A Review on Qualitative Assessment of Natural Gas Utilisation Options for Eliminating Routine Nigerian Gas Flaring
2. Overview of Gas Flaring
2.1. Global Gas Flaring
2.2. Gas Flaring in Nigeria and Efforts to Reduce Gas Flaring in Nigeria
3. Natural Gas Utilisation Methods
- Liquefied natural gas (LNG)
- Gas to liquid (GTL)
- Natural gas to methanol (GTM)
- Natural gas to hydrogen (GTH)
- Gas to wire (GTW)
- Compressed natural gas (CNG)
- Gas to fertiliser (GTF)
- Gas re-injection process (GRP)
- Gas to hydrates (NGH)
- Natural gas to pipelines (GTP)
- Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
3.1. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
3.2. Gas to Liquid (GTL)
3.3. Natural Gas to Methanol (GTM)
3.4. Natural Gas to Hydrogen (GTH)
3.5. Gas to Wire (GTW)
3.6. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
3.7. Natural Gas to Fertiliser (GTF)
3.8. Natural Gas Re-Injection Process (GRP)
3.9. Gas to Pipelines (GTP)
3.10. Natural Gas to Hydrate (NGH)
3.11. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
3.12. Summary of Gas Utilisation in Nigeria
Qualitative Assessment of Gas Flaring Utilisation Options against Various Key Decision Drivers
- Capital Costs (CAPEX)—This is the most crucial driver that determines the project’s practicability and viability. It is related to the netback value of the product depending on type of project.
- Maturity of technology—In terms of cost and reliability, the maturity of the deployed technology is equally crucial.
- Transportation to market—Products with a high energy density, such as liquids, are given precedence or have an advantage over gaseous products.
- Carbon and energy efficiency—Should be assessed on a well-to-wheel (WTW) basis (including all efficiencies associated to fuel production, processing, distribution, and consumption) where products may substitute greater carbon-intensive fuels.
- Revenue/Product uplift—CNG and LNG compete largely with fuels (such as oil and coal) for power production and residential heating, but GTL yields premium pricing by competing directly in the transportation sector.
- Gas composition including sensitivity to contaminants—This is also a major decision driver since the greater the levels of pollutants such as CO2 and H2S in gas composition, the higher the cost of treating gas and disposing of waste.
- Production profile—Associated gas volumes typically vary over the field life. It is therefore important to note the production profile of an oil field.
- Community interdependency—May allow for interdependence/synergies with residents, which may minimise oil production risk from non-technical risk and develop a local market, reducing transportation costs.
- Operational Safety Considerations—These are steps made to guarantee that the ANG utilisation system operation is safe and not hazardous. The more complicated the ANG utilisation system, the higher the unjustifiable risk of hazard incidence and the lower the operational safety reported.
- Product Market size—This is another essential factor in determining the different ANG utilisation choices. It analyses the market’s volume and value, the various consumer categories and purchasing patterns, the competitiveness, and the economic environment in terms of entry obstacles and regulation.
- Plant Scale or Size (World scale)—This relates to the technical size range, which specifies the maximum natural gas throughput rate that each technology can realistically handle, or the production capacity range, which specifies the feasible plant’s overall output.
|ANG Utilisation Technique||Technical Size Range in mmscfd||Production Size Range (Plant Size)||Typical Cost (USD m/mmscfd)|
|LNG||170–1360 (per LNG train)||1–8 Mtpa||3.5–6.5|
|GTL||270–1400||27,000–140,000 bpd (1–5.5 Mtpa)||6.5–10|
|GTM||75–317||1–4 Mtpa||5.5 @ 5 mmscfd |
|GTW *||0.36–180||1–500 MW||2.8–4.7 @ 0.36 mmscfd |
|GTH||20–200||22–224 kNm3/h||2.2–3.2 @ 0.37 mmscfd |
|GTP*||30–3300||-||Depends on size (in inch) per distance (mile)|
|GTF||75–308 (per train)||1–3 Mtpa||2.2–4.6|
|GRP *||5–275||-||0.2 @ 5 mmscfd|
|NGH||>15||>2 Mtpa||120/ton @ 2 Mpta (peak shaving process) |
|Mini GTL||0.2–150||200–15,000 bpd (0.01–0.6 Mtpa)||4.5|
|Mini LNG||0.4–50||0.002–0.3 Mtpa||1.2 (+annual Opex at 4.5% of Capex) |
|Mini GTM||0.3–30||0.004–0.4 Mtpa||15.1 @ 0.3 mmscfd |
- Identifying distinct development phases and the necessary ANG utilisation solution (single or combined option),
- Obtaining high-quality input data from appropriate potential investment parties to conduct adequate analysis,
- Techno-economic modelling of various ANG utilisation options (single or combined option), including an examination of potential net positive values,
- Evaluating the net economic impact of the proposed ANG utilisation options (single or combined),
- Evaluating the sensitivity and risks of ANG utilisation option (single or combined option),
- Consider combining supplies from multiple fields (clustering) to enhance the profitability of ANG utilisation through economies of scale, better capacity utilisation, and increased gas value (via increased sustainability of supply).
