The Brother–Sister Sibling Dyad as a Pathway to Gender-Based Violence Prevention: Engaging Male Siblings in Family-Strengthening Programs in Humanitarian Settings
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Site: Syrian Refugee Community in Za’atari and Azraq, Jordan
2.2. Study Site: Malian Refugee Community and Host Communities in Abala, Niger
2.3. SSAGE Intervention
2.4. SSAGE Program Implementation
2.5. Evaluative Study Design
2.6. Data Collection
3.1. Changes to the Sibling Dyad Associated with Girls’ Increased Protection from GBV
3.1.1. Decreased Physical, Psychological, and Verbal Abuse by Male Siblings
“Walid was a guy who bullied his family, friends, and relatives. He listened to no one. When the program started, he wanted to participate. He registered himself and his relationship with his family and friends started to improve. They were surprised by the changes he was going through. He became understanding and his actions changed…his relationship with his sister was based on violence. He ordered her and forced her to do things. Now he helps her and doesn’t treat her like a servant. Once he asked her for a glass of water and hit her when she didn’t bring it. After the program though, they started to understand each other. The relationship changed.”(Male sibling from a participatory research activity, Azraq)
3.1.2. Increased Equity in Household Labor between Male Siblings and Their Sisters
“There are many beneficial things that we have learned together. For example, we think that there are many jobs that are only for girls, but SSAGE has made us understand that these jobs are not only for men. Another example is that your sister stacks, prepares the meal… you can see that she has jobs, but “SSAGE” has taught us that you can reduce all these jobs that your sister does.”(Male sibling from a paired interview, Abala)
3.1.3. Increased Emotional Connection and Social Support between Siblings
“The program has affected my relationship with my brother because before we didn’t talk like that, but now with our participation in the program as soon as he hears something he comes to me to talk, we talk, we talk, we laugh, we have become friends. And also before we only would fight, argue, we didn’t even talk, everything that he tells me to do I would refuse to do because I don’t respect it, but now we don’t argue anymore, we talk, we chatter, we laugh.”(Adolescent girl from a paired interview, Abala)
“The brother has changed. He trusts his sister and shares his worries with her. If he faces a problem, he will tell her. Sometimes, a girl faced trouble in the street. A guy followed her, and someone saw that. The brother knew and he didn’t trust his sister anymore. He suspected her and she didn’t leave the house without him. The program teaches him that if something like this happened, he shouldn’t suspect his sister. He should trust her and answer back to people who talk about her.”(Adolescent girl from a paired interview, Za’atari)
“He has changed because he got information … that his sister shouldn’t be pressured and deprived from education. He refused to take her to educational institutions because he didn’t want her to go. Now, it is ok with him and when I tell him to take her because she is going alone without her sisters, he would immediately change his clothes and willingly take her. He used to take her sometimes but unwillingly and only because I told him to.”(Female caregiver from an in-depth interview, Azraq)
3.2. Pathways of Change in the Sibling Dyad
3.2.1. Male Siblings’ Interrogation of Positive and Negative Masculinities
“I’ve seen that the relationship between my son and daughter have changed after the program. He shares things with her, tells her things, and helps her. He is supporting her now. They used to fight but now they have a good understanding. He assists her in studying and supports her inside and outside the house … He thought that he was the guy and she was the girl and end of story. The program helped him change this idea and helped us become cooperative and participative. He helps her with studying and with matters inside and outside the house now.”(Female caregiver from an in-depth interview, Azraq)
3.2.2. Improved Communication between Siblings
“Mostly, the way my oldest son treats his sister [has changed]. He is more gentle and understanding now. If she tells him that she can’t do something for him, he will tell her that he will do it himself. He is more understanding and compassionate now. I don’t know [why these changes occurred] but it is related to the information they were given. Even the way she treats her brother has changed. They both have changed. She used to refuse to bring him things. Now she would tell him that she is tired and can’t do things for him and she would ask him to do his stuff by himself. The way they talk has changed. They treat each other in a nicer way.”(Female caregiver from an in-depth interview, Azraq)
3.3. Unanticipated Impacts of Male Siblings’ Heightened Awareness to Protection Risks Faced by Their Sisters
“Now with the program we have known that with the accompaniment of a boy in a house can help to have an eye on the education of the girls, he is a protector because if he sees his sister in inappropriate places, he will make her come back home. Because a girl who hangs out everywhere can attract problems especially with the ill-intentioned men who will not hesitate to find a thousand ways to attract them with money or materials.”(Female caregiver from an in-depth interview, Abala)
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- World Health Organization. Violence against Women Prevalence Estimates: Global, Regional and National Prevalence Estimates for Intimate Partner Violence against Women and Global and Regional Prevalence Estimates for Non-Partner Sexual Violence against Women; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2018; Available online: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240022256 (accessed on 11 August 2021).
