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J. Respir., Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 4 articles

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10 pages, 229 KiB  
Article
Barriers to Effective Communication between Patients, Relatives, and Health Care Professionals in the Era of COVID-19 Pandemic at Public Hospitals in Limpopo Province
by Ndidzulafhi Selina Raliphaswa, Dorah Ursula Ramathuba, Takalani Rhodah Luhalima, Seani Adrinah Mulondo, Thivhulawi Malwela, Azwidihwi Rose Tshililo, Julia Langanani Mafumo, Maria Sonto Maputle, Mary Maluleke, Takalani Ellen Mbedzi, Hilda Nwamuhohova Shilubane, Nthomeni Dorah Ndou, Khathutshelo Grace Netshisaulu and Mutshinyalo Lizzy Netshikweta
J. Respir. 2023, 3(1), 29-38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor3010004 - 01 Mar 2023
Viewed by 4550
Abstract
Background: Effective communication between health care professionals, admitted patients, and their families is crucial to improving the health care outcomes and patient satisfaction. Hence, barriers to effective communication cause a lot of confusion, frustration, and misunderstanding. The study aimed to identify the perceived [...] Read more.
Background: Effective communication between health care professionals, admitted patients, and their families is crucial to improving the health care outcomes and patient satisfaction. Hence, barriers to effective communication cause a lot of confusion, frustration, and misunderstanding. The study aimed to identify the perceived barriers to effective communication between patients, their families, and health care professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic in public hospitals in Limpopo Province. The study was conducted in rural areas of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province. Methodology: A qualitative exploratory descriptive method was adopted to explore and describe the barriers of effective communication among patients, relatives, and health care professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic in public hospitals in the Vhembe District. Eleven (11) participants were purposively selected. Unstructured in-depth individual interviews were used to collect data and analyzed using thematic analysis following Tesch’s eight steps. Results: The study findings revealed that there was ineffective communication by health care professionals. This was discussed under three themes that emerged: poor communication of diagnosis and prognosis and treatment outcomes; lack of accurate knowledge regarding the virus morphology, variant, and treatment protocols; and the inconsistencies in the dissemination of COVID-19 protocols. Conclusions: Full communication benefits both patients, relatives, and health care professionals as knowledge and understanding are enhanced through communication. Therefore, health care professionals should provide the patients and their relatives with full information about the disease and the visitation protocols to be followed. The study contribution was to explore barriers to effective communication to the patients and relatives by the health care professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Journal of Respiration)
22 pages, 1154 KiB  
Review
Current Knowledge and Challenges of Particle Size Measurements of Mainstream E-Cigarette Aerosols and Their Implication on Respiratory Dosimetry
by Huanhuan Jiang, Xiang Gao, Yong Gao and Yatao Liu
J. Respir. 2023, 3(1), 7-28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor3010003 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3648
Abstract
The E-cigarette has been promoted as an alternative nicotine delivery device with potentially fewer toxicant emissions. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the particle size distribution (PSD) of e-cigarette emissions and to analyze the knowledge gaps between [...] Read more.
The E-cigarette has been promoted as an alternative nicotine delivery device with potentially fewer toxicant emissions. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the particle size distribution (PSD) of e-cigarette emissions and to analyze the knowledge gaps between existing particle size measurements and the vision toward harm reduction from e-cigarette use. Here, we focus on firstly describing the physical parameters used to characterize PSD, followed by comparing particle size measurement approaches, investigating the factors that impact the PSD of e-cigarette mainstream aerosols, and conclude by linking size distribution to the respiratory dosimetry by demonstrating the modeling results of particle deposition in the respiratory tract. This review calls for a harmonized testing protocol to conduct inter-comparisons and further understand e-cigarette particle sizes. Among the influencing factors investigated, puff topography, operation power, flavorings, PG/VG ratio, and nicotine strength impose a substantial impact on the PSD, but the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully investigated. The effects brought by the type of device refill and nicotine are yet inconclusive due to lack of evidence. Coil aging has no significant impact on the PSD of e-cigarette aerosols within the coil lifetime. Lastly, while computational models of particle deposition have been adopted to profile the deposition of e-cigarette mainstream emissions, existing models have limited applicability and generality when dealing with e-cigarette aerosols that have high volatility and hygroscopicity, which can dynamically evaporate or grow during the transport process. Additionally, the size-dependent chemical composition (e.g., nicotine and harmful and potentially harmful constituents) of e-cigarette aerosols is unknown, impeding the understanding of the health effects of e-cigarette use. Therefore, it is essential for future studies to bridge these knowledge gaps and unveil the mechanisms determining PSD and respiratory deposition. Full article
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1 pages, 145 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Journal of Respiration in 2022
by JoR Editorial Office
J. Respir. 2023, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor3010002 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 894
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
5 pages, 756 KiB  
Case Report
An Interesting Case of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Resulting in Type II Respiratory Failure
by Aman Nagar, Shubhajeet Roy, Jyoti Bajpai, Ajay Kumar Verma and Surya Kant
J. Respir. 2023, 3(1), 1-5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor3010001 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2407
Abstract
Aspergillus fumigatus can cause an immunological hypersensitivity reaction known as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), which often worsens asthma and cystic fibrosis patients’ conditions. In India, where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic, a significant proportion of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) patients are misdiagnosed as pulmonary [...] Read more.
Aspergillus fumigatus can cause an immunological hypersensitivity reaction known as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), which often worsens asthma and cystic fibrosis patients’ conditions. In India, where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic, a significant proportion of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) patients are misdiagnosed as pulmonary TB before reaching a diagnosis of ABPA due to long-lasting symptoms. We discuss an uncommon presentation of ABPA with type II respiratory failure in a 48-year-old asthmatic female. Given this, one can speculate on the importance of ABPA presenting with respiratory failure since these cases are rare and diagnosed quite late, which can also prove fatal. Full article
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