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Mining, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 10 articles

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13 pages, 1021 KiB  
Article
Incorporating Environmental Impacts into Short-Term Mine Planning: A Literature Survey
by Milad Rahnema, Bahar Amirmoeini and Ali Moradi Afrapoli
Mining 2023, 3(1), 163-175; https://doi.org/10.3390/mining3010010 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3781
Abstract
This paper aims to address the significant financial, environmental, and social risks posed by climate change to the mining industry, which is responsible for approximately 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. With 70% of mining projects for the six largest mining companies located [...] Read more.
This paper aims to address the significant financial, environmental, and social risks posed by climate change to the mining industry, which is responsible for approximately 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. With 70% of mining projects for the six largest mining companies located in water-stressed regions, the industry is facing increasing pressure to reduce its impact. Our study investigates the applicability of multi-objective optimization to integrate environmental impact considerations into short-term planning for mining operations. To achieve this, we have reviewed similar studies in various industries and developed an integrated planning framework that incorporates environmental considerations into production planning for surface mines. Our framework has the potential to be utilized in both short- and long-term planning horizons, promoting sustainable mining practices. Through this research, we aim to provide mining engineers with a more comprehensive and effective approach to minimize the environmental impacts of their operations while maintaining efficient production. Full article
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12 pages, 1997 KiB  
Article
Adsorption and Sequential Extraction of Copper in Technosols Prepared from Unconsolidated Mining Wastes Rich in Limestone, Bentonite, and Organic Matter
by Fabio Perlatti, Francisco Ruiz, Xosé Luis Otero and Tiago Osório Ferreira
Mining 2023, 3(1), 151-162; https://doi.org/10.3390/mining3010009 - 05 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1553
Abstract
In this work the adsorption and immobilization of copper ions of four different Technosols constructed with wastes were tested. These soils were made from mixtures of limestone wastes, organic matter, sand, and bentonite. The methods used were “batch” and columns experiments, where the [...] Read more.
In this work the adsorption and immobilization of copper ions of four different Technosols constructed with wastes were tested. These soils were made from mixtures of limestone wastes, organic matter, sand, and bentonite. The methods used were “batch” and columns experiments, where the soils were in contact with a Copper (Cu) rich solution for 24 h and afterwards for 24-weeks. Total concentration of adsorbed Cu, sequential extraction in the Technosols and Cu concentration in the leachates were evaluated. The results showed that the Technosols have high efficiency to rapidly immobilize Cu ions, and the percentage of adsorption varied between 87 and 99% in the batch experiment after 24 h. The sequential extraction showed that the materials used in the construction of technosols demonstrated high affinity for the metal, especially the carbonates and organic matter, which adsorbed 14–16% and 10–16% respectively of total Cu added via solution. However, most of the adsorbed Cu was found in the residual fraction (50–64%), which represented the less labile form of Cu. These results demonstrate that in addition to adsorb great part of the Cu added via solution, the Technosols immobilize Cu in a highly stable form, representing a great option for the reclamation of contaminated-Cu areas. However, the decrease in pH with time (24 weeks) showed a strong influence on the adsorption of Cu in Technosols, influencing the amount of leached copper. We therefore recommend the design of Technosols with limestone wastes, bentonite, and organic matter with periodical control of pH for fast and efficient retention of Cu. Full article
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30 pages, 31436 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review of Large Strain Consolidation Testing for Application in Oil Sands Mine Tailings
by Mahmoud Ahmed, Nicholas A. Beier and Heather Kaminsky
Mining 2023, 3(1), 121-150; https://doi.org/10.3390/mining3010008 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3221
Abstract
Oil sand tailings are a mixture of sand, fines, water, and a residual amount of un-extracted bitumen in varying proportions. Tailings management is highly dependent on the consolidation behavior of the tailings. Although a great deal of work on this sector has been [...] Read more.
Oil sand tailings are a mixture of sand, fines, water, and a residual amount of un-extracted bitumen in varying proportions. Tailings management is highly dependent on the consolidation behavior of the tailings. Although a great deal of work on this sector has been performed to study the consolidation behavior of oil sands tailings, it continues to play a critical role in quantifying the long-term geotechnical stability of tailings storage facilities. A review of large strain consolidation testing that exists, whether in the industry or in academia, has been compiled and presented in this manuscript to illustrate the advantages and drawbacks of measuring consolidation behavior of tailings using these tests. For oil sands mine tailings, it has been concluded that the conventional oedometer consolidation test can result in significant errors in quantifying the consolidation behavior. Conversely, testing procedures such as multi-step loading large strain consolidation tests, large slurry consolidometer tests, centrifuge testing, and seepage induced consolidation tests are widely employed to quantify the consolidation behavior of oil sands tailings. Full article
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15 pages, 8201 KiB  
Review
Review of Non-Destructive Methods for Rock Bolts Condition Evaluation
by Biraj Lama and Moe Momayez
Mining 2023, 3(1), 106-120; https://doi.org/10.3390/mining3010007 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2853
Abstract
Rock bolts are one of the most effective and conventional support techniques widely used in underground mining and tunneling operations to stabilize excavations and jointed rock masses. External factors such as corrosion, overloading, and improper installation can weaken rock bolts, which could result [...] Read more.
