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Nanomanufacturing, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Transition-metal-carbides are very promising nanomaterials and are currently used for electrocatalytic applications for green hydrogen production. This communication reports on the one-step laser pyrolysis process as an alternative method for the facile and scalable synthesis of molybdenum carbides/carbon nanocomposites. Commercial molybdenum oxide dissolved in water was used as a low-cost environmentally friendly precursor. The crystallized parts of the nanocomposites are mainly composed of two types of carbides with different apparent crystallite sizes, 21 ± 1 nm and 9 ± 1 nm for Mo2C and MoC1-x, respectively. View this paper
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30 pages, 6279 KiB  
Article
Advanced Fabrication of miRNA-Based Electrochemical Nanobiosensor for Diagnosis of Breast Cancer
Nanomanufacturing 2022, 2(3), 146-175; https://doi.org/10.3390/nanomanufacturing2030011 - 07 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1398
Abstract
Early diagnosis is the key to easy, low cost, and effective treatment of breast cancer. Therefore, studies have been accelerated to identify breast cancer diagnostic biomarkers and diagnose cancer before it progresses. The use of miR-155 as a potential biomarker in breast cancer, [...] Read more.
Early diagnosis is the key to easy, low cost, and effective treatment of breast cancer. Therefore, studies have been accelerated to identify breast cancer diagnostic biomarkers and diagnose cancer before it progresses. The use of miR-155 as a potential biomarker in breast cancer, which has different levels at different stages of the disease, provides a simple serological test for breast cancer prognosis/diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment. Nanopolymers containing different functional groups that are formed by thiol affinity technique were synthesized by mini emulsion polymerization method and advanced characterization studies were carried out in this study to be used as bioactive layers in the nanobiosensor system for miRNA detection. The working conditions of the electrochemical nanobiosensor in which nanopolymers are used as bioactive layers were optimized. Analytical measurement characteristics and validation studies of the nanobiosensor were determined and analysis was performed on commercial blood serum. The potential of the developed electrochemical biosensor to be used as a medical diagnostic kit was explained by comparing it with commercial miRNA kit currently used for the detection of miR-155. This novel nanobiosensor provide sensitive, reliable, and rapid detection of miR-155 and it can provide the potential for breast cancer early diagnosis, prognosis, and follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Nanomanufacturing)
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22 pages, 2238 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Selected Molecules on (TiO2)20 Nano-Clusters: A Density-Functional-Theory Study
Nanomanufacturing 2022, 2(3), 124-145; https://doi.org/10.3390/nanomanufacturing2030010 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1539
Abstract
In this work, the adsorption energies and some of the main electronic properties of selected biological molecules adsorbed onto a (TiO2)20 cluster were studied. With this aim, Density-Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were performed using SIESTA code. The Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE) functional [...] Read more.
In this work, the adsorption energies and some of the main electronic properties of selected biological molecules adsorbed onto a (TiO2)20 cluster were studied. With this aim, Density-Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were performed using SIESTA code. The Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE) functional within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) was used for the exchange and correlation potential. For this study, we chose molecules with very different characteristics and applications in everyday life, including antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamins, and so on. The TiO2 substrate was considered due to its harmlessness and versatility of application in various industries. In particular, we studied the changes in some of the main electronic properties of the molecules after adsorption onto titanium dioxide. For all of the molecules studied here, we observed that this substrate can increase the stability of the adsorbed molecules, with values in the range of 12–150 meV/atom. The reliability of our calculations was verified through additional optimizations with other DFT codes, considering the hybrid functionals B3LYP and M06-L. Our results showed a reasonably good agreement among these three functionals, thereby revealing the possibility of adsorption of the selected biological molecules onto the vertex of the TiO2 nanoclusters. Some of these molecules were considered as possible candidates for the delivery of drugs into the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, promoting the inhibition of this virus. We are not aware of any systematic study that has focused on the adsorption of the selected molecules on a (TiO2)20 substrate within the same framework, including the analysis of the differences in electronic properties through the use of different functionals. Full article
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12 pages, 7297 KiB  
Communication
Facile Synthesis and Characterization of Molybdenum Carbides/Carbon Nanocomposites by Laser Pyrolysis
Nanomanufacturing 2022, 2(3), 112-123; https://doi.org/10.3390/nanomanufacturing2030009 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1705
Abstract
This short communication reports on the facile and scalable synthesis and characterization of molybdenum carbides/carbon nanocomposites prepared by laser pyrolysis in a one-step process. Water and commercial molybdenum oxide were used as low-cost environmentally friendly precursors. The nanocomposites are mainly composed of two [...] Read more.
