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Environ. Sci. Proc., 2022, IECF 2022

The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Forests—Exploring New Discoveries and New Directions in Forests

Online | 15–31 October 2022

Volume Editors:
Angela Lo Monaco, University of Tuscia, Italy
Rodolfo Picchio, University of Tuscia, Italy
Mark Vanderwel, University of Regina, Canada

Number of Papers: 73
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Cover Story (view full-size image): This issue of Proceedings gathers papers presented at the 3rd International Electronic Conference on Forests (IECF2022)—exploring new discoveries and new directions in forests, which was held [...] Read more.
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1 pages, 169 KiB  
Abstract
Comparison of the Responses of Radial Growth to Climate Change for Two Dominant Coniferous Tree Species in the Guancen Mountain, North-Central China
by Jiachuan Wang, Shuheng Li and Yili Guo
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13065 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 540
Abstract
The radial growth of coniferous trees in the mid–high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere has an unstable response to climate warming. We analyzed the differences in the radial growth patterns of the two dominant species (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr and Picea meyeri Rehd. [...] Read more.
The radial growth of coniferous trees in the mid–high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere has an unstable response to climate warming. We analyzed the differences in the radial growth patterns of the two dominant species (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr and Picea meyeri Rehd. et Wils.) on Guancen Mountain, north-central China, and the differences in the stability of their radial growth in response to climate change. Pearson correlation and sliding analysis were performed to study the correlations and dynamic relationships between radial growth and climatic factors. The main results are as follows: (1) the standard chronologies of L. principis-rupprechtii and P. meyeri contained rich climate information, and the radial growth of L. principis-rupprechtii was more sensitive to climatic factors than that of P. meyeri; (2) on a long-term scale, changes in the radial growth of L. principis-rupprechtii and P. meyeri in response to the monthly mean temperature and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) were unstable; (3) after the abrupt temperature change, the interannual basal area increments (BAIs) of the two dominant species followed an upward trend, and the radial growth rate of L. principis-rupprechtii was much greater than that of P. meyeri. The results of this paper can help to understand the response of the radial growth of coniferous forests in north-central China to future climate change, and provide a basis for future forest cultivation in the middle and high latitudes of the northern hemisphere. Full article
1 pages, 188 KiB  
Abstract
Standardization of Extraction of DNA from Silica-Gel Dried Leaf Sample of Garcinia Indica (Thouars) Choisy
by Anila M. Sunny, Sreedevi C. Nagaraj, Vilas Kumar Patil, Tresa Hamalton and Namasivayam Ravi
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13131 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 759
Abstract
Garcinia indica, commonly known as Kokum, is a vulnerable species and endemic to Western Ghats. The fruits are commercially important and have multifarious uses. Genetic variation within the species is studied using DNA finger printing for its commercial exploitation. Extraction of DNA [...] Read more.
Garcinia indica, commonly known as Kokum, is a vulnerable species and endemic to Western Ghats. The fruits are commercially important and have multifarious uses. Genetic variation within the species is studied using DNA finger printing for its commercial exploitation. Extraction of DNA from Garcinia indica is challenging due to the presence of high level of secondary metabolites, such as polyphenols and flavonoids. The present study focuses on extraction and estimation of DNA from silica gel-dried leaves. Leaf samples were collected from two different regions of Western Ghats viz., Kukke Subramanya (n = 4) and Karwar (n = 6). The leaf samples were stored in silica gel during transportation to the laboratory, dried well in silica gel, and later stored at −20 °C for long-term storage. The DNA was extracted with 4% Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The concentration of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and β–mercaptoethanol was modified in extraction buffer to reduce the interference of secondary metabolites. The determination of quality and quantity of DNA are essential for amplification of DNA in PCR. The DNA obtained showed absorbance ratio (A260/280) between 1.6–1.9 indicating the good quality of DNA and the quantity varied from 111.8–297.9 ng/μL in the silica gel dried samples. In the present investigation, the modified method of extraction of DNA found to be best method for obtaining good quality and quantity of DNA from the silica gel dried leaves of Garcinia indica. Full article
2 pages, 205 KiB  
Abstract
Productivity and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Tree Felling by Chainsaw in Thinning of Calabrian Pine Stands
by Bruno Bernardi, Giorgio Macrì and Giacomo Falcone
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13039 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 660
Abstract
Forest mechanisation plays an important role in increasing labour productivity and reducing production costs. Chainsaws are the most commonly used tool used for tree felling and can have both positive and negative environmental impacts on the forest ecosystem. Impacts that should be analysed [...] Read more.
Forest mechanisation plays an important role in increasing labour productivity and reducing production costs. Chainsaws are the most commonly used tool used for tree felling and can have both positive and negative environmental impacts on the forest ecosystem. Impacts that should be analysed considering all implemented inputs and outputs related to the involved technology. This work aims at evaluating the operational and environmental performance of a medium-sized chainsaw during a second thinning carried out on Calabrian Pine high forests. The trees, located at an altitude of 1100 m a.s.l, had an average diameter at the breast height of 30.6 cm and a height of 18 m for a density of 950 trees ha−1. The terrain roughness presents obstacles on less than 1/3 of the surface while the slope was between I and II classes (0–40%). A work time study on the felling operation was conducted considering a full-tree system. Thirty operational cycles were registered: observed time was separated into working time, which included main and complementary working times, calculated as average gross productivity, inclusive of all delays up to the maximum event duration of 15 min. The life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was adopted for environmental performance. As a functional unit, 1 m3 of round wood was chosen. The inventory data, relating to the background processes, were collected from Agribalyse 3.0.1., while data from the foreground, such as materials and fuel consumption, were directly collected. Environmental impact data were processed using OpenLCA software and the ReCiPe 2016 method at the midpoint level. Team productivity was equal to 10.30 trees h−1, corresponding to a volume of timber of 11.2 m3 h−1. Considering a working day of 8 h, productivity was equal to 41 trees d−1 worker−1 for a volume of timber of 44.8 m3 d−1 worker−1. The performed LCA showed that emissions related to the stage of use represented a major hotspot in “Global warming” (2.169 kg CO2 eq.), “Ozone Formation–Human Health” (0.038 kg Nox eq.), “Fine particulate matter formation” (0.001774 kg PM 2.5 eq.) and “Terrestrial ecotoxicity” categories (4.234 kg 1,4-DCB). In conclusion, the analysed site showed a suitable level of internal organization, but more regular management of the chainsaw is required. The environmental impact is affected by the energy systems in the use phase but is needed to deepen the knowledge of all aspects involved from upstream processes for certain materials to manufacture components. Full article
1 pages, 181 KiB  
Abstract
Fuel Moisture Content Dynamics under Climate Change in Spanish Forests
by Rodrigo Balaguer-Romano, Ruben Diaz-Sierra and Victor Resco de Dios
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13121 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 708
Abstract
The monitoring of live and dead fuels’ moisture content (LFMC and DFMC) dynamics plays a crucial role in wildfire management and prevention. In this study, we estimate LFMC and DFMC across the 21st century, considering the meteorological conditions derived from medium- and high-greenhouse [...] Read more.
