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Gases, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 3 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The Nigerian oil and gas industry routinely flares natural gas despite the negative effects on the environment and the economy. What efforts that have been put in place to cut down gas flaring in Nigeria in support of zero routine flaring will be described in this paper? In this study, we use a qualitative evaluation of various available options for making use of flare gas against important determinants of this kind of choice: onshore vs. offshore and site-specific utilisation options, such as LNG, gas to wire, and gas to methanol. All of these options have the potential to drastically cut down on this wasteful practice, and they could reduce project costs and market risk. This article recommends steps for selecting and optimizing economies of scale for an associated natural gas utilisation option with environmental benefits and economic viability. View this paper
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10 pages, 444 KiB  
Article
Greenhouse Gas Emissions of the Poultry Sector in Greece and Mitigation Potential Strategies
by Konstantina Akamati, George P. Laliotis and Iosif Bizelis
Gases 2023, 3(1), 47-56; https://doi.org/10.3390/gases3010003 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
The poultry sector is considered to be one of the most industrialized sectors of livestock production. Although the livestock sector contributes the 14.5% of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, less attention has been paid in the respective emissions of the poultry sector [...] Read more.
The poultry sector is considered to be one of the most industrialized sectors of livestock production. Although the livestock sector contributes the 14.5% of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, less attention has been paid in the respective emissions of the poultry sector compared to other farmed animals such as ruminants. The aim of the study was to estimate the carbon footprint of the poultry sector (layers, broilers, and backyards) in the Greek territory during the last 60 years as a means of exploring further mitigation strategies. Tier 2 methodology was used to estimate GHG emissions. Different mitigation scenarios related to changes in herd population, feeds, and manure management were examined. GHG emissions showed an increased trend over time. The different scenarios explored showed moderate to high mitigating potential depending on the parameters that were changed. Changes in manure management or diet revealed to have a higher potential to eliminate GHG emissions. Changes in population numbers showed a low mitigating potential. However, if mortality could be improved within industrialized farming systems, then it could be an indirect increase in product quantities with a slight increase in emissions. Therefore, depending on national priorities, the sector could improve its environmental impact by targeting aspects related to husbandry/management practices. Full article
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22 pages, 5102 KiB  
Review
The Hydrogen Color Spectrum: Techno-Economic Analysis of the Available Technologies for Hydrogen Production
by Jose M. Marín Arcos and Diogo M. F. Santos
Gases 2023, 3(1), 25-46; https://doi.org/10.3390/gases3010002 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 12259
Abstract
Hydrogen has become the most promising energy carrier for the future. The spotlight is now on green hydrogen, produced with water electrolysis powered exclusively by renewable energy sources. However, several other technologies and sources are available or under development to satisfy the current [...] Read more.
Hydrogen has become the most promising energy carrier for the future. The spotlight is now on green hydrogen, produced with water electrolysis powered exclusively by renewable energy sources. However, several other technologies and sources are available or under development to satisfy the current and future hydrogen demand. In fact, hydrogen production involves different resources and energy loads, depending on the production method used. Therefore, the industry has tried to set a classification code for this energy carrier. This is done by using colors that reflect the hydrogen production method, the resources consumed to produce the required energy, and the number of emissions generated during the process. Depending on the reviewed literature, some colors have slightly different definitions, thus making the classifications imprecise. Therefore, this techno-economic analysis clarifies the meaning of each hydrogen color by systematically reviewing their production methods, consumed energy sources, and generated emissions. Then, an economic assessment compares the costs of the various hydrogen colors and examines the most feasible ones and their potential evolution. The scientific community and industry’s clear understanding of the advantages and drawbacks of each element of the hydrogen color spectrum is an essential step toward reaching a sustainable hydrogen economy. Full article
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24 pages, 1060 KiB  
Review
A Review on Qualitative Assessment of Natural Gas Utilisation Options for Eliminating Routine Nigerian Gas Flaring
by Robin Abu, Kumar Patchigolla and Nigel Simms
Gases 2023, 3(1), 1-24; https://doi.org/10.3390/gases3010001 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5575
Abstract
Natural gas flaring, with its harmful environmental, health, and economic effects, is common in the Nigerian oil and gas industry because of a lower tax regime for flared gases. Based on the adverse effects of flared gas, the Nigerian government has renewed and [...] Read more.
Natural gas flaring, with its harmful environmental, health, and economic effects, is common in the Nigerian oil and gas industry because of a lower tax regime for flared gases. Based on the adverse effects of flared gas, the Nigerian government has renewed and improved its efforts to reduce or eliminate gas flaring through the application of natural gas utilisation techniques. However, because the conventional approach to flare gas utilisation is heavily reliant on achieving scale, fuel, and end-product prices, not all technologies are technically and economically viable for typically capturing large and small quantities of associated gas from various flare sites or gas fields (located offshore or onshore). For these reasons, this paper reviews and compares various flare gas utilisation options to guide their proper selection for appropriate implementation in the eradication of routine gas flaring in Nigeria and to promote the Zero Routine Flaring initiative, which aims to reduce flaring levels dramatically by 2030. A qualitative assessment is used in this study to contrast the various flare gas utilisation options against key decision drivers. In this analysis, three natural gas utilisation processes—liquefied natural gas (LNG), gas to wire (GTW), and gas to methanol (GTM)—are recommended as options for Nigeria because of their economic significance, technological viability (both onshore and offshore), and environmental benefits. All these gas utilisation options have the potential to significantly reduce and prevent routine gas flaring in Nigeria and can be used separately or in combination to create synergies that could lower project costs and product market risk. This article clearly identifies the environmental benefits and the technical and economic viability of infrastructure investments to recover and repurpose flare gasses along with recommendation steps to select and optimise economies of scale for an associated natural gas utilisation option. Full article
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