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Hemato, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 14 articles

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12 pages, 247 KiB  
Review
Is There a Role for Direct Oral Anticoagulants in the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Associated Thrombosis?
by Uzma Faruqi and Karen A. Breen
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 769-780; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato2040053 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2359
Abstract
Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are clonal haematopoietic stem cell disorders. Of the MPNs, polycythaemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythaemia (ET) confer a high thrombotic risk which may be the presenting feature of the disease. Thrombotic complications consist of both arterial and [...] Read more.
Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are clonal haematopoietic stem cell disorders. Of the MPNs, polycythaemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythaemia (ET) confer a high thrombotic risk which may be the presenting feature of the disease. Thrombotic complications consist of both arterial and venous events and the presence of the JAK2 V617F mutation is associated with higher risk. Patients presenting with an unprovoked thrombus, particularly at an unusual site, e.g., splanchnic circulation, should be screened for the presence of this mutation. Historically, warfarin has been the only option for oral anticoagulation; however, there is now increasing evidence and practise to use direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in cancer. The seminal randomised control trials have demonstrated non-inferiority compared to low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with a preferable bleeding profile. DOACs are now the first line treatment for atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolic disease, as recommended by NICE, and therefore there is increasing familiarity with these agents. Furthermore, there are now targeted antidotes available. This paper reviews evidence for efficacy and safety of DOACs in MPN. Whilst no randomised control trials have been performed, several retrospective studies and reviews of registry data have reproducibly demonstrated that, alongside cytoreduction, DOACs represent an effective modality of anticoagulation for treatment of venous thromboembolism in MPN. Furthermore, dosing regimens provide the option for longer term secondary prophylaxis. Use of DOACs in arterial thrombosis is an area for future development and there is already some evidence for utility in peripheral vascular disease. Full article
5 pages, 204 KiB  
Review
Will Mass Spectrometry Replace Current Techniques for Both Routine Monitoring and MRD Detection in Multiple Myeloma?
by Katie L. Thoren
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 764-768; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato2040052 - 9 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2494
Abstract
In recent years, mass spectrometry has been increasingly used for the detection of monoclonal proteins in serum. Mass spectrometry is more analytically sensitive than serum protein electrophoresis and immunofixation, can help distinguish therapeutic monoclonal antibodies from M-proteins, and can detect the presence of [...] Read more.
In recent years, mass spectrometry has been increasingly used for the detection of monoclonal proteins in serum. Mass spectrometry is more analytically sensitive than serum protein electrophoresis and immunofixation, can help distinguish therapeutic monoclonal antibodies from M-proteins, and can detect the presence of post-translational modifications. Mass spectrometry also shows promise as a less-invasive, peripheral-blood-based test for detecting minimal residual disease in multiple myeloma. Studies comparing the clinical utility of mass spectrometry to current blood- and bone-marrow-based techniques have been conducted. Although still primarily limited to research settings, clinical laboratories are starting to adopt this technique for patient care. This review will discuss the current status of mass spectrometry testing for multiple myeloma, the benefits and challenges of this technique, and how it may be incorporated into clinical practice in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Upcoming Diagnostics and Prognostics in Multiple Myeloma)
16 pages, 330 KiB  
Review
The Current Understanding of and Treatment Paradigm for Newly-Diagnosed TP53-Mutated Acute Myeloid Leukemia
by Rory M. Shallis, Maximilian Stahl, Jan Philipp Bewersdorf and Amer M. Zeidan
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 748-763; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato2040051 - 9 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2868
Abstract
About 10% of newly diagnosed and 20–30% of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harbors a TP53 mutation (mTP53-AML). Unfortunately, this biological subset predicts one of the worst prognoses among patients with AML, specifically a median overall survival of about 7 months [...] Read more.