The monitoring of live and dead fuels’ moisture content (LFMC and DFMC) dynamics plays a crucial role in wildfire management and prevention. In this study, we estimate LFMC and DFMC across the 21st century, considering the meteorological conditions derived from medium- and high-greenhouse gas emission scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios 4.5 and 8.5) by selecting a representative subset of global and regional climate model combinations. A stable atmospheric CO2 concentration was also considered to assess possible CO2 mitigation effects. We applied semi-mechanistic models to infer moisture content dynamics across 36 study sites located in peninsular Spain, which corresponds to the monospecific stands of twelve tree species. Overall, our results indicate that both live and dead fuels’ moisture content dynamics will experience generalized declining trends in the coming decades. Furthermore, increases in the number of days per year when these fuels’ moisture content falls below wildfire occurrence thresholds will extend the lengths of fire seasons. Moreover, we observe a significant CO2 mitigation effect, although it is not enough to offset the declining trends in LFMC induced by climate change. Finally, the results suggest that, in ecosystems where plant biomass is abundant enough to sustain a fire, the moisture content of live fuels will be the main limiting factor for the occurrence of future large wildfires. Full article
2 pages, 171 KiB  
Abstract
Axle Load of Round Wood Transport Vehicles in Relation to Wood Assortment
by Grzegorz Trzciński and Łukasz Tymendorf
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13043 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 487
Abstract
The variety of wood loads and their parameters (humidity, density, assortment) are often the cause of the increased total weight of the vehicle (GVW). With significant GVW exceeding, forest roads are exposed to high-tonnage vehicles, which results in vehicle axle loads above the [...] Read more.
The variety of wood loads and their parameters (humidity, density, assortment) are often the cause of the increased total weight of the vehicle (GVW). With significant GVW exceeding, forest roads are exposed to high-tonnage vehicles, which results in vehicle axle loads above the accepted design parameters for the pavement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the real axle loads of round wood transport vehicles arising from the gross vehicle weight (GVW) of the transport set in different seasons of the year and depending on the type of transport set and the type of wood assortments. Measurements of axle loads for round wood truck transport sets were carried out on the sites of three large wood industry companies from the north of Poland, which process different types of wood. The load on the individual axles of the high tonnage truck units was measured using model DINI ARGEO WWSD portable truck scales with a 3590M309 weighing terminal with 0.01 t graduation. In total, measurements were taken for 904 round wood deliveries made by different transport sets: a truck and trailer set with 473 deliveries, including 344 deliveries by six-axle sets, a truck, and semi-trailer with 334 deliveries, where 193 were made by six-axle sets. The lowest axle load for all the sets occurred on axle one in the range of average values 7.07–7.86 t with a spread of results from 4.49 to 10.20 t. The highest average axle loads of 9.15–12.43 t was found on the axle for all the observed transport sets, where a maximum value of 14.52 t was also found. There were statistically significant differences in the values of the loads on individual axles depending on the type of truck set and type of wood assortment. Comparative analysis by the Kruskal–Wallis test of all axle load results depending on the vehicle types and number of axles, showed statistically significant differences. When analyzing the axle loads in five-axle sets with respect to the delivery date, statistically significant differences were found for all the axles. These differences occurred mainly for measurements performed in the summer and other seasons, the most visible of which were on the second and third axle. The loads of transported wood (assortments) also influenced the resulting axle loads, which was confirmed by statistical analysis. For most axles, there are differences in the axle loads for sets with MS (medium-size, industrial wood) deliveries and other assortments. Additionally, on axles 4–5, there are differences between Ls (large-size) deliveries and other deliveries (multiple mean rank test). In the case of TS transport sets, there is no big difference between the axle loads, only in the case of short assortment Ms where the second and third axles have higher average axle loads of just over 10 t. In the truck and trailer combinations (TT), the highest average axle loads are on the fourth and fifth axle in the range 8.5–12.0 t, with lower values for shorter 3.7 m and Ms grades. The distribution of the total gross vehicle weight of the set is, on average, 58–60% to the truck (three axles) and 40–42% to the trailer/semi-trailer (two axles) in five-axle sets and in six-axle sets, the truck and trailer/semi-trailer (three axles). Full article
1 pages, 169 KiB  
Abstract
Work Efficiency of Battery-Powered Chainsaws during the Commercial Thinning in the Young Pine Stand
by Karol Tomczak and Bartłomiej Naskrent
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13052 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 450
Abstract
The beginnings of the petrol chainsaw in forestry date back to the early 20th century. For more than a century, engineers have been refining the chainsaw to make it as efficient and comfortable as possible for woodcutters. In recent years, environmental protection and [...] Read more.
The beginnings of the petrol chainsaw in forestry date back to the early 20th century. For more than a century, engineers have been refining the chainsaw to make it as efficient and comfortable as possible for woodcutters. In recent years, environmental protection and the reduction in CO2 emissions policies have been particularly prominent. As a consequence, the use of battery-powered electric tools, including chainsaws, has become increasingly widespread, especially in gardening. However, electric chainsaws have limited battery capacity and, therefore, are not used daily in forestry. This study aimed to determine the efficiency of a battery-powered chainsaw during commercial thinning. The research compared the work efficiency of the petrol chainsaw Dolmar PS 5000 and the battery-powered Echo ECCS-58V during commercial thinning in a 14-year-old pine stand. In seven repeats, the following variables were measured each time: working time, working area and noise load to which the logger was exposed. Obtained results were used to calculate average productivity, a weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure level (LAeq) and a weighted noise exposure level normalized to a nominal 8h working day (LEX,8h). The average operating length of the battery-powered chainsaw was 00:41:26 and was comparable to the working length of a petrol chainsaw, for which the average working time was 00:41:41. The average work output of the petrol chainsaw was 100 m2/h higher. The recorded noise exposure, LAeq and LEX,8h, were lower for the battery-powered chainsaw. Using a battery-powered chainsaw was less workload, because of smaller noise levels and zero emissions. This study found that six fully charged batteries allowed the user to effectively complete a work shift. It can be concluded that battery-powered chainsaws can be used effectively during commercial thinning. Further tests should be run in winter to determine the effect of low temperatures on battery consumption. Full article
1 pages, 168 KiB  
Abstract
Avalanche Effects on Endemic Pine Forests in the Pirin Mountains in Bulgaria
by Momchil Panayotov and Nickolay Tsvetanov
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13083 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 610
Abstract
The Pirin Mountains in Bulgaria are refuge of endemic Pinus peuce and Pinus heldreichii forests. Due to the steep and long slopes, the forests are affected by avalanches and many trees keep record of the past avalanche activity in their tree rings. In [...] Read more.
