using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The results revealed that soccer players with CAI who landed with ankle inversion and other characteristic kinematics in their lower extremity during the stance phase of running were similar to those without CAI. These results show that running kinematics in soccer players are not affected by the presence or absence of CAI. Future studies based on the results of this study may contribute to the analysis of the risk of developing CAI during soccer and may also help prevent lateral ankle sprains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sport Injuries)
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14 pages, 1536 KiB  
Article
Quantification of Cycling Smoothness in Children with Cerebral Palsy
by Ahad Behboodi, Ashwini Sansare and Samuel C. K. Lee
Biomechanics 2023, 3(1), 79-92; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics3010008 - 06 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1304
Abstract
Smoothness is a hallmark of skilled, coordinated movement, however, mathematically quantifying movement smoothness is nuanced. Several smoothness metrics exist, each having its own limitations and may be specific to a particular motion such as upper limb reaching. To date, there is no consensus [...] Read more.
Smoothness is a hallmark of skilled, coordinated movement, however, mathematically quantifying movement smoothness is nuanced. Several smoothness metrics exist, each having its own limitations and may be specific to a particular motion such as upper limb reaching. To date, there is no consensus on which smoothness metric is the most appropriate for assessing cycling motion in children with cerebral palsy (CP). We evaluated the ability of four preexisting metrics, dimensionless jerk, spectral arc length measure, roughness index, and cross-correlation; and two new metrics, arc length and root mean square error, to quantify the smoothness of cycling in a preexisting dataset from children with CP (mean age 13.7 ± 2.6 years). First, to measure the repeatability of each measure in distinguishing between different levels of un-smoothness, we applied each metric to a set of simulated crank motion signals with a known number of aberrant revolutions using subjects’ actual crank angle data. Second, we used discriminant function analysis to statistically compare the strength of the six metrics, relative to each other, to discriminate between a smooth cycling motion obtained from a dataset of typically developed children (TD), the control group (mean age 14.9 ± 1.4 years), and a less smooth, halted cycling motion obtained from children with CP. Our results show that (1) ArcL showed the highest repeatability in accurately quantifying an unsmooth motion when the same cycling revolutions were presented in a different order, and (2) ArcL and DJ had the highest discriminatory ability to differentiate between an unsmooth and smooth cycling motion. Combining the results from the repeatability and discriminatory analysis, ArcL was the most repeatable and sensitive metric in identifying unsmooth, halted cycling motion from smooth motion. ArcL can hence be used as a metric in future studies to quantify changes in the smoothness of cycling motion pre- vs. post-interventions. Further, this metric may serve as a tool to track motor recovery not just in individuals with CP but in other patient populations with similar neurological deficits that may present with halted, unsmooth cycling motion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Movement Analysis)
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8 pages, 2146 KiB  
Communication
Lower Baskets and Smaller Balls Influence Mini-Basketball Players’ Throwing Motions
by Carina Thomas, Kevin Nolte, Marcus Schmidt and Thomas Jaitner
Biomechanics 2023, 3(1), 71-78; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics3010007 - 01 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1804
Abstract
Children have different anthropometrical size ratios in relation to ball and basket compared to adults, but usually compete on the same basket height and field. Therefore, they have to adapt their throwing technique, which might result in movement patterns unfavorable for long-term performance [...] Read more.
Children have different anthropometrical size ratios in relation to ball and basket compared to adults, but usually compete on the same basket height and field. Therefore, they have to adapt their throwing technique, which might result in movement patterns unfavorable for long-term performance development. In this study, we analyze how children adapt their throwing techniques to different conditions. Seven basketball players (10.14 ± 1.12 years) completed a total of 60 throws, combining different ball sizes, basket heights, and distances. The throwing movements were captured by a 3D motion capture system. Accumulated distances between all time courses of angles, angular accelerations, and velocities served as similarity measures and were analyzed by cluster analysis, including purity measures. Considering all throws, a division into seven clusters separated each individual. For all subjects, distances accounted for the most changes in the throwing motion (purity 0.81–1). In the subclusters, the basket heights were not a decisive condition (purity 0.42–0.63). However, an increase in purity was found compared to the main clusters. Children seem to adapt their movement behavior primarily to throwing distances and subordinately to basket heights, which indicates that changing playing conditions (e.g., closer 3-point line, lower baskets) might be beneficial in mini-basketball. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Biomechanics)
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2 pages, 170 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Biomechanics in 2022
by Biomechanics Editorial Office
Biomechanics 2023, 3(1), 69-70; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics3010006 - 12 Jan 2023
Viewed by 803
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
17 pages, 727 KiB  
Systematic Review
Biomechanical Research Methods Used in Acrobatic Gymnastics: A Systematic Review
by Isaura Leite, Pedro Fonseca, Lurdes Ávila-Carvalho, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Márcio Goethel, Luis Mochizuki and Filipe Conceição
Biomechanics 2023, 3(1), 52-68; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics3010005 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3166
Abstract
The biomechanical analysis of Acrobatic Gymnastics elements has not been extensively explored in scientific research to date. Due to the increased challenge of implementing experimental protocols and collecting data from multiple individuals, it is required to develop strategies that allow a safe, valid [...] Read more.