About 10% of newly diagnosed and 20–30% of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harbors a TP53 mutation (mTP53-AML). Unfortunately, this biological subset predicts one of the worst prognoses among patients with AML, specifically a median overall survival of about 7 months with fewer than 10% of patients eventually cured of disease. Although remission rates appear to be increased with venetoclax-based, less-intensive regimens when compared with contemporary, intensive chemotherapy (55–65% vs. 40%), survival appears to be no different between the two approaches. Attempts to discern whether or not the prognosis of mTP53-AML is universally poor have centered around the study of concurrent cytogenetic risk and predicted TP53 allelic state, measurable residual disease status and the impact of conditioning intensity for patients proceeding to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We discuss these considerations in this review and offer the current treatment approach to TP53-mutated AML. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Acute Myeloid Leukemia)
9 pages, 528 KiB  
Review
Treatment in AL Amyloidosis: Moving towards Individualized and Clone-Directed Therapy
by Ute Hegenbart, Marc S. Raab and Stefan O. Schönland
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 739-747; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato2040050 - 7 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2489
Abstract
Systemic amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare protein deposition disease caused by a clonal B cell disorder of the bone marrow. The underlying diseases can be plasma cell disorders (monoclonal gammopathy of clinical significance, smoldering or symptomatic myeloma) or B cell [...] Read more.
Systemic amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare protein deposition disease caused by a clonal B cell disorder of the bone marrow. The underlying diseases can be plasma cell disorders (monoclonal gammopathy of clinical significance, smoldering or symptomatic myeloma) or B cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (e.g., Waldenstrom’s disease or marginal zone lymphoma) with secretory activity. It is crucial to characterize the underlying disease very precisely as the treatment of AL amyloidosis is directed against the (often small) B cell clone. Finally, the detection of cytogenetic aberrations of the plasma cell clone will likely play an important role for choosing an effective drug in the near future. Full article
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12 pages, 1021 KiB  
Review
New Targets for PET Imaging of Myeloma
by Mona-Elisabeth Revheim, Caroline Stokke, Jakob Nordberg Nørgaard, Hilde Feiring Phillips, Alexander Gul Sherwani, Fredrik Schjesvold and James P. Connelly
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 727-738; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato2040049 - 2 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4958
Abstract
Recent advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) have increased the need for accurate diagnosis and detection of minimal residual disease (MRD), disease characterization and localization, and response evaluation and prognostication. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging combines molecular and morphological [...] Read more.
Recent advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) have increased the need for accurate diagnosis and detection of minimal residual disease (MRD), disease characterization and localization, and response evaluation and prognostication. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging combines molecular and morphological information and has been shown to be especially valuable in this disease. The most frequently used PET tracer in MM is the glucose analog 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG). [18F]FDG PET/CT has a sensitivity for detection of MM between 80% to 100% and is currently the main imaging modality for assessing treatment response and for determining MRD. However, 18F-FDG PET/CT has some limitations, and imaging with alternative tracers that may overcome these constraints should be further explored. This article discusses new targets for PET/CT imaging in the assessment of MM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Upcoming Diagnostics and Prognostics in Multiple Myeloma)
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14 pages, 253 KiB  
Article
Barriers and Facilitators of Use of Hydroxyurea among Children with Sickle Cell Disease: Experiences of Stakeholders in Tanzania
by Manase Kilonzi, Hamu J. Mlyuka, Fatuma Felix Felician, Dorkasi L. Mwakawanga, Lulu Chirande, David T. Myemba, Godfrey Sambayi, Ritah F. Mutagonda, Wigilya P. Mikomangwa, Joyce Ndunguru, Agnes Jonathan, Paschal Ruggajo, Irene Kida Minja, Emmanuel Balandya, Julie Makani and Nathanael Sirili
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 713-726; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato2040048 - 28 Nov 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3060
Abstract
Factors contributing to low use of HU among SCD patients exist in high-income countries. The latter leaves a drift of literature on factors for low utilization of HU in developing countries. This study aimed to explore the factors influencing the use of HU [...] Read more.