The Pirin Mountains in Bulgaria are refuge of endemic Pinus peuce and Pinus heldreichii forests. Due to the steep and long slopes, the forests are affected by avalanches and many trees keep record of the past avalanche activity in their tree rings. In our study, we used a combination of dendrochronology, satellite images and historical aerophotos to study the effects of avalanches on forests in the Bunderitsa valley. Our findings show that avalanches are the main shaping factor for the structure of forests in the valley, followed by fires. Past avalanche activity is responsible for the opened long-lasting avalanche tracks in the forests. About 60% of the potential forests (i.e., territories below the treeline, outside of the avalanche couloirs, streams, rock formations and screes) are strongly affected by avalanches. Of them, almost 40% are in avalanche runout zones, 12% are in avalanche tracks in the forests and 48% are forests, which are periodically strongly affected by bigger avalanches. Comparisons of newer satellite images with older aerophotos showed that in the 1970s, there were larger openings in the forests due to the high frequency of avalanches in the very snowy 1950s and 1960s. Although, recently, the avalanche activity has decreased, there are still years with larger avalanches, which affect forests. In addition, tourist development in the vicinity has increased the risk for human health and life due to avalanche accidents, including in forests. Tree-ring analysis allowed for the reconstructing of past avalanches that affected certain areas. The big couloirs are affected by smaller avalanches almost annually, while bigger avalanches have hit the neighboring forests almost every decade. Our findings demonstrate that avalanches in the valley are of a high importance and require more attention from authorities both as a risk factor for human health and life and as a natural disturbance, shaping the structure and dynamics of the forest. Full article
1 pages, 195 KiB  
Abstract
Distribution of Animal-Powered Logging for Timber Harvesting in Hungarian State-Owned Forests
by Ákos Malatinszky and Csilla Ficsor
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13514 - 11 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1332
Abstract
Small-scale forestry and sustainable forest operations represent a key interest in Europe. Although animal-powered logging could be, in part, considered less harmful to topsoil, wood stands, saplings, and natural values than heavy machines, this method is rarely covered by scientific studies. Our main [...] Read more.
Small-scale forestry and sustainable forest operations represent a key interest in Europe. Although animal-powered logging could be, in part, considered less harmful to topsoil, wood stands, saplings, and natural values than heavy machines, this method is rarely covered by scientific studies. Our main aim was to explore the occurrences of horse logging in Hungarian state-owned forests, especially those that are close to nature areas. We contacted every forest district in Hungary (n = 116) by phone in 2013 and 2021. While 39 out of the total 116 Hungarian state forestries hired teams that apply animal logging (a draft horse in every case) in 2013, their number fell to 24 in 2021. Within this data, the number of constantly hired horse logging contractors fell by 53.3% (from 30 to 14). Only three forest districts owned a horse stock in 2013 (the others employed contractors), while five owned them in 2021. However, none of them used horses for logging (only for touristic and hunting activities). All teams operated at least partially on nature conservation areas in both studied years. Despite this negative tendency, 34 out of the 44 forestries that operate on hilly and mountainous areas still claim horse logging in 2021, but they cannot find suitable people and horses. It is important to conserve animal logging and promote it among potential loggers with training and financial incentives. Full article
2 pages, 203 KiB  
Abstract
Effect of a New Mono-Component Polyurethane Coating on Untreated and Heat-Treated Ayous Wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Shum)
by Alessandro Febbraro, Luca Lanteri, Angela Lo Monaco, Claudia Pelosi and Gianluca Rubino
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13080 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 429
Abstract
This contribution synthesises the results from the study of the behaviour of Ayous (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Shum) wood, untreated and industrially heat-treated at 215 °C, with the subsequent application of a mono-component polyurethane coating. The coating was applied by brush and spray, [...] Read more.
This contribution synthesises the results from the study of the behaviour of Ayous (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Shum) wood, untreated and industrially heat-treated at 215 °C, with the subsequent application of a mono-component polyurethane coating. The coating was applied by brush and spray, according to the indications supplied in the technical data sheet, to verify the most effective modality. The samples were artificially aged under simulated solar irradiation in a Solar Box chamber to verify the behaviour over time of the protected and of the unprotected wood, untreated and heat-treated. To investigate the behaviour of the specimens, micro-hardness, wettability, wearing, colour and roughness were measured and compared before and after artificial ageing in the Solar Box chamber. The obtained data highlighted that the coating improved the surface characteristics of Ayous wood by increasing the hydrophobicity, the homogeneity of the surfaces, the micro-hardness, and the resistance to wearing. Colour exhibits little variations in natural wood, higher in the heat-treated wood. The ageing process under simulated solar radiation caused some relevant changes in the surface properties, generally worsening the wood surface characteristics, especially in the uncoated samples. Specifically, hydrophobicity decreases significantly in the heat-treated uncoated samples, whereas in the same samples but coated the hydrophobicity is maintained thanks to the presence of the polyurethane layer. Micro-hardness undergoes little decrease in all samples, because of ageing. The greatest effect is observed in the control samples, i.e., untreated thermally and uncoated. The effect of coating is particularly relevant on the wearing resistance. In fact, samples with coatings are much more resistant to wearing than uncoated ones and they also suffer fewer colour changes. This result demonstrates the good performance of the polyurethane coating and its effectiveness in the protection of wood exposed to outdoor conditions. Full article
1 pages, 170 KiB  
Abstract
Phylogenetic Discordance between Species Tree and Functional Gene Trees of Fagaceous Genera
by Min-Xin Luo, Chien-Ti Chao, Jui-Tse Chang and Pei-Chun Liao
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13045 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Fagaceae species predominate a diverse range of habitats in the northern hemisphere and are critical to the ecosystem and economy. The high morphological and genetic diversity of these species serves as the foundation for adaptation to environmental stress. To comprehend the diversity, an [...] Read more.