- Decker, M.R.; Latimore, A.D.; Yasutake, S.; Haviland, M.; Ahmed, S.; Blum, R.W.; Sonenstein, F.; Astone, N.M. Gender-based violence against adolescent and young adult women in low- and middle-income countries. J. Adolesc. Health 2015, 56, 188–196. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Stark, L.; Ager, A. A systematic review of prevalence studies of gender-based violence in complex emergencies. Trauma Violence Abus. 2011, 12, 127–134. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Stark, L.; Wessells, M. Sexual violence as a weapon of war. JAMA 2012, 308, 677–678. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Vu, A.; Adam, A.; Wirtz, A.; Pham, K.; Rubenstein, L.; Glass, N.; Beyrer, C.; Singh, S. The prevalence of sexual violence among female refugees in complex humanitarian emergencies: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Curr. 2014, 6. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Global Women’s Institute. Research to Action Toolkit: VAWG in Conflict and Humanitarian Settings; The Global Women’s Institute: Washington, DC, USA, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Baauw, A.; Kist-van Holthe, J.; Slattery, B.; Heymans, M.; Chinapaw, M.; Van Goudoever, H. Health needs of refugee children identified on arrival in reception countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Paediatr. Open 2019, 3, e000516. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Scharpf, F.; Kaltenbach, E.; Nickerson, A.; Hecker, T. A systematic review of socio-ecological factors contributing to risk and protection of the mental health of refugee children and adolescents. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 2020, 83, 101930. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hameed, S.; Sadiq, A.; Din, A.U. The increased vulnerability of refugee population to mental health disorders. Kans. J. Med. 2018, 11, 20–23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Bamford, J.; Fletcher, M.; Leavey, G. Mental health outcomes of unaccompanied refugee minors: A rapid review of recent research. Curr. Psychiatry Rep. 2021, 23, 46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Akgül, S.; Raman, Ş.H.; Derman, O.; Özmert, E.; Bideci, A.; Hasanoğlu, E. Mental health of syrian refugee adolescents: How far have we come? Turk. J. Pediatr. 2019, 61, 839–845. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Baird, S.; Bhutta, Z.A.; Abu Hamad, B.; Hicks, J.H.; Jones, N.; Muz, J. Do restrictive gender attitudes and norms influence physical and mental health during very young Adolescence? Evidence from Bangladesh and Ethiopia. SSM-Popul. Health 2019, 9, 100480. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barada, R.; Potts, A.; Bourassa, A.; Contreras-Urbina, M.; Nasr, K. “I go up to the edge of the valley, and I talk to god”: Using mixed methods to understand the relationship between gender-based violence and mental health among lebanese and syrian refugee women engaged in psychosocial programming. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4500. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe. Report on the Health of Refugees and Migrants in the WHO European Region, “No Public Health without Refugee and Migrant Health”. Available online: https://www.who.int/ (accessed on 15 August 2021).