Factors contributing to low use of HU among SCD patients exist in high-income countries. The latter leaves a drift of literature on factors for low utilization of HU in developing countries. This study aimed to explore the factors influencing the use of HU in the management of SCD in Tanzania. A qualitative study was employed to interview purposively selected participants for this study. The in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 parents of children with SCD, four medical doctors working at sickle cell clinics, and two representatives of the national health insurance fund (NHIF). Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and thematically analysed. Barriers identified were misconception of parents on SCD, financial constraints, regulatory restrictions, worries and fears of medical doctors on the acceptability of HU, shortages of laboratory equipment and consumables, and limited availability of HU. Adequate knowledge of the parents and medical doctors on SCD and HU and opportunities for HU accessibility were the facilitators identified. The utilization of HU by the individual with SCD is affected by several factors, from individual to policy level. Nevertheless, parents of children with SCD and medical doctors working in sickle cell clinics demonstrated good knowledge of the diseases and HU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Non Neoplastic Blood Disorders)
10 pages, 2739 KiB  
Review
KSHV/HHV8-Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Lessons Learnt from People Living with HIV
by Mark Bower and Antonino Carbone
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 703-712; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato2040047 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2587
Abstract
In 1992, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) was discovered and identified as the causative agent for Kaposi sarcoma. Subsequently, the presence of this virus has been detected in a number of lymphoproliferative disorders in people living with HIV (PLWH), including: KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman disease, [...] Read more.
In 1992, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) was discovered and identified as the causative agent for Kaposi sarcoma. Subsequently, the presence of this virus has been detected in a number of lymphoproliferative disorders in people living with HIV (PLWH), including: KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman disease, primary effusion lymphoma, KSHV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and germinotropic lymphoproliferative disorder. Each of these rare entities has subsequently been diagnosed in HIV-negative individuals. The recognition of some of these KSHV/HHV8-associated lymphoproliferative disorders has led to their inclusion in the WHO classification of lymphomas in 2008 and the revision of 2016; however, further revision is under way to update the classification. The relatively recent recognition of these lymphoproliferative disorders and their low incidence, particularly in the HIV-negative population, means that there is little published evidence and consensus on their clinical features and management. The publication of a new WHO classification of lymphomas should yield diagnostic clarity, providing an impetus for retrospective case series and prospective clinical trials in these KSHV/HHV8-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. Full article
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11 pages, 560 KiB  
Article
Alterations of Peripheral Blood T Cell Subsets following Donor Lymphocyte Infusion in Patients after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation
by Ann-Kristin Schmaelter, Johanna Waidhauser, Dina Kaiser, Tatjana Lenskaja, Stefanie Gruetzner, Rainer Claus, Martin Trepel, Christoph Schmid and Andreas Rank
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 692-702; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato2040046 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2019
Abstract
Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is an established method to enhance the Graft-versus-Leukemia (GvL) effect. However, alterations of cellular subsets in the peripheral blood of DLI recipients have not been studied. We investigated the changes in lymphocyte subpopulations [...] Read more.
Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is an established method to enhance the Graft-versus-Leukemia (GvL) effect. However, alterations of cellular subsets in the peripheral blood of DLI recipients have not been studied. We investigated the changes in lymphocyte subpopulations in 16 patients receiving DLI after successful alloSCT. Up to three DLIs were applied in escalating doses, prophylactically for relapse prevention in high-risk disease (n = 5), preemptively for mixed chimerism and/or a molecular relapse/persistence (n = 8), or as part of treatment for hematological relapse (n = 3). We used immunophenotyping to measure the absolute numbers of CD4+, CD8+, NK, and CD56+ T cells and their respective subsets in patients’ peripheral blood one day before DLI (d-1) and compared the results at day + 1 and + 7 post DLI to the values before DLI. After the administration of 1 × 106 CD3+ cells/kg body weight, we observed an overall increase in the CD8+ and CD56+ T cell counts. We determined significant changes between day − 1 compared to day + 1 and day + 7 in memory and activated CD8+ subsets and CD56+ T cells. Applying a higher dose of DLI (5 × 106 CD3+ cells/kg) led to a significant increase in the overall counts and subsets of CD8+, CD4+, and NK cells. In conclusion, serial immune phenotyping in the peripheral blood of DLI recipients revealed significant changes in immune effector cells, in particular for various CD8+ T cell subtypes, indicating proliferation and differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lymphomas)
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12 pages, 272 KiB  
Review
Differences and Similarities in Treatment Paradigms and Goals between AL Amyloidosis and Multiple Myeloma
by Monique C. Minnema, Rimke Oostvogels, Reinier Raymakers and Margot Jak
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 680-691; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato2040045 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2963
Abstract
Although there are similarities in the treatment paradigms between AL amyloidosis and multiple myeloma, there are also fundamental differences. A similarity is of course the use of anti-plasma cell drugs in both diseases; however, the most serious mistake a hemato-oncologist can make is [...] Read more.