Fagaceae species predominate a diverse range of habitats in the northern hemisphere and are critical to the ecosystem and economy. The high morphological and genetic diversity of these species serves as the foundation for adaptation to environmental stress. To comprehend the diversity, an evolutionary viewpoint is required. However, we found extensive conflicts among gene trees at the genus level, resulting in inconclusive phylogenetic inferences based on various genetic markers. Unresolved phylogeny would affect taxonomy, biogeographic inference, and ancestral state. In this study, we aimed to look deeply into the source of phylogenetic discordance in Fagaceae. We sampled 65 species from six genera (Fagus, Lithocarpus, Quercus, Castanea, Castanopsis, and Notholithocarpus) and obtained 603,809 SNPs from transcriptome sequences. In addition to concatenated and coalescence-based approaches for phylogenetic inference, we also reconstructed 256 gene topologies to investigate conflict among nuclear genes. Our results show that the conflicts arise mainly from the relationship between Lithocarpus and Quercus, with approximately 34% of genes supporting the two genera as a sister group. We also try to understand why the genes of minority topologies are different from those of majority topologies. To answer the question, we performed a functional enrichment analysis to determine the function of the minority topological genes. According to the GO terms, their functions are primarily related to cellular structure or organelle. In the following step, we will investigate whether the main sources of discordance are introgression, incomplete lineage sorting, or selection. Full article
1 pages, 182 KiB  
Abstract
The Management of Invasive Non-Native Trees in the Mediterranean Protected Areas: Sicily as a Case Study
by Emilio Badalamenti
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13087 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 500
Abstract
Invasive non-native trees (INNTs) are increasingly recognized to have negative effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services in protected areas. The management of INNTs is one of the major challenges to preserving native species and ecosystems, to which more and more efforts and resources [...] Read more.
Invasive non-native trees (INNTs) are increasingly recognized to have negative effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services in protected areas. The management of INNTs is one of the major challenges to preserving native species and ecosystems, to which more and more efforts and resources are bound to be destined in the coming decades. Indeed, the combined effects of climate change and increasing disturbance factors (e.g. wildfires) are likely to aid the spread of many INNTs in the Mediterranean protected areas, as well as favouring their competitive relationships with native species. However, the effective implementation of control measures is far from being fully achieved. I assessed how the problem of INNTs is currently addressed within the Natura 2000 sites in Sicily, designed according to the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC). In particular, I will check the management plans of some selected Special Areas of Conservation searching for the activities provided for the management and control of INNTs. My research will be focused on the most widespread INNTs occurring on the island, such as Ailanthus altissima and Acacia saligna, along with taxa characterized by a very recent spread such as Parkinsonia aculeata and Vachellia karroo. Furthermore, some of these non-native trees are included in the list of Invasive Alien Species of Union concern pursuant to Regulation (EU) 1143/2014 on invasive alien species. The study will address some main questions: (1) Are invasive non-native trees well managed in protected sites in Sicily? (2) Do different protected sites deal with the same non-native species in the same way? (3) Are planned activities effectively implemented and successful? The result of the study could be used to favour the cooperation and exchange of information about the control of INNTs between the managing bodies of different protected sites, thus increasing the efficacy of the necessary interventions. Full article
1 pages, 171 KiB  
Abstract
Forest Genetic Monitoring in a Biodiversity Hotspot
by Filippos A. Aravanopoulos, Nikolaos Tourvas, Ermioni Malliarou, Fani G. Lyrou, Vasiliki-Maria Kotina and Anna-Maria Farsakoglou
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13127 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 681
Abstract
The genetic monitoring of forest trees is of the utmost importance for securing the maintenance of species’ adaptive potential. Genetic monitoring, the quantification of temporal changes in a population’s genetic variation and structure, introduces prognosis and assists in defining tools for the management [...] Read more.
The genetic monitoring of forest trees is of the utmost importance for securing the maintenance of species’ adaptive potential. Genetic monitoring, the quantification of temporal changes in a population’s genetic variation and structure, introduces prognosis and assists in defining tools for the management of genetic resources. Forest genetic monitoring (FGM) is imperative in biodiversity hotspots such as Greece, one of the most species-rich European countries, where >7000 native plant taxa (~20% endemics) exist and 28% of its land base is included in the Natura 2000 Special Areas of Conservation network. Moreover, (meta-)analyses of genetic data have shown that Greek forests’ tree populations present significantly higher values of polymorphism and differentiation compared to the average values reported in the international literature. FGM studies in Greece involve the following species: Abies borissi regis, Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Q. robur, Pinus nigra, and Prunus avium. FGM uses a genealogical approach and employs 11–26 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci in different cohorts (mature and juvenile trees), while the average time internal between assessments is 12.9 years. The results so far for A. borissi regis and F. sylvatica indicate a maintenance of genetic diversity over time, but with a slight drop of Ne in the juvenile cohort of hybrid firs compared to the mature trees. Full article
1 pages, 177 KiB  
Abstract
Upscaling FRM Production for Future Forests and FGR Conservation: Clonal Propagation of Selected Taxus baccata Plus Trees with High Paclitaxel Content
by Christina-Emmanouela Pavlidou, Fani G. Lyrou, Elias Pipinis and Filippos A. Aravanopoulos
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13126 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 777
Abstract
Taxus baccata (European yew) is native to Greece, which hosts the most southeastern populations of the species. It is a medically interesting conifer due to its tetracyclic diterpenes, with the anticancer agent paclitaxel (taxol) being the most well-known. Yew trees with a high [...] Read more.
Taxus baccata (European yew) is native to Greece, which hosts the most southeastern populations of the species. It is a medically interesting conifer due to its tetracyclic diterpenes, with the anticancer agent paclitaxel (taxol) being the most well-known. Yew trees with a high content of paclitaxel (taxol) have been identified in the natural population of Mt. Cholomon in Greece. The macropropagation of these plus trees is of high importance both for the establishment of future plantations and for the ex situ conservation of this valuable germplasm. A total of 600 cuttings from top and side shoots were taken from 10 highly producing paclitaxel trees and treated with a rooting solution containing the plant hormone indole-3-butyric acid potassium salt (K-IBA) concentrations of 6000 ppm and 12,000 ppm. Cuttings were placed in a greenhouse for rooting using a perlite and peat 2:1 rooting medium, under constant temperature and humidity conditions. After five months, the evaluation of rooting success showed that it varied between different genotypes (40–100%), but was generally considerable (average success of 79.5%). The higher K-IBA concentration resulted in a better rooting success, being only in 50% of the genotypes tested; however, root length was differentially affected, as use of the 12,000 ppm concentration resulted in an average root length on a per genotype basis of 2.76 cm, compared to an average of 2.69 cm when the 6000 ppm concentration was used. Overall, high-yielding paclitaxel (taxol) was successfully macropropagated, and these results can be applied to both ex situ conservation and plantation establishment. Full article
1 pages, 193 KiB  
Abstract
A Study on the Diversity of Natural Arbutus unedo Hellenic Populations
by Filippos A. Aravanopoulos, Despina-Eleni Politi, Maria-Irini Antoniadou and Nikolaos Tourvas
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13128 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 758
Abstract
The strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) is well-known for the use of its leaves, fruits, bark and roots in traditional medicine and, more recently, in the therapy of hypertension, diabetes, inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. The plant contains several antioxidant compounds. The diversity [...] Read more.
The strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) is well-known for the use of its leaves, fruits, bark and roots in traditional medicine and, more recently, in the therapy of hypertension, diabetes, inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. The plant contains several antioxidant compounds. The diversity of natural A. unedo populations from Greece is studied with leaf morphometrics and DNA markers. Five natural populations spanning from east (Lesvos island 39°12′ N, 26°05′ E) to west (Igoumenitsa 39°30′ N, 20°15′ E) and from north (Arnea, 40°29′ N, 23°38′ E) to south (Ancient Olympia 37°38′ Ν, 21°46′ Ε) were sampled. The fifth population was that of Kassandreia (40°01′ N, 23°26′ E) and the average sample size per population was N = 20 trees. DNA extraction and isolation was a challenge due to high amounts of phenolics present in leaves (arbutin, catechin and ethyl gallate) and among the many protocols studied, the NucleoSpin® Plant II Mini Kit provided the best results for downstream applications. Morphometric population variation was studied by employing 11 leaf size and shape parameters recorded by image processing and analysing software. When contrasting north/south population comparisons, it was found that, regarding measurements of central tendency, the northern population (Kassandreia) presented the highest values, while in contrast, in the measures of spread, the highest values were found in the southern population (Ancient Olympia). Furthermore, statistically significant population differences were found in leaf size, but not in leaf shape parameters. The combination of DNA markers and morphometric analyses provides a foundation for diversity studies and characterization of A. unedo populations for downstream applications in population genetics studies, genetic conservation and in medicinal and natural products research. Full article
1 pages, 179 KiB  
Abstract
A Leaf Morphometrics Comparison between the Deciduous Plane Tree Platanus orientalis L. and Its Ever-Growing Mutation Platanus orientalis L. var. cretica 
by Ioustini Vagia, Nikolaos Tourvas, Anna-Maria Farsakoglou, Andreas Doulis and Filippos A. Aravanopoulos
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13091 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Platanus orientalis L. var. cretica is the ever-growing mutant of Platanus orientalis L. (plane tree) and its population consists of few trees, growing in isolation on the island of Crete, in the Aegean Archipelago of Greece, while the typical plane tree form is [...] Read more.
Platanus orientalis L. var. cretica is the ever-growing mutant of Platanus orientalis L. (plane tree) and its population consists of few trees, growing in isolation on the island of Crete, in the Aegean Archipelago of Greece, while the typical plane tree form is ubiquitous to the island and mainly present in streams and ravines. In the present study, 23 mutant and adjacent typical plane tree pairs were studied. Four leaf morphometry parameters were measured using the ImageJ software in order to derive five independent of size leaf shape ratios. Paired comparisons using Kruskal-Wallis tests were conducted via the SPSS software. The analyses showed no general tendency of statistically significant differences regarding studied parameters between pairs. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in the majority of the analyzed ratios were detected in 35% of the studied pairs. Our results show that the leaf morphometrics present notable phenotypic variation which can be valuable in diversity studies. Nevertheless, they are not particularly useful in distinguishing P. orientalis L. and the ever-growing P. orientalis L. var. cretica. Full article
1 pages, 179 KiB  
Abstract
Thinning in Chestnut Coppices: Effects on the Forest Ground and Recovery Capacity
by Rachele Venanzi, Nicolò Di Marzio, Alessandra Battaglini, Damiano Tocci and Rodolfo Picchio
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13058 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 430
Abstract
The abandonment of traditional forestry practices and the lack of updating these to more modern practices, as for the government of the coppices, has led to a dangerous homogenization of the landscape with a consequent loss of the ecosystem’s variety and the landscape’s [...] Read more.
The abandonment of traditional forestry practices and the lack of updating these to more modern practices, as for the government of the coppices, has led to a dangerous homogenization of the landscape with a consequent loss of the ecosystem’s variety and the landscape’s complexity and biodiversity. The coppice management combined with the basic requirements of sustainability is possible with careful logging activities and a continuous monitoring of the impacts on the ground and on the renovation. The chestnut coppice management corresponds to a specific productive model, with questionable values of naturality but without heavy impacts. It is known that the greatest impact is due to the harvesting, so it must be carried out carefully. If the wooden assortments request is connected to a local management, production and consumption chain, the coppice government can be a valid forest management method both in terms of the biomass, landscape diversity and heterogeneousness of the forest cover, fulfilling the commitments of the preservation of biodiversity. Full article
2 pages, 168 KiB  
Abstract
Fungal Communities in Pine Deadwood
by Natalia Kartawik and Jolanta Behnke-Borowczyk
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13112 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 562
Abstract
Forest management strategies aim to keep forests in the best possible condition [...] Full article
2 pages, 222 KiB  
Abstract
Genetic Diversity of the Endemic and Threatened Ecuadorian Tree, Ocotea rotundata s.l. (Lauraceae)
by Isabel Marques, David Draper, Lorena Riofrío and Carlos Naranjo
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13515 - 10 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1234
Abstract
Ecuador is considered one of the most biodiverse countries in the world but currently has one of the highest deforestation rates in South America. However, genetic knowledge needed to sustain conservation actions is generally absent in most species. In this study, we developed [...] Read more.