- Stark, L.; Asghar, K.; Seff, I.; Cislaghi, B.; Yu, G.; Gessesse, T.T.; Eoomkham, J.; Baysa, A.A.; Falb, K. How gender- and violence-related norms affect self-esteem among adolescent refugee girls living in Ethiopia. Glob. Ment. Health 2018, 5, e2. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Juan, C.; Edmeades, J.; Petroni, S.; Kapungu, C.; Gordon, R.; Ligiero, D. Associations between mental distress, poly-victimisation, and gender attitudes among adolescent girls in Cambodia and Haiti: An analysis of Violence Against Children surveys. J. Child Adolesc. Ment. Health 2019, 31, 201–213. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Leventhal, K.S.; Gillham, J.; DeMaria, L.; Andrew, G.; Peabody, J.; Leventhal, S. Building psychosocial assets and wellbeing among adolescent girls: A randomized controlled trial. J. Adolesc. 2015, 45, 284–295. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Rosenfield, S.; Vertefuille, J.; McAlpine, D.D. Gender stratification and mental health: An exploration of dimensions of the self. Soc. Psychol. Q. 2000, 63, 208. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Katz, J.; Joiner, T.E.; Kwon, P. Membership in a devalued social group and emotional well-being: Developing a model of personal self-esteem, collective self-esteem, and group socialization. Sex Roles A J. Res. 2002, 47, 419–431. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Good, J.J.; Sanchez, D.T. Doing gender for different reasons: Why gender conformity positively and negatively predicts self-esteem. Psychol. Women Q. 2010, 34, 203–214. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Bermudez, L.G.; Stark, L.; Bennouna, C.; Jensen, C.; Potts, A.; Kaloga, I.F.; Tilus, R.; Buteau, J.E.; Marsh, M.; Hoover, A.; et al. Converging drivers of interpersonal violence: Findings from a qualitative study in post-hurricane Haiti. Child Abus. Negl. 2019, 89, 178–191. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Guedes, A.; Bott, S.; Garcia-Moreno, C.; Colombini, M. Bridging the gaps: A global review of intersections of violence against women and violence against children. Glob. Health Action 2016, 9, 31516. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Carlson, C.; Namy, S.; Pala, A.N.; Wainberg, M.L.; Michau, L.; Nakuti, J.; Knight, L.; Allen, E.; Ikenberg, C.; Naker, D.; et al. Violence against children and intimate partner violence against women: Overlap and common contributing factors among caregiver-adolescent dyads. BMC Public Health 2020, 20, 124. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Timshel, I.; Montgomery, E.; Dalgaard, N.T. A systematic review of risk and protective factors associated with family related violence in refugee families. Child Abus. Negl. 2017, 70, 315–330. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Sim, A.; Fazel, M.; Bowes, L.; Gardner, F. Pathways linking war and displacement to parenting and child adjustment: A qualitative study with Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Soc. Sci. Med. 2018, 200, 19–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Punamäki, R.-L.; Qouta, S.; Miller, T.; El-Sarraj, E. Who are the resilient children in conditions of military violence? Family- and child-related factors in a Palestinian community sample. Peace Conflict J. Peace Psychol. 2011, 17, 389–416. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gillespie, S.; Banegas, J.; Maxwell, J.; Chan, A.C.Y.; Darawshy, N.A.-S.; Wasil, A.R.; Marsalis, S.; Gewirtz, A. Parenting interventions for refugees and forcibly displaced families: A systematic review. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 2022, 25, 395–412. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Falb, K.; Blackwell, A.; Hategekimana, J.D.D.; Roth, D.; O’Connor, M. Preventing co-occurring intimate partner violence and child abuse in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: The role of family functioning and programmatic reflections. J. Interpers. Violence 2022, 38, NP183–NP211. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Digolo, L.; Asghar, K.; Berry, V.; Mitchell, S.; Rumble, L.; Alemann, C.; Heise, L. Evidence Review: Parenting and Caregiver support Programmes to Prevent and Respond to Violence in the Home. The Prevention Collaborative. 2019. Available online: https://prevention-collaborative.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Evidence-Review-Parenting-programmes-lowres-23112019.pdf (accessed on 28 November 2022).