Rock bolts are one of the most effective and conventional support techniques widely used in underground mining and tunneling operations to stabilize excavations and jointed rock masses. External factors such as corrosion, overloading, and improper installation can weaken rock bolts, which could result in ground failure causing injury or loss of life and production. Monitoring the health condition of rock bolts will reduce the risk of accidents providing a safer environment for workers and equipment. This paper reviews monitoring methods currently used to assess the condition of installed rock bolts. Furthermore, we classify the surveyed techniques depending on the type of problems they attempt to solve. Presented are methods such as ultrasonics, fiber optics, piezoelectric, electromagnetics, impact echo, acoustic emission, and numerical algorithms. Each method is based on a unique physical principle that aids in evaluating corrosion and strain levels in the rock bolt. However, recent research to detect corrosion has primarily focused on rebar type of rock bolts used in concrete structures. Consequently, more research is needed to monitor the condition of the other types of rock bolts used in the industry such as cable bolts and split set bolts. In conclusion, the paper highlights various methods of studying rock bolt failure initiated by strain, corrosion, and improper installation of the grouts. It also explores the research advancement made for the study of rock bolt failure. This investigation is specifically beneficial to the mining and tunneling industry for better understanding and prediction of rock bolt failure. Full article
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10 pages, 4917 KiB  
Article
Modeling Productivity Reduction and Fuel Consumption in Open-Pit Mining Trucks by Considering the Temporary Deterioration of Mining Roads through Discrete-Event Simulation
by David Meneses and Felipe D. Sepúlveda
Mining 2023, 3(1), 96-105; https://doi.org/10.3390/mining3010006 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
Open pit mining is based on dynamic operations within the open pit, with the haulage operation being the most decisive in terms of the cost and the overall productivity of the operation. A vital aspect for the success of the haulage operation are [...] Read more.
Open pit mining is based on dynamic operations within the open pit, with the haulage operation being the most decisive in terms of the cost and the overall productivity of the operation. A vital aspect for the success of the haulage operation are the conditions of the roads, which change over time due to wear and tear. The present work aims to model and to evaluate the effect of temporal deterioration affecting mining roads in an open pit mining operation through rolling resistance, using the discrete event simulation (SED) tool to evaluate two key aspects of the operation: productivity and fuel consumption. Additionally, to reverse road deterioration, the assignment of a grader with a variable frequency of use will be modeled through a parallel model. The case study is a 5 km road with a slope of 9.5%, a fleet of 10 trucks, and their capacities of 300 tons, loaded in a 24 h simulation model. The results show that not considering road deterioration can mean an overestimation of productivity of up to 600 Ton/hr, and an overconsumption of 78%. The application of a motor grader could decrease the negative effects of roads deterioration, which depends on the frequency of its assignment. The results show that for the rate of productivity and fuel consumption for every hour of frequency that the motor grader does not do road maintenance, the production loss is 600 tons, and the fuel consumption increases by approximately 1800 L in a day. Full article
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17 pages, 14641 KiB  
Article
Use of UAV Images in 3D Modelling of Waste Material Stock-Piles in an Abandoned Mixed Sulphide Mine in Mathiatis—Cyprus
by Georgios Saratsis, George Xiroudakis, George Exadaktylos, Alexandros Papaconstantinou and Ilias Lazos
Mining 2023, 3(1), 79-95; https://doi.org/10.3390/mining3010005 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1898
Abstract
The island of Cyprus is famous for its rich deposits of volcanic mineralisation that yielded large quantities of copper, gold, and silver. The abandonment of the waste material in several dump sites during exploitation severely impacted the environment. A significant environmental issue is [...] Read more.
The island of Cyprus is famous for its rich deposits of volcanic mineralisation that yielded large quantities of copper, gold, and silver. The abandonment of the waste material in several dump sites during exploitation severely impacted the environment. A significant environmental issue is the acid mine drainage from the hydration of large barren piles that cover these old open pit mines. However, abandoned piles are still enriched in precious metals and perhaps even rare earth metals. These dump sites may form a new possible “deposit”, which may attract companies’ economic interest. Removing the stockpiles can be cost-effective, since the secondary extraction process is profitable, in addition to the benefits from the restoration of the natural environment. The case study considered here pertains to the North Mine of Mathiatis, where unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images were used to create not only a 3D topographic map but also to locate these dump sites and finally to create a 3D model of one of these waste stockpiles. The methodology proposed here to locate dump sites by using point cloud data (x, y, z, RGB) and high-resolution images provided by UAVs will assist in the secondary mining of old open-pit mines by defining the bottom and top stockpile surfaces. The reconstructed 3D waste piles can also be used to calculate the volume they occupy and other parameters, such as the gradient of slopes, that are essential for estimating the cost of possible restoration. The proposed methodology was applied to the stockpile STK1 with the most available drillhole data, and its volume was estimated at 56,000 m3, approximately. Full article
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2 pages, 223 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Mining in 2022
by Mining Editorial Office
Mining 2023, 3(1), 77-78; https://doi.org/10.3390/mining3010004 - 29 Jan 2023
Viewed by 814
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
23 pages, 7914 KiB  
Article
Mineral Processing Techniques Dedicated to the Recycling of River Sediments to Produce Raw Materials for Construction Sector
by Mathieu Henry, Laurence Haouche and Bruno Lemière
Mining 2023, 3(1), 54-76; https://doi.org/10.3390/mining3010003 - 20 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2190
Abstract
Dredged river sediments produce a huge volume of mineral materials, which could be incorporated into building materials. Considering the raw sediment preparation, mineral processing techniques fit perfectly to this purpose. This work describes two procedures to prepare river sediments, according to the final [...] Read more.