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Name of Technology||Usage in Nigeria||Limitations in Nigeria||Existing Projects in Nigeria|
|LNG||Nigeria LNG currently delivers around 40% of Nigeria’s annual domestic cooking gas or LPG consumption needs and LNG sale or export||Limited advances are made to secure small to medium scale LNG projects for increased output and variability of ANG supplies||On Bonny Island in Nigeria, Nigeria LNG runs a six-train LNG facility capable of producing 22 Mtpa of LNG and 5 Mtpa of NGLs (LPG and condensate) from 3.5 billion standard cubic feet per day (bscfd) of natural gas intake .|
|GTL||Production of liquid fuels and chemicals||Small to medium scale GTL projects are yet to commence in stranded gas areas with minimum supply and Inconsistent supply of ANG||The Escravos gas-to-liquid (EGTL) plant (100 km south-east of Lagos) is the first project in Nigeria to use GTL technology. EGTL is a two-train plant designed to convert 330 MMscfd of natural gas into 34,000 barrels per day (bpd) of acceptable products. 1000 bpd of LPG .|
|LPG/NGL||Cooking gas||Limited supply to rural areas of Nigeria because of transportation costs, lack of gas processing facilities and availability of fuel||A two-train NGL plant with 550 mmscfd capacity (that converts ANG into NGLs which includes LPGs) located at its Oso field (offshore) in the south-eastern region of Nigeria. It started production for export in 1998 and produces about 50,000 bpd of NGL .|
|GTW||Electricity and heat generation||Fluctuating or limited supply of ANG, Scarcity of new power investments, poor maintenance of power plant||The Okpai power plant in Okpai community (Delta state, Nigeria) uses combined cycle technology. It has a 480 MW installed capacity and uses 120 mmscfd of gas .|
|Gas re-injection||Enhanced oil recovery and storage||Limited to onsite use, economic unattractiveness to investors and limitation to certain type of reservoirs||A USD 1.3 billion gas reinjection project offshore Nigeria is being operated by a joint venture between NNPC (60%) and Mobil Producing Nigeria (40%) in the Ebok and Amenam-kpono fields. The project is expected to generate 530 million barrels of extra oil at a peak output of 120,000 bpd .|
|GTH||Transport fuel, applied in fuel cell for electricity generation, fertiliser production and petroleum refining||Difficulty in storing and transporting hydrogen and limited market size||Non-existing now.|
|NGH||Transportation of ANG and storage||Immature technology, no commercial application yet||Non-existing now.|
|CNG||Transport fuel, cooking fuel and power generation||Transportation limitation, limited availability||Powergas Africa limited operates four CNG plants in Nigeria, with a combined capacity of around 720,000 standard cubic metre per day .|
|GTF||To boost crop output and nutrient content in agriculture||Limited availability of product, high cost of product||1.5 Mtpa Dangote fertiliser plant in Lagos state.|
|ANG Utilisation Options|
|Decision Drivers||LNG *||GTL *||GTM *||GTH||GTW *||CNG||GTF||NGH||GRP||GTP||LPG|
|Transport to market|
|Energy and carbon efficiency|
|Operational safety considerations|
|Product market size|
|Plant size (world scale) **|
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Abu, R.; Patchigolla, K.; Simms, N. A Review on Qualitative Assessment of Natural Gas Utilisation Options for Eliminating Routine Nigerian Gas Flaring. Gases 2023, 3, 1-24. https://doi.org/10.3390/gases3010001
Abu R, Patchigolla K, Simms N. A Review on Qualitative Assessment of Natural Gas Utilisation Options for Eliminating Routine Nigerian Gas Flaring. Gases. 2023; 3(1):1-24. https://doi.org/10.3390/gases3010001Chicago/Turabian Style
Abu, Robin, Kumar Patchigolla, and Nigel Simms. 2023. "A Review on Qualitative Assessment of Natural Gas Utilisation Options for Eliminating Routine Nigerian Gas Flaring" Gases 3, no. 1: 1-24. https://doi.org/10.3390/gases3010001