- Elliott, K.; Fitz-Gibbon, K.; Maher, J. Sibling violence: Understanding experiences, impacts, and the need for nuanced responses. Br. J. Sociol. 2019, 71, 168–182. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Relva, I.; Fernandes, O.M.; Mota, C.P. Exploration of sibling violence predictors. J. Aggress. Confl. Peace Res. 2013, 5, 46–62. [Google Scholar]
- Eriksen, S.; Jensen, V. A push or a punch. J. Interpers. Violence 2008, 24, 183–208. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Krienert, J.L.; Walsh, J.A. Sibling sexual abuse: An empirical analysis of offender, victim, and event characteristics in National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) Data, 2000–2007. J. Child Sex. Abus. 2011, 20, 353–372. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kiselica, M.S.; Morrill-Richards, M. Sibling maltreatment: The forgotten abuse. J. Couns. Dev. 2007, 85, 148–160. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chan, K.L.; Chen, Q.; Chen, M. Prevalence and correlates of the co-occurrence of family violence: A meta-analysis on family polyvictimization. Trauma Violence Abus. 2019, 22, 289–305. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tucker, C.J.; Finkelhor, D.; Turner, H. Patterns of sibling victimization as predictors of peer victimization in childhood and adolescence. J. Fam. Violence 2018, 34, 745–755. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jones, N.; Baird, S.; Presler-Marshall, E.; Małachowska, A.; Kilburn, K.; Abu Hamad, B.; Essaid, A.; Amaireh, W.; Sajdi, J.; Banioweda, K.; et al. Adolescent well-being in Jordan: Exploring gendered capabilities, contexts and change strategies. In A Synthesis Report on GAGE Jordan Baseline Findings; Gender and Adolescence Global Evidence: London, UK, 2019; Available online: https://www.gage.odi.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Adolescent-Well-Being-In-Jordan-Exploring-Gendered-Capabilities-Contexts-And-Change-Strategies.pdf (accessed on 29 January 2023).
- Amin, A.; Kågesten, A.; Adebayo, E.; Chandra-Mouli, V. Addressing gender socialization and masculinity norms among adolescent boys: Policy and programmatic implications. J. Adolesc. Health 2018, 62, S3–S5. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Ingram, K.M.; Espelage, D.L.; Davis, J.P.; Merrin, G.J. Family violence, sibling, and peer aggression during adolescence: Associations with behavioral health outcomes. Front. Psychiatry 2020, 11, 26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Hoffman, K.L.; Edwards, J.N. An integrated theoretical model of sibling violence and abuse. J. Fam. Violence 2004, 19, 185–200. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Joseph, S. Brother/sister relationships: Connectivity, love, and power in the reproduction of patriarchy in Lebanon. Am. Ethnol. 1994, 21, 50–73. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Daly, K.; Wade, D. Gender and adolescent-to-parent violence: A systematic analysis of typical and atypical cases. In Working with Adolescent Violence and Abuse towards Parents: Approaches and Contexts for Intervention; Routledge: London, UK, 2015; pp. 162–182. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Koris, A.; Steven, S.; Akika, V.; Puls, C.; Okoro, C.; Bitrus, D.; Seff, I.; Deitch, J.; Stark, L. Opportunities and challenges in preventing violence against adolescent girls through gender transformative, whole-family support programming in Northeast Nigeria. Confl. Health 2022, 16, 26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Seff, I.; Steven, S.; Gillespie, A.; Brumbaum, H.; Kluender, H.; Puls, C.; Koris, A.; Akika, V.; Deitch, J.; Stark, L. A family-focused, sibling-synchronous intervention in borno state, nigeria: Exploring the impact on family functioning and household gender roles. J. Fam. Violence 2022, 9(22), 1–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- UNHCR. Registered Syrians in Jordan. 2023. Available online: https://reliefweb.int/report/jordan/registered-syrians-jordan-15-october-2019 (accessed on 15 December 2022).
- Krafft, C.; Sieverding, M.; Salemi, C.; Keo, C. Syrian refugees in jordan: Demographics, livelihoods, education, and health. Econ. Res. Forum Work. Pap. Ser. 2023, 1184, 2018. Available online: https://www.jointdatacenter.org/literature_review/syrian-refugees-in-jordan-demographics-livelihoods-education-and-health/ (accessed on 8 January 2023).
- Tiltnes, A.; Zhang, H.; Pedersen, J. The Living Conditions of Syrian Refugees in Jordan. Fafo. 2019. Available online: https://www.fafo.no/zoo-publikasjoner/fafo-rapporter/the-living-conditions-of-syrian-refugees-in-jordan (accessed on 15 January 2023).