Although there are similarities in the treatment paradigms between AL amyloidosis and multiple myeloma, there are also fundamental differences. A similarity is of course the use of anti-plasma cell drugs in both diseases; however, the most serious mistake a hemato-oncologist can make is to use the same treatment schedule in dosing and frequency in AL amyloidosis patients as in multiple myeloma patients. AL amyloidosis patients with >10% bone marrow plasma cell infiltration in particular are at risk of receiving a more intensive treatment than they can tolerate. This difference in dosing and frequency is true for many anti-clonal drugs, but it is most apparent in the use of high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation. While in multiple myeloma in the age group of ≤70 years, more than 80% of patients are fit enough to receive this intensive treatment, this is the case in less than 20% of AL amyloidosis patients. A similarity is the alignment in the goal of treatment. Although in AL amyloidosis has long been recognized that the goal should be complete hematological remission, this has become more apparent in multiple myeloma in recent years. A common goal in the coming years will be to evaluate the role of minimal residual disease to improve survival in both diseases. Full article
8 pages, 893 KiB  
Review
Diffusion-Weighted MRI—The Way Forward for MRI in Myeloma?
by Jens Hillengass, Maximilian Merz, Ronald Alberico and Majid Chalian
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 672-679; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato2040044 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 2976
Abstract
Multiple myeloma and other plasma cell disorders infiltrate the bone marrow in different patterns. While some patients show a homogeneous distribution of the clonal plasma cells others present with focal accumulations, commonly called focal lesions. Novel imaging techniques can provide information on these [...] Read more.
Multiple myeloma and other plasma cell disorders infiltrate the bone marrow in different patterns. While some patients show a homogeneous distribution of the clonal plasma cells others present with focal accumulations, commonly called focal lesions. Novel imaging techniques can provide information on these infiltration patterns and, due to their low invasiveness, can be performed repeatedly and therefore be used for monitoring. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high sensitivity for bone marrow assessment but cannot safely differentiate between active and inactive lesions. Therefore, positron emission tomography, especially combined with computed tomography (PET/CT), has been more widely used, at least for the monitoring of treatment response. Comparative, but mostly retrospective studies, have shown that functional MRI techniques, namely diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), which assesses the movement of water molecules, can evaluate tissue cellularity with high sensitivity, which challenges the dominance of PET/CT in treatment response assessment. This review will discuss the benefits and challenges of DWI and compare it to other available imaging techniques used in patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Upcoming Diagnostics and Prognostics in Multiple Myeloma)
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12 pages, 265 KiB  
Review
Current Status of CAR-T Cell Therapy in Multiple Myeloma
by Juan Luis Reguera-Ortega, Estefanía García-Guerrero and Jose Antonio Pérez-Simón
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 660-671; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato2040043 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2679
Abstract
Current data on CAR-T cell-based therapy is really promising in multiple myeloma, especially in terms of response. In heavily pretreated patients, who have already received proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies, current trials report an overall response rate ranging from 81 to [...] Read more.
Current data on CAR-T cell-based therapy is really promising in multiple myeloma, especially in terms of response. In heavily pretreated patients, who have already received proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies, current trials report an overall response rate ranging from 81 to 97% and 45 to 67% of complete remission rates. Data are less encouraging in terms of duration of response, although most recent trials have shown significant improvements in terms of event-free survival, with medians ranging from 8 to 14 months and up to 77% progression-free survival at 12 months with an acceptable toxicity profile. These data will be consolidated in future years and will provide new evidence on the best timing for CAR-T cell therapy. Moreover, new CAR-T designs are underway and will challenge the current results. Full article
15 pages, 1942 KiB  
Review
Light Chain Stabilization: A Therapeutic Approach to Ameliorate AL Amyloidosis
by Gareth J. Morgan, Joel N. Buxbaum and Jeffery W. Kelly
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 645-659; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato2040042 - 5 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6648
Abstract
Non-native immunoglobulin light chain conformations, including aggregates, appear to cause light chain amyloidosis pathology. Despite significant progress in pharmacological eradication of the neoplastic plasma cells that secrete these light chains, in many patients impaired organ function remains. The impairment is apparently due to [...] Read more.