The biomechanical analysis of Acrobatic Gymnastics elements has not been extensively explored in scientific research to date. Due to the increased challenge of implementing experimental protocols and collecting data from multiple individuals, it is required to develop strategies that allow a safe, valid and reproducible methodology. This work aims to collect information and systematically analyze the biomechanical approach in Acrobatic Gymnastics to date. A search was conducted in the Web of Science, Scopus, EBSCO, PubMed and ISBS databases. After the selection and quality-control phases, fourteen documents were included. The results revealed that the biomechanical research in Acrobatics has been focused on balance evaluation, in which the force plate and the center of pressure are the most used instrument and variable, respectively. Research has been focused on kinetics evaluation. Kinematics analysis of pair/group elements would provide scientific answers to unresolved problems, considering that Gymnastics provides almost limitless possibilities to study human motion. Researchers should focus on the type of element, difficulty degree, main characteristics, relationship between the instrument and floor surface specificity and safety conditions. We encourage gymnastics clubs and coaches to establish networks with biomechanics laboratories, allowing to bridge the gap between research and practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Biomechanics)
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7 pages, 242 KiB  
Article
Preparedness during Head Impacts in Intercollegiate Men’s and Women’s Soccer Athletes
by Bradley C. Jackson, Catherine E. Rogerson, Debbie A. Bradney, Katherine M. Breedlove and Thomas G. Bowman
Biomechanics 2023, 3(1), 45-51; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics3010004 - 06 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1439
Abstract
Research in hockey has found that preparedness and activity alter head impact magnitudes. It is unknown if similar occurrences take place in soccer. Therefore, our study purpose was to determine differences in the magnitudes and frequencies of head impacts due to sex and [...] Read more.
Research in hockey has found that preparedness and activity alter head impact magnitudes. It is unknown if similar occurrences take place in soccer. Therefore, our study purpose was to determine differences in the magnitudes and frequencies of head impacts due to sex and preparedness. Sixteen female (age: 19 ± 1.05 years, height: 163.68 ± 5.03 cm, mass: 61.36 ± 4.99 kg) and 14 male (age: 20 ± 1.07 years, height: 180.34 ± 5.58 cm, mass: 74.357 ± 8.64 kg) Division III intercollegiate soccer players were included in this study. The independent variables were sex and preparedness (anticipated with good body position, anticipated with poor body position, and unanticipated). xPatch sensors (X2 Biosystems, Seattle, WA, USA) applied over the participants’ right mastoid processes for practices and games provided the frequency and biomechanics of all of the head impacts over 10 g. A total of 860 female and 870 male impacts were verified and coded by preparedness and activity during 1182 female (IR = 727.58, CI = 678.95–776.21) and 801 male (IR = 1086.14, CI = 1013.97–1158.32; IRR = 1.49, CI = 1.36–1.64) exposures. The interaction between sex and preparedness was significant for the combined dependent variables (multivariate F6,3442 = 3.67, p = 0.001, ηp2 < 0.01). Male and female intercollegiate soccer players, although exposed to different frequencies of head impacts, sustained similar magnitude impacts to the head within the preparedness categories. Training interventions should aim at improving technique while sustaining impacts as both sexes often received impacts while unprepared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sport Injuries)
16 pages, 1000 KiB  
Article
Effect of Aging and Cortical Stroke on Motor Adaptation to Overground Gait-Slips: Quantifying Differences in Adaptation Rate and Adaptation Plateau
by Rudri Purohit, Shuaijie Wang and Tanvi Bhatt
Biomechanics 2023, 3(1), 29-44; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics3010003 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
We examined the effect of aging and cortical stroke on the rate of motor adaptation (adaptation rate) and amount of performance gains (adaptation plateau) in balance skills. Fourteen older (≥60 years) and fifteen younger (<60 years) adults with chronic stroke, and thirteen healthy [...] Read more.