Ecuador is considered one of the most biodiverse countries in the world but currently has one of the highest deforestation rates in South America. However, genetic knowledge needed to sustain conservation actions is generally absent in most species. In this study, we developed eight nuclear microsatellites (nSSR) to study the patterns of genetic diversity, population structure, and level of inbreeding of Ocotea rotundata van der Werff (Lauraceae), an endemic tree from South Ecuador occurring in five populations, and with a very low number of mature individuals. This study focused on these five populations where 140 adult trees were collected (populations: LOJ n = 25; CER n = 30; YAN n = 30; CAT n = 25; ZAM n = 30). We also included 40 individuals from two populations described in the North of Ecuador as O. rotundata (populations: MAQ n = 20, PAC n = 20). Our results show high levels of genetic diversity across populations (Ho: LOJ = 0.72; CER = 0.73; YAN: 0.69; CAT = 0.67; ZAM = 0.43; MAQ: 0.72; PAC: 0.77) although much lower than the expected ones (He = LOJ = 0.86; CER = 0.81; YAN: 0.73; CAT = 0.80; ZAM = 0.72; MAQ: 0.85; PAC: 0.86) and overall higher levels in the North and South populations. The number of alleles was also high (LOJ = 11; CER = 9; YAN: 10; CAT = 12; ZAM = 6; MAQ: 12; PAC: 11). The Bayesian clustering program STRUCTURE found the highest LnP(D) and ΔK values for K = 2, dividing North and South populations. A similar pattern was found in the principal coordinate analysis. Allelic fixation was always significantly greater than zero (F = 0.17 ± 0.06) in all populations (p < 0.05) indicating a heterozygosity deficit across loci probably due to inbreeding. Conserving the genetic diversity of O. rotundata through future in and ex situ actions and the processes that determine it, would be crucial for increasing the resilience of Ecuador’s forests. Altogether, these results indicate a low frequency of gene flow and connectivity between the North and South regions, being enough to promote differentiation. In fact, samples collected in the North had, generally, smaller leaves than the ones from South Ecuador, and some branches had pubescent flowers. The morphological differences in the Ecuadorian populations together with the genomic results found here could imply the existence of different species, a hypothesis that needs future taxonomic studies. Full article
2 pages, 212 KiB  
Abstract
Effect of Water Stress on Physiology and Carbon Balance in Seedlings of Different Eucalyptus Genotypes
by Luz Garcia, Rafael Rubilar, Verónica Emhart, Luisa Bascuñan, Daniel Bozo and Juan Carlos Valverde
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13123 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Eucalyptus is a fast-growing genus widely used in the forestry industry; however, in the plant’s early stages, plantations are susceptible to drought conditions and it is common to find high mortality rates and loss of productivity. Therefore, this study analyzed the physiological response [...] Read more.
Eucalyptus is a fast-growing genus widely used in the forestry industry; however, in the plant’s early stages, plantations are susceptible to drought conditions and it is common to find high mortality rates and loss of productivity. Therefore, this study analyzed the physiological response photosynthesis (An) and predawn leaf water potential (ΨPLWP) and the change in carbon balance (C) in ten Eucalyptus genotypes exposed to different water deficits, with the hypothesis that it is possible to identify and differentiate genotypes with a tolerance to drought. Therefore, ten one-year-old genotypes were placed in greenhouse conditions and soil matric power (Ψs) was regulated in four levels: −0.03 MPa (control), −0.7 Mpa (slight stress), −1.5 Mpa (moderate stress) and −2.5 Mpa (chronic stress); each level was determined from the automated monitoring of soil conditions. The example considered in the experiment was tree stress per genotype × Ψs. The measurements of An and ΨPLWP considered tree measurement per individual (n = 9 per genotype × Ψs); in contrast, the Gross primary productivity (GPP) was estimated with destructive sampling (n = 3 genotype × Ψs). We found a significant relationship between water deficit and physiological response (a major deficit produced a reduction of An and ΨPLWP). E. nitens clones had a minor physiological variation and GPP maintained the same trend and proportionality between aerial and underground production. In contrast, two hybrids of E. nitens × E. globulus showed an immediate physiological change and variation in GPP, with increased underground production and stagnant aerial production. These results suggest that it is possible to differentiate genotypes with a tolerance to water deficit early. This will allow genotype selection according to the climatic conditions of each site, minimizing mortality and optimizing the available water resources. Full article
2 pages, 181 KiB  
Abstract
Natural and Anthropogenic Risks Hindering Successful Natural Reforestation in Former Polygraphus proximus Blandford Outbreak Areas
by Aleksandr Ageev, Anna Golovina, Sergey Astapenko and Iuliia Achikolova
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13110 - 27 Oct 2022
Viewed by 712
Abstract
Polygraphus proximus Blandford is a bark beetle that has recently invaded the dark coniferous forests of Southern Siberia. Over the last decade, this four-eyed fir bark beetle has destroyed Abies sibirica Ledeb stands on more than 500 thousand hectares. This study considers the [...] Read more.
Polygraphus proximus Blandford is a bark beetle that has recently invaded the dark coniferous forests of Southern Siberia. Over the last decade, this four-eyed fir bark beetle has destroyed Abies sibirica Ledeb stands on more than 500 thousand hectares. This study considers the initial stages of natural reforestation, which can define the restorative succession scenario for completely dead forest stands after the outbreak fades. Areas disturbed by outbreaks have a strong potential for natural coniferous regeneration when the young generation of Abies sibirica dominates in species composition. As early as 5 years after the outbreak, a successful, sufficient for the future forest formation, young generation density (13,000 trees/ha) is observed. Intensive undergrowth development is noted. The high density of young stands in some areas ensures the canopy closure and forms a shady ground cover vegetation type. At the same time, in some disturbed areas there are threats to undergrowth. In open places with thin undergrowth, a considerable amount of forest fuels represented by large wood residues and dead grass accumulates and can cause high-intensity fire emergence and development. Another risk is human activity. In former outbreak foci, where clear-cutting was implemented, healthy trees were cut down and the existing young coniferous generation was destroyed. To date, clearings have been overgrown with secondary species (Betula pendula Roth., Populus tremula L.). Ground cover communities have transformed into open-type phytocenosis where cereal grasses prevail. This has led to turfing and significant litter and dry grass accumulation. To sum up, in faded Polygraphus proximus outbreak areas, strong young forest generation ensures reforestation without dominant species change. To reduce risks of species change and conserve valuable Abies sibirica species, it is necessary to strengthen wildfire protection. Full article
1 pages, 182 KiB  
Abstract
GIS-AHP Approach to Select the Most Suitable Extraction System in Mediterranean Oak Coppices under Environmental Constraints
by Damiano Tocci, Francesco Latterini, Rachele Venanzi, Pierluca Gaglioppa and Rodolfo Picchio
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13077 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 478
Abstract
The selection of the most suitable alternative for harvesting operations is a challenging activity which is manageable via precision forest harvesting. In this study, an approach based on a combination of GIS (Geographic Information System) and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process), which rely on [...] Read more.