Non-native immunoglobulin light chain conformations, including aggregates, appear to cause light chain amyloidosis pathology. Despite significant progress in pharmacological eradication of the neoplastic plasma cells that secrete these light chains, in many patients impaired organ function remains. The impairment is apparently due to a subset of resistant plasma cells that continue to secrete misfolding-prone light chains. These light chains are susceptible to the proteolytic cleavage that may enable light chain aggregation. We propose that small molecules that preferentially bind to the natively folded state of full-length light chains could act as pharmacological kinetic stabilizers, protecting light chains against unfolding, proteolysis and aggregation. Although the sequence of the pathological light chain is unique to each patient, fortunately light chains have highly conserved residues that form binding sites for small molecule kinetic stabilizers. We envision that such stabilizers could complement existing and emerging therapies to benefit light chain amyloidosis patients. Full article
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10 pages, 238 KiB  
Article
MRI versus CT and PET/CT in the Preoperative Assessment of Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas
by Francesca Maccioni, Alessandro Calabrese, Lucia Manganaro, Carlo de Felice, Sara Cardaccio, Mariangela Lopez, Arianna Cleri, Gabriela Capriotti, Luigi Petrucci, Carlo Catalano and Alessandro Pulsoni
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 635-644; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato2040041 - 1 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3452
Abstract
(1) Background: The purpose of this study is to retrospectively compare CT, MRI, and PET/CT in detecting lymphadenopathies and extra-nodal lesions in lymphoma and in disease staging. (2) Methods: Inclusion criteria were the availability of TB (Total Body) CT and/or PET/CT performed before [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The purpose of this study is to retrospectively compare CT, MRI, and PET/CT in detecting lymphadenopathies and extra-nodal lesions in lymphoma and in disease staging. (2) Methods: Inclusion criteria were the availability of TB (Total Body) CT and/or PET/CT performed before treatment; MRI performed no later than 2 weeks after TBCT; histological confirmation of lymphoma; clinical-diagnostic follow-up. Using these criteria, we included 64/353 patients with TBCT and MRI performed at our hospital; 20/64 had PET/CT performed in other hospitals. Histology and follow-up were gold standard. (3) Results: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in lymph nodes detection was 84.5%, 94.4%, and 91% for CT and 95%, 98.9%, and 95.6% for MRI. High agreement was observed between CT and MRI regarding the number and size of positive lymph nodes and for disease staging. MRI identified eight more extra-nodal lesions than CT. In the subgroup of 20 patients, PET/CT did not show a significant superiority in sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and staging ability than CT and MRI. (4) Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a mild superiority of MRI over CT in lymphoma staging. Although PET/CT remains the reference standard, MRI demonstrated a similar diagnostic accuracy, with the added value of being radiation-free. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Radiolabeled Blood Elements and Other Imaging Modalities)
7 pages, 644 KiB  
Review
Is It Time for a More Holistic Approach to the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma?
by Faye Amelia Sharpley, Hannah Miller, Roxanne Spencer, Dane Bradwell, Janet Parkinson, Yvette Ibbotson and Simon Jowitt
Hemato 2021, 2(4), 628-634; https://doi.org/10.3390/hemato2040040 - 1 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3520
Abstract
In the UK, approximately 5820 new cases of multiple myeloma (MM) are diagnosed each year. This number has increased by a third since the early 1990s. Considerable progress has been achieved in our ability to treat MM as a result of the development [...] Read more.
In the UK, approximately 5820 new cases of multiple myeloma (MM) are diagnosed each year. This number has increased by a third since the early 1990s. Considerable progress has been achieved in our ability to treat MM as a result of the development of new chemotherapeutic agents. MM is a disease more commonly seen in elderly individuals who frequently have pre-existing co-morbidities and are subject to social pressures that impact adversely on their quality of life (QOL). As their lives are extended by more effective treatment of MM, there is a greater need to address such issues. This review will focus on the holistic needs of a patient with MM, and how all members of the multidisciplinary team have a role. The aim is to advocate for centres to support MM patients to live well with their condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plasma Cell Disorders)
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