We examined the effect of aging and cortical stroke on the rate of motor adaptation (adaptation rate) and amount of performance gains (adaptation plateau) in balance skills. Fourteen older (≥60 years) and fifteen younger (<60 years) adults with chronic stroke, and thirteen healthy older adults (≥60 years) participated. Participants experienced 8 consecutive gait-slips (≤45 cm) to their non-paretic/dominant limb. Slip outcome (backward/no balance loss) was compared using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Proactive (pre-slip stability) and reactive adjustments (post-slip stability, slip displacement and velocity, and compensatory step length) were compared using non-linear regression models. GEE showed the main effect of group, trial, and group × trial interaction for slip outcome (p < 0.05). There were no differences in the adaptation rate for proactive and reactive variables and plateau for proactive variables (p > 0.05). However, both stroke groups demonstrated a smaller adaptation plateau for the majority of reactive variables compared to healthy older adults (p < 0.05). The rate of adaptation to gait-slips does not slow with aging and cortical stroke; however, cortical stroke, age notwithstanding, may reduce performance gains in reactive balance skills, possibly hindering retention and transfer to real-life scenarios. People with stroke may need adjunctive therapies/supplemental agents to apply laboratory-acquired balance skills to daily life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gait and Posture Biomechanics)
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16 pages, 5522 KiB  
Article
Biomechanical Modeling of Cerebral Aneurysm Progression to Estimate Rupture Risk
by Prem Nath Yadav, Gurpreet Singh, Shubham Gupta and Arnab Chanda
Biomechanics 2023, 3(1), 13-28; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics3010002 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
A cerebral aneurysm is a medical condition described as the bulging out of the cerebral artery under adverse pressure conditions. Patients with such medical conditions have a mortality of 20% and additional morbidity of 30–40% due to aneurysm rupture. The currently used imaging [...] Read more.
A cerebral aneurysm is a medical condition described as the bulging out of the cerebral artery under adverse pressure conditions. Patients with such medical conditions have a mortality of 20% and additional morbidity of 30–40% due to aneurysm rupture. The currently used imaging tools such as MRI and CT scans only provide geometrical information of the aneurysm and not the rupture risk associated with the progression of the aneurysm. A novel computational modeling framework was developed to model aneurysm progression and evaluate the stress distribution under varying pressure loading conditions to bridge this gap. Image segmentation was used to segment two middle cerebral arteries (MCA) and reconstructed to design aneurysm models at vulnerable sites for aneurysm progression simulation. Five aneurysm sizes and two different wall thicknesses were modeled to simulate different stages of aneurysm progression. Three pressures (i.e., diastolic, systolic, and hypertensive) were adopted to mimic the realistic pressure loading scenario for the middle cerebral arteries, and the stress distributions across all the models were estimated to understand the rupture risk. It was observed that the induced stresses in the aneurysm walls increased with an increase in the aneurysm diameter and blood pressure. Additionally, an aneurysm with a large diameter and thin walls exhibited a high risk of rupture, especially at high blood pressures. The reported results are anticipated to help medical practitioners predict rupture risks with known imaging-based aneurysm sizes and make timely decisions for such aneurysm conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tissue and Vascular Biomechanics)
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12 pages, 2683 KiB  
Article
Pressure Ulcers and Dressings: A Strain Sensitivity Analysis of the Boundary Conditions of a Finite Element Model
by Nolwenn Fougeron, Isabelle Rivals, Nathanaël Connesson, Grégory Chagnon, Thierry Alonso, Laurent Pasquinet, Stéphane Auguste, Antoine Perrier and Yohan Payan
Biomechanics 2023, 3(1), 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics3010001 - 21 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1507
Abstract
Recently, a new bi-layer dressing was proposed by Urgo RID to reduce the healing time of pressure ulcers (PU). This dressing was numerically evaluated in previously published work. In the current work, the influence on the maximal shear strains of modelling parameters such [...] Read more.
Recently, a new bi-layer dressing was proposed by Urgo RID to reduce the healing time of pressure ulcers (PU). This dressing was numerically evaluated in previously published work. In the current work, the influence on the maximal shear strains of modelling parameters such as the dressing local geometry, the pressure applied by the gauze inside the wound, the wound deepness, and the mattress stiffness, was assessed. A sensitivity analysis was performed on these four parameters. Among all experiments, the mean maximal Green–Lagrange shear strain was 0.29. The gauze pressure explained 60% of the model response in terms of the volume of tissues under strains of 0.3, while the wound deepness explained 28%. The mattress had a significant, but low impact, whereas the dressing local geometry had no significant impact. As expected, the wound deepness was one of the most influential parameters. The gauze turned out to be more significant than expected. This may be explained by the large range of values chosen for this study. The results should be extended to more subjects, but still suggest that the gauze is a parameter that might not be neglected. Care should also be taken in clinical practice when using gauze that could have either a positive or negative impact on the soft tissues’ strains. This may also depend on the wound deepness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tissue and Vascular Biomechanics)
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