- Lokot, M. ‘Blood doesn’t become water’? Syrian social relations during displacement. J. Refug. Stud. 2018, 33, 555–576. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Rabo, A. ‘Doing family’: Two cases in contemporary syria. Hawwa 2008, 6, 129–153. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mousa, D. Syrian Personal Status Laws; Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung: Bonn, Germany, 2018; Available online: https://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/beirut/14969.pdf (accessed on 15 January 2023).
- Syrian Law Journal. A Comprehensive Insight into Syrian Family Law. Available online: https://www.syria.law/index.php/comprehensive-insight-syrian-family-law/ (accessed on 30 January 2023).
- Chynoweth, S. ‘We Keep It in Our Heart’: Sexual Violence Against Men and Boys in the Syria Crisis. 2017. Available online: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325049166_We_Keep_It_In_Our_Heart_Sexual_Violence_Against_MeM_and_Boys_in_the_Syria_Crisis (accessed on 30 January 2023).
- UNHCR. Prevention and Response to Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV)—Midyear 2019; UNHCR: New York, NY, USA, 2019; Available online: https://reliefweb.int/report/jordan/prevention-and-response-sexual-and-gender-based-violence-sgbv-midyear-2019 (accessed on 15 January 2023).
- UNHCR. Woman Alone: The Fight for Survival by Syria’s Refugee Women; UNHCR: New York, NY, USA, 2015; Available online: https://www.unhcr.org/ar/53bb8d006.pdf (accessed on 30 January 2023).
- International Rescue Commission. A Decade in Search of Work a Review of Policy Commitments for Syrian Refugees’ Livelihoods in Jordan and Lebanon. 2020. Available online: https://www.rescue-uk.org/sites/default/files/document/2265/adecadeinsearchofworkfinal.pdf (accessed on 28 January 2023).
- UNHCR. UNHCR Niger: Statistiques des Réfugiés Maliens au 31 Mai. 2018. Available online: https://data.unhcr.org/en/documents/details/63951 (accessed on 25 January 2023).
- Violence Against Women Inter-Agency Group on Estimation and Data (WHO, UN Women, UNICEF, UNSD, UNODC, and UNFPA). World Population Dashboard Niger. 2021. Available online: https://www.unfpa.org/data/world-population/NE (accessed on 30 January 2023).
- Global Protection Cluster, Gender-Based Violence Area of Responsibility. Les Violences Basées Sur Le Genre (Vbg) Examen Des Données Secondaires. 2023. Available online: https://www.sddirect.org.uk/sites/default/files/2023-02/GBV%20AoR%20HD%202023%20Niger%20SDR%20French%20Final.pdf (accessed on 20 February 2023).
- Women’s Refugee Commission. I’m Here: Steps & Tools to Reach Adolescent Girls in Crisis Updates & Learning from Implementation in 6 Countries, 25+ Communities. 2016. Available online: https://www.womensrefugeecommission.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Im-Here_2016-Update.pdf (accessed on 30 January 2023).