Dredged river sediments produce a huge volume of mineral materials, which could be incorporated into building materials. Considering the raw sediment preparation, mineral processing techniques fit perfectly to this purpose. This work describes two procedures to prepare river sediments, according to the final beneficial use. The first is a dry procedure of deagglomeration to prepare river sediments with the aim of being incorporated into a concrete formulation to build a bicycle path. A large amount of deagglomerated sediment was prepared, requiring upscaling of the deagglomeration process. Successive steps of sieving and roll crushing were used to obtain deagglomerated sediments. To use it as raw material to produce pozzolanic materials and lightweight aggregates, a second procedure consisting of a wet classification at 63 µm was carried out. Steps of wet sieving, followed by hydrocycloning and screw classifying, were used to prepare several silt fractions under 63 µm. Full article
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28 pages, 7929 KiB  
Article
Current Practices for Preventive Maintenance and Expectations for Predictive Maintenance in East-Canadian Mines
by Simon Robatto Simard, Michel Gamache and Philippe Doyon-Poulin
Mining 2023, 3(1), 26-53; https://doi.org/10.3390/mining3010002 - 01 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6008
Abstract
Preventive maintenance practices have been proven to reduce maintenance costs in many industries. In the mining industry, preventive maintenance is the main form of maintenance, especially for mobile equipment. With the increase of sensor data and the installation of wireless infrastructure within underground [...] Read more.
Preventive maintenance practices have been proven to reduce maintenance costs in many industries. In the mining industry, preventive maintenance is the main form of maintenance, especially for mobile equipment. With the increase of sensor data and the installation of wireless infrastructure within underground mines, predictive maintenance practices are beginning to be applied to the mining equipment maintenance process. However, for the transition from preventive to predictive maintenance to succeed, researchers must first understand the maintenance process implemented in mines. In this paper, we conducted interviews with 15 maintenance experts from 7 mining sites (6 gold, 1 diamond) across East-Canada to investigate the maintenance planning process currently implemented in Canadian mines. We documented experts’ feedback on the process, their expectations regarding the introduction of predictive maintenance in mining, and the usability of existing computerized maintenance management software (CMMS). From our results, we compiled a summary of actual maintenance practices and showed how they differ from theoretical practices. Finally, we list the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) relevant for maintenance planning and user requirements to improve the usability of CMMS. Full article
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25 pages, 6826 KiB  
Review
Electrification Alternatives for Open Pit Mine Haulage
by Haiming Bao, Peter Knights, Mehmet Kizil and Micah Nehring
Mining 2023, 3(1), 1-25; https://doi.org/10.3390/mining3010001 - 01 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5290
Abstract
Truck-Shovel (TS) systems are the most common mining system currently used in large surface mines. They offer high productivity combined with the flexibility to be rapidly relocated and to adjust load/haul capacity and capital expenditure according to market conditions. As the world moves [...] Read more.
Truck-Shovel (TS) systems are the most common mining system currently used in large surface mines. They offer high productivity combined with the flexibility to be rapidly relocated and to adjust load/haul capacity and capital expenditure according to market conditions. As the world moves to decarbonise as part of the transition to net zero emission targets, it is relevant to examine options for decarbonising the haulage systems in large surface mines. In-Pit Crushing and Conveying (IPCC) systems offer a smaller environmental footprint regarding emissions, but they are associated with a number of limitations related to high initial capital expenditure, capacity limits, mine planning and inflexibility during mine operation. Among the emerging technological options, innovative Trolley Assist (TA) technology promises to reduce energy consumption for lower carbon footprint mining systems. TA systems have demonstrated outstanding potential for emission reduction from their application cases. Battery and energy recovery technology advancements are shaping the evolution of TAs from diesel-electric truck-based patterns toward purely electrified BT ones. Battery Trolley (BT) systems combined with autonomous battery-electric trucks and Energy Recovery Systems (ERSs) are novel and capable of achieving further significant emission cuts for surface mining operations associated with safety, energy saving and operational improvements. This article reviews and compares electrification alternatives for large surface mines, including IPCC, TA and BT systems. These emerging technologies provide opportunities for mining companies and associated industries to adopt zero-emission solutions and help transition to an intelligent electric mining future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Envisioning the Future of Mining)
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