The selection of the most suitable alternative for harvesting operations is a challenging activity which is manageable via precision forest harvesting. In this study, an approach based on a combination of GIS (Geographic Information System) and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process), which rely on geospatial data and opinions of forest engineers with a good expertise on this topic, was applied in the Natural Reserve of Lamone (Latium, Italy) to select the most suitable extraction system in the oak coppice forests of the study area. The developed approach allowed for the selection among forwarder, forestry-fitted farm tractors equipped with winch and all-terrain cable yarder. The obtained results suggested that forwarder and all-terrain cable yarder were the most suitable extraction systems. The former can be applied to the major part of the study area while the application of winch was limited to forest parcel with high forest road density. The latter can be applied as the most suitable solution only in areas with low soil-bearing capacity and on steep terrain. Full article
2 pages, 174 KiB  
Abstract
Identification of Pathogens in Seedlings of Indian Sandalwood and Screening of Fungal Endophytes against the Plant Patho-Genic Fungi
by Swetha Purushotham, Sundararaj Ramachandran, Kandan Aravindaram, Kirana Mugaranja Puttanna and Ananda Kulal
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13086 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Indian sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.), an evergreen tree, indigenous to the Indian peninsula, is known for its fragrant heartwood worldwide. Sandalwood plantations are gaining importance throughout the Indian subcontinent, demanding large-scale production and the establishment of nurseries with quality planting material [...] Read more.
Indian sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.), an evergreen tree, indigenous to the Indian peninsula, is known for its fragrant heartwood worldwide. Sandalwood plantations are gaining importance throughout the Indian subcontinent, demanding large-scale production and the establishment of nurseries with quality planting material (QPM). However, sandalwood seedlings succumb to devastating diseases at nurseries, leading to high mortality of the plant stock. Therefore, there is a dire need for the effective management of these diseases. In our study, we isolated and identified phytopathogenic fungi, such as Fusarium solani causing wilt disease with seedling mortality of 25% and Colletotrichum siamense causing anthracnose disease with a disease incidence of 75%. We identified and characterized a total of 90 fungal endophytic isolates from leaf, stem, and root tissues of disease escaped or apparently healthy seedlings of sandalwood. Total fungal endophytes isolated from the disease-escaped sandalwood seedlings comprised 33.3% Colletotrichum siamense, 26.6% Diaporthe melonis, 13.3% Aspergillus sclerotiorum, 13.3% Fusarium oxysporum, 13.3 Paraphoma radicina, 6.6% Alternaria alternata, and 6.6% Pestalotiopsis microspora. Molecular identification using the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences was performed, and those species which could not be resolved with ITS sequence were subjected to multi-locus gene (beta-tubulin (TUB2), the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene, the chitin synthase 1 gene (CHS-1), the actin gene (ACT), and the glutamine synthetase (GS) gene) analysis, and the sequences were deposited to GenBank. Dual culture test assay revealed that the fungal endophytes Aspergillus sclerotiorum and Diaporthe melonis showed the highest percent inhibition of 63.08% and 61.54%, respectively, against Fusarium solani and Diaporthe melonis, and Fusarium oxysporum showed the highest percent inhibition of 55.38% and 67.69% in the case of the pathogen Colletotrichum siamense. This study will be useful for the management of seed, soil, and airborne pathogens of Indian sandalwood. Full article
1 pages, 169 KiB  
Abstract
Fire Severity and Drought Conditions Are Increasing in West-Central Spain
by Natalia Quintero, Olga Viedma and Jose Manuel Moreno
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13115 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 472
Abstract
Despite regional warming, fire activity is decreasing in the Mediterranean region, blurring the well-established relationship between climate and wildfires. Here, we analyzed this relationship by focusing on the fire severity component of the fire regime. We determined the temporal trends of several climate, [...] Read more.
Despite regional warming, fire activity is decreasing in the Mediterranean region, blurring the well-established relationship between climate and wildfires. Here, we analyzed this relationship by focusing on the fire severity component of the fire regime. We determined the temporal trends of several climate, fire activity, and fire severity variables and the relationship of the latter two to the first in West-Central Spain (30,000 km2) for a 33 year period (1985 to 2017). Annually, fire variables at summer season were number of fires, burned area, fire size and fire severity (calculated using the relativized burn ratio (RBR) from Landsat satellite images). Fire severity was estimated for the whole area and for each of the main land use/land cover (LULC) types. Finally, the climate variables were maximum temperature, precipitation, and water deficit for all seasons (winter, spring, summer, and fall). Trends in those variables were assessed using the Mann–Kendal test, and the relationship between climate and fire variables was ascertained using autoregressive moving average (ARMAX) models. Main results indicated that number of fires and burned areas decreased, whereas drought conditions increased. Wildfires tended to burn preferentially in treeless areas, with conifer forests burning less frequently, and shrublands burning more so. Median RBR increased, as well as low (P5) and high (P90) percentiles. The percentage of burned areas at low severity decreased. All LULC types tended to burn at higher fire severities over time. The decreasing fire activity, but with increasing fire severity, coincides with rising maximum temperatures and drought (lower precipitation and higher water deficit). The temporal dynamics of fire activity and severity were well explained and predicted by spring and summer climate variables. Thus, while fire activity decreased, fire severity increased, driven by a more severe climate that was consistent with regional warming. Full article
1 pages, 178 KiB  
Abstract
Estimating Fire Hazard in a Protected Area of Central Spain (Cabañeros National Park) by a Full Characterization of Vegetation Using LiDAR
by Olga Viedma, Victor Cuevas, Ivan Torres and Jose Manuel Moreno
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13114 - 27 Oct 2022
Viewed by 536
Abstract
The hazardousness of Mediterranean landscapes has increased since the second half of the 20th century, and fuel loads of highly flammable vegetation types have increased throughout the region. Moreover, under the context of more severe fire weather, large fires of high intensity may [...] Read more.