- Seff, I.; Koris, A.; Giuffrida, M.; Ibala, R.; Anderson, K.; Shalouf, H.; Deitch, J.; Stark, L. Exploring the impact of a family-focused, gender-transformative intervention on adolescent girls’ well-being in a humanitarian context. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 15357. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Boeije, H. A purposeful approach to the constant comparative method in the analysis of qualitative interviews. Qual. Quant. 2002, 36, 391–409. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Murphy, M.; Ellsberg, M.; Balogun, A.; García-Moreno, C. Risk and protective factors for violence against women and girls living in conflict and natural disaster-affected settings: A systematic review. Trauma Violence Abus. 2022, 15248380221129303. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Cardoso, L.F.; Gupta, J.; Shuman, S.; Cole, H.; Kpebo, D.; Falb, K.L. What factors contribute to intimate partner violence against women in urban, conflict-affected settings? Qualitative findings from Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. J. Urban Health 2016, 93, 364–378. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Wachter, K.; Horn, R.; Friis, E.; Falb, K.; Ward, L.; Apio, C.; Wanjiku, S.; Puffer, E. Drivers of intimate partner violence against women in three refugee camps. Violence Against Women 2017, 24, 286–306. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Horn, R.; Puffer, E.S.; Roesch, E.; Lehmann, H. Women’s perceptions of effects of war on intimate partner violence and gender roles in two post-conflict West African Countries: Consequences and unexpected opportunities. Confl. Health 2014, 8, 12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Hynes, M.E.; Sterk, C.E.; Hennink, M.; Patel, S.; DePadilla, L.; Yount, K.M. Exploring gender norms, agency and intimate partner violence among displaced Colombian women: A qualitative assessment. Glob. Public Health 2015, 11, 17–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Reidy, D.E.; Berke, D.S.; Gentile, B.; Zeichner, A. Man enough? Masculine discrepancy stress and intimate partner violence. Pers. Individ. Differ. 2014, 68, 160–164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Willie, T.C.; Khondkaryan, E.; Callands, T.; Kershaw, T. “Think like a man”: How sexual cultural scripting and masculinity influence changes in men’s use of intimate partner violence. Am. J. Commun. Psychol. 2018, 61, 240–250. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Reidy, D.E.; Smith-Darden, J.P.; Cortina, K.S.; Kernsmith, R.M.; Kernsmith, P.D. Masculine discrepancy stress, teen dating violence, and sexual violence perpetration among adolescent boys. J. Adolesc. Health 2015, 56, 619–624. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Barnett, M.N. International paternalism and humanitarian governance. Glob. Const. 2012, 1, 485–521. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dworkin, S.L.; Fleming, P.J.; Colvin, C.J. The promises and limitations of gender-transformative health programming with men: Critical reflections from the field. Cult. Health Sex. 2015, 17, 128–143. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Mencütek, Z.; Karal, D.; Altıntop, I. Governance of refugee children protection in turkey: Between vulnerability and paternalism. J. Immigr. Refug. Stud. 2021, 19, 316–330. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mercy Corps and Women’s Refugee Commission. Sibling Support to Adolescent Girls in Emergencies: Implementation Toolkit. 2022. Available online: https://www.mercycorps.org/sites/default/files/2022-07/SSAGE-Toolkit-Website-English.pdf (accessed on 30 January 2023).
- Shakya, H.B.; Cislaghi, B.; Fleming, P.; Levtov, R.G.; Boyce, S.C.; Raj, A.; Silverman, J.G. Associations of attitudes and social norms with experiences of intimate partner violence among married adolescents and their husbands in rural Niger: A dyadic cross-sectional study. BMC Women’s Health 2022, 22, 180. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Murphy, M.; Jones, N.; Yadete, W.; Baird, S. Gender-norms, violence and adolescence: Exploring how gender norms are associated with experiences of childhood violence among young adolescents in Ethiopia. Glob. Public Health 2020, 16, 842–855. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|Cycle 1||Cycle 2||Cycle 1||Cycle 2|
|Male and female caregivers||63||30||60||37||190|
|Program staff and mentors||0||8||0||4||12|
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.
© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Koris, A.; Giuffrida, M.; Anderson, K.; Shalouf, H.; Saley, I.; Marei, A.; Seff, I.; Deitch, J.; Stark, L. The Brother–Sister Sibling Dyad as a Pathway to Gender-Based Violence Prevention: Engaging Male Siblings in Family-Strengthening Programs in Humanitarian Settings. Adolescents 2023, 3, 153-172. https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents3010012
Koris A, Giuffrida M, Anderson K, Shalouf H, Saley I, Marei A, Seff I, Deitch J, Stark L. The Brother–Sister Sibling Dyad as a Pathway to Gender-Based Violence Prevention: Engaging Male Siblings in Family-Strengthening Programs in Humanitarian Settings. Adolescents. 2023; 3(1):153-172. https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents3010012Chicago/Turabian Style
Koris, Andrea, Monica Giuffrida, Kristine Anderson, Hana Shalouf, Ibrahim Saley, Ahmad Marei, Ilana Seff, Julianne Deitch, and Lindsay Stark. 2023. "The Brother–Sister Sibling Dyad as a Pathway to Gender-Based Violence Prevention: Engaging Male Siblings in Family-Strengthening Programs in Humanitarian Settings" Adolescents 3, no. 1: 153-172. https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents3010012