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Radiation, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 6 articles

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17 pages, 4164 KiB  
Article
Simulation and Optimization of Optical Fiber Irradiation with X-rays at Different Energies
by Arnaud Meyer, Damien Lambert, Adriana Morana, Philippe Paillet, Aziz Boukenter and Sylvain Girard
Radiation 2023, 3(1), 58-74; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation3010006 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2026
Abstract
We investigated the influence of modifying the voltage of an X-ray tube with a tungsten anode between 30 kV and 225 kV, and therefore its photon energy spectrum (up to 225 keV), on the Total Ionizing Dose deposited in a single-mode, phosphorus-doped optical [...] Read more.
We investigated the influence of modifying the voltage of an X-ray tube with a tungsten anode between 30 kV and 225 kV, and therefore its photon energy spectrum (up to 225 keV), on the Total Ionizing Dose deposited in a single-mode, phosphorus-doped optical fiber, already identified as a promising dosimeter. Simulation data, obtained using a toolchain combining SpekPy and Geant4 software, are compared to experimental results obtained on this radiosensitive optical fiber and demonstrate an increase of the deposited dose with operating voltage, at a factor of 4.5 between 30 kV and 225 kV, while keeping the same operating current of 20 mA. Analysis of simulation results shows that dose deposition in such optical fibers is mainly caused by the low-energy part of the spectrum, with 90% of the deposited energy originating from photons with an energy below 30 keV. Comparison between simulation and various experimental measurements indicates that phosphosilicate fibers are adapted for performing X-ray dosimetry at different voltages. Full article
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12 pages, 1226 KiB  
Perspective
A Review of Magnetic Shielding Technology for Space Radiation
by Kristine Ferrone, Charles Willis, Fada Guan, Jingfei Ma, Leif Peterson and Stephen Kry
Radiation 2023, 3(1), 46-57; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation3010005 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6517
Abstract
The space radiation environment outside the protection of the Earth’s magnetosphere is severe and difficult to shield against. The cumulative effective dose to astronauts on a typical Mars mission would likely introduce risk exceeding permissible limits for carcinogenesis without innovative strategies for radiation [...] Read more.
The space radiation environment outside the protection of the Earth’s magnetosphere is severe and difficult to shield against. The cumulative effective dose to astronauts on a typical Mars mission would likely introduce risk exceeding permissible limits for carcinogenesis without innovative strategies for radiation shielding. Damaging cardiovascular and central nervous system effects are also expected in these space environments. There are many potential options for advanced shielding and risk mitigation, but magnetic shielding using superconductors offers several distinct advantages including using the conditions in space to help maintain the superconductor’s critical temperature and lower mass compared to equivalent passive shielding materials. Despite these advantages, the development of magnetic shielding technology has remained primarily in conceptual stages since the introduction of the idea in 1961. Over the last several decades, magnetic shielding has experienced periods of high and low attention by the human spaceflight community, leading to computational tools with single-use or other limitations and a non-uniform distribution of publications on the topic over time. Within the context of technology development and the surrounding space policy environment, this paper reviews and summarizes the available literature on the application of active magnetic shielding for space radiation protection, identifies challenges, and highlights areas for future research. Full article
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6 pages, 1074 KiB  
Communication
Lymphoscintigraphic Indications in the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of Secondary Lymphedema
by Lucio Mango
Radiation 2023, 3(1), 40-45; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation3010004 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3126
Abstract
Secondary lymphedema is caused by damage to the lymphatic system, often following an oncological tumor removal intervention, or even by an accident. The diagnosis of lymphedema is not easy, because the disease can also be confused with other clinical manifestations (for example, venous [...] Read more.
