ACUX Typology: A Harmonisation of Cultural-Visitor Typologies for Multi-Profile Classification
- SELECTION stage: The selection of cultural-visitor typologies that base visitor classification on visiting preferences (Section 3.2).
- ALIGNMENT stage: The alignment of the profiles of the selected typologies according to the UNESCO Thesaurus terms for describing cultural resources (Section 3.3).
- CLUSTERING stage: The clustering of the profiles of the selected typologies via a three-step clustering process (Section 3.4).
2. Related Work
3. ACUX Typology Development
- SELECTION stage: The selection of cultural-visitor typologies that base visitor classification on visiting preferences (Section 3.2);
- ALIGNMENT stage: The alignment of the profiles of the selected typologies according to the UNESCO Thesaurus terms for describing cultural resources (Section 3.3);
- CLUSTERING stage: The clustering of the profiles of the selected typologies via a three-step clustering process (Section 3.4);
3.2. Selection Stage
3.3. Alignment Stage
- Philosophy and ethics (e.g., philosophy, metaphysics, moral values, positivism, moral concepts, and rationalism);
- Literature (e.g., epic poetry, book reviews, comics, novels, proverbs, speeches, and writers);
- Entertainment (e.g., festivals, sporting events, carnivals, zoos, swimming places, motorsport events, indoor games, hill tribes, desert or mountain trekking venues, and climbing and motorsport events);
- Cultural policy and planning (e.g., cultural agents, cultural finance, industrial heritage, customs and traditions, folklore, and oral tradition);
- Leisure (e.g., entertainment, holidays, indoor games, sports, and swimming);
- Performing arts (e.g., cinema, dance, films, operas, popular music, theatre, and vocal music);
- History (e.g., antiquity, archaeology, oral history, mythology, and genealogy);
- Museums (e.g., historical museums, ecomuseums, art galleries, national museums, archaeological museums, and cultural exhibitions);
- Religion (e.g., religious buildings, churches, synagogues, temples, witchcraft, and zoroastrianism);
- Art (e.g., architects, artists, folk art, modern art, sculptors, painters, contemporary art, film makers, iconography, and religious art);
- Visual arts (e.g., graphic arts, handicrafts, ceramic art, jewellery, engraving, mosaics, pottery, and textile arts);
- Linguistics (e.g., alphabets, acronyms, Braille, dialects, foreign languages, semantics, spelling, symbols, terminology, and translation);
- Culture (e.g., cultural environment, cultural history, mass culture, cultural minorities, cultural identity, Mayas, and multiculturalism);
3.4. Clustering Stage
3.4.1. Clustering of Aligned Profiles
3.4.2. Meta-Clustering of the Aligned Profile Clusters
- The Performing arts, Art, and Visual arts clusters were merged into the Art Seeker profile.
- The History, Museums, Literature, and Culture clusters were merged into the Archaeologist profile.
- The Religion cluster formed the Religious Seeker profile.
- The Leisure cluster formed the Leisure Seeker profile.
- The Philosophy and ethics cluster formed the Naturalist profile.
- The Linguistics and Cultural policy and planning clusters were merged into the Traditionalist profile.
3.4.3. Clustering of Unaligned Profiles
- Seaton’s Epicurean (which describes visitors committed to sensual enjoyment and particularly exquisite gastronomy) formed the Gourmand profile.
- Grün’s Sight Seeker and McKercher’s Sightseeing (which describe visitors who are essentially motivated by modernity) were clustered, generating the Viral Seeker profile.
3.5. The ACUX Typology
- Archaeologist: The Archaeologist visits a cultural space to gain knowledge on the ancient history and the cultural heritage of a destination, as an expert on antiquities and artefacts of the past. The Archaeologist is primarily interested in the classical past, history and archaeology, with a particular interest in visiting museums, galleries, cultural sites and landscapes, archive and manuscript centres, castles, palaces, country houses, architectural sites, museums and religious sites.
- Art Seeker: The Art Seeker feels a close tie between art and literature content, and their professional or hobbyist passions. The Art Seeker is the primary consumer of fine arts museums, art galleries, pottery and photography museums, theatres, concert halls, cultural centres, engraving, graffiti sites, textiles, pottery, painting, sculpture, iconography, handcrafts and literary sites.
- Leisure Seeker: The primary emphasis of the Leisure Seeker while on a visit is staying active and fit mainly by engaging in sports but also in other recreational activities. Culture does not play a significant role when visiting a destination. Even though the Leisure Seeker might visit one, their participation in cultural events is minimal. Rather, they prefer to visit music festivals, sporting events, carnivals, zoos, seaside resorts, indoor game sites, health resorts, hill tribes, deserts or mountains etc.
- Religious Seeker: The Religious Seeker is in constant search of spiritual/esoteric knowledge in order to comprehend the very meaning of life. In this context, the Religious Seeker visits pilgrimage destinations, cathedrals, temples etc, seeking spiritual retreats for spiritual enlightenment through religion.
- Naturalist: The Naturalist loves to explore peaceful and spiritual places, and immerse in the natural environment, having a strong interest in rural heritage or being an ecotourist. Villages, farms, national parks, gardens, caverns, woods, lakes, ecomuseums, cultural landscapes, and wine routes also fall within the purview of the Naturalist.
- Traditionalist: The Traditionalist places a strong emphasis on custom, convention, and tradition. A typical Traditionalist might try to experience traditional cuisine, learn a different language in a village setting, buy arts and crafts, witness traditional cultural performances, enjoy the beautiful scenery and the laughter of joyful villagers, visit tribal communities, ethnic groups, minority cultures, and attend traditional music events.
- Gourmand: Being a bon viveur, gastronome and/or wine buff, the Gourmand is devoted to sensual enjoyment, especially of fine food and drink. They prefer to travel first-class, stay in selected hotels, and definitely enjoy fine dining, wine tasting, food sampling, cookery courses, breweries and distilleries.
- Viral Seeker: The Viral Seeker is motivated to travel by perceiving modernity as essential and by visiting a destination’s highlights and most important landmarks. The Viral Seeker’s satisfaction primarily derives from the mere fact of having "been there and done that". As such they are particularly interested in modern popular culture, pop concerts, shopping malls, media and film sets, technology, industrial heritage sites, fashion shows, and design museums.
5. Conclusions and Future Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|ACUX||Augmented Cultural User eXperience|
|CUX||Cultural User eXperience|
|EKT||Greek National Documentation Center|
|HCI||Human Computer Interaction|
|MAP||Mean Reciprocal Rank|
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Konstantakis, M.; Christodoulou, Y.; Alexandridis, G.; Teneketzis, A.; Caridakis, G. ACUX Typology: A Harmonisation of Cultural-Visitor Typologies for Multi-Profile Classification. Digital 2022, 2, 365-378. https://doi.org/10.3390/digital2030020
Konstantakis M, Christodoulou Y, Alexandridis G, Teneketzis A, Caridakis G. ACUX Typology: A Harmonisation of Cultural-Visitor Typologies for Multi-Profile Classification. Digital. 2022; 2(3):365-378. https://doi.org/10.3390/digital2030020Chicago/Turabian Style
Konstantakis, Markos, Yannis Christodoulou, Georgios Alexandridis, Alexandros Teneketzis, and George Caridakis. 2022. "ACUX Typology: A Harmonisation of Cultural-Visitor Typologies for Multi-Profile Classification" Digital 2, no. 3: 365-378. https://doi.org/10.3390/digital2030020