This short communication reports on the facile and scalable synthesis and characterization of molybdenum carbides/carbon nanocomposites prepared by laser pyrolysis in a one-step process. Water and commercial molybdenum oxide were used as low-cost environmentally friendly precursors. The nanocomposites are mainly composed of two types of carbides with different apparent crystallite sizes, 21 ± 1 nm and 9 ± 1 nm for Mo2C and MoC1x, respectively. Thanks to a simple annealing at 500 °C under argon, it was possible to increase the specific surface area around 50 m2/g without changing the morphology of the nanocomposite. Full article
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14 pages, 7481 KiB  
Article
Lipid–Inorganic Hybrid Particles with Non-Lamellar Structures
Nanomanufacturing 2022, 2(3), 98-111; https://doi.org/10.3390/nanomanufacturing2030008 - 02 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1487
Abstract
Nanostructured non-lamellar lipid particles are widely studied in various fields of application, although their self-assembled structure is sensitive to internal and external conditions, which may limit their applicability. The aim of this study was to overcome these limitations and create particles with non-lamellar [...] Read more.
Nanostructured non-lamellar lipid particles are widely studied in various fields of application, although their self-assembled structure is sensitive to internal and external conditions, which may limit their applicability. The aim of this study was to overcome these limitations and create particles with non-lamellar nanostructures which are stable over time, upon drying and heating. This was achieved by the combination of two approaches: self-assembly of lipids and polymerization of alkoxysilanes. Precursors containing one or two unsaturated acyl chains were functionalized with trialkoxysilane headgroups. Contrarily to previous studies, the use of unsaturated acyl chains led to the formation of hybrid particles with non-lamellar internal nanostructures. These particles showed a sponge or a hexagonal arrangement and were named spongosomes and hexosomes. Due to the covalent linking of the precursors, durable structures were obtained. The particles were stable for at least several months and maintained their nanostructures even when they were dried or exposed to high temperatures. The inorganic functionalization of lipids enabled the fixation of the self-assembled nanostructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Nanomanufacturing)
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16 pages, 13059 KiB  
Article
New Machine Learning Approach for the Optimization of Nano-Hybrid Formulations
Nanomanufacturing 2022, 2(3), 82-97; https://doi.org/10.3390/nanomanufacturing2030007 - 18 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1888
Abstract
Nano-hybrid systems are products of interactions between organic and inorganic materials designed and planned to develop drug delivery platforms that can be self-assembled. Poloxamine, commercially available as Tetronic®, is formed by blocks of copolymers consisting of poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and [...] Read more.
Nano-hybrid systems are products of interactions between organic and inorganic materials designed and planned to develop drug delivery platforms that can be self-assembled. Poloxamine, commercially available as Tetronic®, is formed by blocks of copolymers consisting of poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly (propylene oxide) (PPO) units arranged in a four-armed star shape. Structurally, Tetronics are similar to Pluronics®, with an additional feature as they are also pH-dependent due to their central ethylenediamine unit. Laponite is a synthetic clay arranged in the form of discs with a diameter of approximately 25 nm and a thickness of 1 nm. Both compounds are biocompatible and considered as candidates for the formation of carrier systems. The objective is to explore associations between a Tetronic (T1304) and LAP (Laponite) at concentrations of 1–20% (w/w) and 0–3% (w/w), respectively. Response surface methodology (RMS) and two types of machine learning (multilayer perceptron (MLP) and support vector machine (SVM)) were used to evaluate the physical behavior of the systems and the β-Lapachone (β-Lap) solubility in the systems. β-Lap (model drug with low solubility in water) has antiviral, antiparasitic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. The results show an adequate machine learning approach to predict the physical behavior of nanocarrier systems with and without the presence of LAP. Additionally, the analysis performed with SVM showed better results (R2 > 0.97) in terms of data adjustment in the evaluation of β-Lap solubility. Furthermore, this work presents a new methodology for classifying phase behavior using ML. The new methodology allows the creation of a phase behavior surface for different concentrations of T1304 and LAP at different pHs and temperatures. The machine learning strategies used were excellent in assisting in the optimized development of new nano-hybrid platforms. Full article
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11 pages, 3527 KiB  
Communication
Nano-Titanium Oxide in Polymeric Contact Lenses: Short Communication
Nanomanufacturing 2022, 2(3), 71-81; https://doi.org/10.3390/nanomanufacturing2030006 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
Many individuals suffer from myopia or hyperopia and astigmatism owing to the refractive defects of the eye optics or because of the use of inappropriate contact lenses. This study dealt with three polymers Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), Poly(Hydroxyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), and Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) [...] Read more.
Many individuals suffer from myopia or hyperopia and astigmatism owing to the refractive defects of the eye optics or because of the use of inappropriate contact lenses. This study dealt with three polymers Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), Poly(Hydroxyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), and Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) and doping them with TiO2 nanoparticles to evaluate the difference between the effect of each lens on the human eye. The TiO2 NPs were prepared in this work by the sol–gel method to obtain 70–90 nm sized particles. Modulation transfer (MTF) and spot diagram were assessed to measure ocular performance. The PGMA-TiO2 contact lens provided the highest image quality at the lowest probability (P) of about p < 0.0001 when inserted on an aberrated eye system because of its ability to eliminate the chromatic aberrations created inside the eyes having a smaller spot size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Nanomanufacturing)
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