Secondary lymphedema is caused by damage to the lymphatic system, often following an oncological tumor removal intervention, or even by an accident. The diagnosis of lymphedema is not easy, because the disease can also be confused with other clinical manifestations (for example, venous insufficiency edema), though an experienced Lymphologist is usually able to diagnose it with good accuracy. To confirm the diagnosis, it is often necessary to resort to specialist imaging tests for an anatomo-functional definition of the pathology. Among these, lymphoscintigraphy is confirmed as the “gold standard” procedure for the diagnosis of lymphedema. Lymphoscintigraphy has been included in the Italian Guidelines by the Ministry of Health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Radiation in Medical Imaging)
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1 pages, 144 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Radiation in 2022
by Radiation Editorial Office
Radiation 2023, 3(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation3010003 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 825
Abstract
High-quality academic publication is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
18 pages, 3359 KiB  
Article
Molecular and Cellular Responses to Ionization Radiation in Untransformed Fibroblasts from the Rothmund–Thomson Syndrome: Influence of the Nucleo-Shuttling of the ATM Protein Kinase
by Joëlle Al-Choboq, Myriam Nehal, Laurène Sonzogni, Adeline Granzotto, Laura El Nachef, Juliette Restier-Verlet, Mira Maalouf, Elise Berthel, Bernard Aral, Nadège Corradini, Michel Bourguignon and Nicolas Foray
Radiation 2023, 3(1), 21-38; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation3010002 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1566
Abstract
The Rothmund–Thomson syndrome (RTS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease associated with poikiloderma, telangiectasias, sun-sensitive rash, hair growth problems, juvenile cataracts and, for a subset of some RTS patients, a high risk of cancer, especially osteosarcoma. Most of the RTS cases are caused [...] Read more.
The Rothmund–Thomson syndrome (RTS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease associated with poikiloderma, telangiectasias, sun-sensitive rash, hair growth problems, juvenile cataracts and, for a subset of some RTS patients, a high risk of cancer, especially osteosarcoma. Most of the RTS cases are caused by biallelic mutations of the RECQL4 gene, coding for the RECQL4 DNA helicase that belongs to the RecQ family. Cellular and post-radiotherapy radiosensitivity was reported in RTS cells and patients since the 1980s. However, the molecular basis of this particular phenotype has not been documented to reliably link the biological and clinical responses to the ionizing radiation (IR) of cells from RTS patients. The aim of this study was therefore to document the specificities of the radiosensitivity associated with RTS by examining the radiation-induced nucleo-shuttling of ATM (RIANS) and the recognition and repair of the DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in three skin fibroblasts cell lines derived from RTS patients and two derived from RTS patients’ parents. The results showed that the RTS fibroblasts tested were associated with moderate but significant radiosensitivity, a high yield of micronuclei, and impaired DSB recognition but normal DSB repair at 24 h likely caused by a delayed RIANS, supported by the sequestration of ATM by some RTS proteins overexpressed in the cytoplasm. To our knowledge, this report is the first radiobiological characterization of cells from RTS patients at both molecular and cellular scales. Full article
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20 pages, 4605 KiB  
Review
Views on Radiation Shielding Efficiency of Polymeric Composites/Nanocomposites and Multi-Layered Materials: Current State and Advancements
by Kashif Shahzad, Ayesha Kausar, Saima Manzoor, Sobia A. Rakha, Ambreen Uzair, Muhammad Sajid, Afsheen Arif, Abdul Faheem Khan, Abdoulaye Diallo and Ishaq Ahmad
Radiation 2023, 3(1), 1-20; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation3010001 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4270
Abstract
This article highlights advancements in polymeric composite/nanocomposites processes and applications for improved radiation shielding and high-rate attenuation for the spacecraft. Energetic particles, mostly electrons and protons, can annihilate or cause space craft hardware failures. The standard practice in space electronics is the utilization [...] Read more.
This article highlights advancements in polymeric composite/nanocomposites processes and applications for improved radiation shielding and high-rate attenuation for the spacecraft. Energetic particles, mostly electrons and protons, can annihilate or cause space craft hardware failures. The standard practice in space electronics is the utilization of aluminum as radiation safeguard and structural enclosure. In space, the materials must be lightweight and capable of withstanding extreme temperature/mechanical loads under harsh environments, so the research has focused on advanced multi-functional materials. In this regard, low-Z materials have been found effective in shielding particle radiation, but their structural properties were not sufficient for the desired space applications. As a solution, polymeric composites or nanocomposites have been produced having enhanced material properties and enough radiation shielding (gamma, cosmic, X-rays, protons, neutrons, etc.) properties along with reduced weight. Advantageously, the polymeric composites or nanocomposites can be layered to form multi-layered shields. Hence, polymer composites/nanocomposites offer promising alternatives to developing materials for efficiently attenuating photon or particle radiation. The latest technology developments for micro/nano reinforced polymer composites/nanocomposites have also been surveyed here for the radiation shielding of space crafts and aerospace structures. Moreover, the motive behind this state-of-the-art overview is to put forward recommendations for high performance design/applications of reinforced nanocomposites towards future radiation shielding technology in the spacecraft. Full article
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