The hazardousness of Mediterranean landscapes has increased since the second half of the 20th century, and fuel loads of highly flammable vegetation types have increased throughout the region. Moreover, under the context of more severe fire weather, large fires of high intensity may cause losses in ecosystem services. Accordingly, fire prevention tools to monitor when and where a fire will have the most negative effects through increases in fire severity are required. Fuel characterization is key to wildfire prevention as fuel is one of the primary factors affecting wildfire risk and behavior. Here, we characterized the valuable natural vegetation in Cabañeros National Park (Central Spain) (part of the Natura-2000 network), composed of typical Mediterranean ecosystems, by using LiDAR and other auxiliary data. LiDAR data were obtained from the first Spanish National LiDAR flight, carried out over the study area in 2009–2010. LiDAR data were pre-processed and ground returns were classified using the progressive TIN filter algorithm, carrying out a sensitivity analysis using different settings. Later, the height of the points above the ground were normalized and the Canopy Height Model (CHM) was calculated. Fuel models were derived using the Prometheus fuel classification framework, and they were determined using several LiDAR height metrics and some compositional metrics (i.e., percentage covered by different height ranges) [<0.6 m, 0.6–1 m, 1–2 m, 2–4 m and ≥4 m] at 30 m. All these metrics allowed for the estimation of fractional canopy cover, fuel height, and vertical continuity. Moreover, tree-tops and crowns were delimited and standard height metrics, as well as vertical profiles, were obtained. All these data, combined with information about the flammability of dominant species and the vulnerability to fire based on functional traits, allowed for the identification of which resource values were most severely exposed to wildfires. Full article
1 pages, 183 KiB  
Abstract
Fusing MODIS and Landsat to Assess Trends in Fire Regime in Mainland Spain from 2001–2021
by Olga Viedma, Natalia Quintero, Juan Carlos García and Jose Manuel Moreno
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13113 - 27 Oct 2022
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Fire is an essential component of many ecosystems and is one of the most recurrent disturbances in the Mediterranean biome. Moreover, the impact of global warming has led to an increase in the intensity of fires in many areas of the world. Here, [...] Read more.
Fire is an essential component of many ecosystems and is one of the most recurrent disturbances in the Mediterranean biome. Moreover, the impact of global warming has led to an increase in the intensity of fires in many areas of the world. Here, we assess the trends of different fire regime properties (i.e., number of fires, fire size, and severity) fusing monthly burned areas derived from MODIS (MCD64A1) and Landsat data for mainland Spain from 2001 to 2021. We focused only on summer fires, the most common ones. The methodology consisted of crossing Landsat pixels at 30 m with MODIS pixels at 500 m and by means of a classification process, those pixels that were significantly different between pre- and post-fire dates were identified. Afterward, significant levels of severity based on the Relativized Burnt Ratio (RBR) were identified by a new classification process. Finally, those “true” burned pixels were crossed with vegetation types and ecoregions. Trends in fire regime properties were assessed using the Mann–Kendall test. We found that the number of fires has significantly decreased over time. On the contrary, the fire size was increasing. The proportion of burned shrublands grew in all ecoregions, but especially in the Mediterranean ones, whereas the proportion of burned forests was decreasing. In addition, the median RBR, as well as their percentiles, augmented, especially in conifers and shrublands burned in Mediterranean ecoregions. Moreover, the percentage of areas burned with high severity was expanding mainly due to the increase in the percentage of shrublands burning more severely. Thus, while fire activity decreased, fire severity increased. This new reality needs to be considered because the efficacy of risk management must not be based only on the number of fires or area burned, but on the damages that are likely to increase due to higher fire severity. Full article

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7 pages, 681 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Removal of Copper, Chromium, and Arsenic from CCA-Treated Wood Using Glycerol/Choline Chloride Deep Eutectic Solvent
by Ahmet Can and Hüseyin Sivrikaya
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13037 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 685
Abstract
Many chemicals and methods have been used to remove copper, chromium, and arsenic from wood that is impregnated with CCA. However, in these studies, it can be seen that deep eutectic solvents (DES) are not used in the removal of copper, chromium, and [...] Read more.
Many chemicals and methods have been used to remove copper, chromium, and arsenic from wood that is impregnated with CCA. However, in these studies, it can be seen that deep eutectic solvents (DES) are not used in the removal of copper, chromium, and arsenic. In this study, the effect of DES on the removal of copper, chromium, and arsenic from CCA-impregnated wood and the changes that are caused by DES solutions in wood samples were investigated. DES solutions, glycerol (GL) as a hydrogen bond donor (HBD), and choline chloride as a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), were used. According to the results that have been obtained, it can be seen that the DES that was prepared with GL:CL was less effective in the remediation process, and 65.5% Cu, 30% Cr, and 10% As, were removed. It was found in FTIR analysis and lignin determination that the lignin ratio of the wood samples decreased after the remediation process. It seems that the crystallinity ratio of the wood samples that were treated with GL:CL decreased significantly. Full article
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6 pages, 2424 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Cover and Land Use Changes in the Dry Forest of Tumbes (Peru) Using Sentinel-2 and Google Earth Engine Data
by Elgar Barboza, Wilian Salazar, David Gálvez-Paucar, Lamberto Valqui-Valqui, David Saravia, Jhony Gonzales, Wiliam Aldana, Héctor V. Vásquez and Carlos I. Arbizu
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13095 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
Dry forests are home to large amounts of biodiversity, are providers of ecosystem services, and control the advance of deserts. However, globally, these ecosystems are being threatened by various factors such as climate change, deforestation, and land use and land cover (LULC). The [...] Read more.
Dry forests are home to large amounts of biodiversity, are providers of ecosystem services, and control the advance of deserts. However, globally, these ecosystems are being threatened by various factors such as climate change, deforestation, and land use and land cover (LULC). The objective of this study was to identify the dynamics of LULC changes and the factors associated with the transformations of the dry forest in the Tumbes region (Peru) using Google Earth Engine (GEE). For this, the annual collection of Sentinel 2 (S2) satellite images of 2017 and 2021 was analyzed. Six types of LULC were identified, namely urban area (AU), agricultural land (AL), land without or with little vegetation (LW), water body (WB), dense dry forest (DDF), and open dry forest (ODF). Subsequently, we applied the Random Forest (RF) method for the classification. LULC maps reported accuracies greater than 89%. In turn, the rates of DDF and ODF between 2017 and 2021 remained unchanged at around 82%. Likewise, the largest net change occurred in the areas of WB, AL, and UA, at 51, 22, and 21%, respectively. Meanwhile, forest cover reported a loss of 4% (165.09 km2) of the total area in the analyzed period (2017–2021). The application of GEE allowed for an evaluation of the changes in forest cover and land use in the dry forest, and from this, it provided important information for the sustainable management of this ecosystem. Full article
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6 pages, 598 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Potential of Non-Vascular Epiphytes in Water Storage in the Montane Atlantic Forest
by Gabriela Berro, Rafael Ramos, Carlos Joly and Simone Vieira
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13062 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 635
Abstract
Non-vascular epiphytes play diverse roles in ecosystems and are known as biological indicators due to their sensitivity to environmental conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the water storage potential provided by this group in Tropical Forests. The study was carried [...] Read more.
Non-vascular epiphytes play diverse roles in ecosystems and are known as biological indicators due to their sensitivity to environmental conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the water storage potential provided by this group in Tropical Forests. The study was carried out in the Montane Atlantic Forest which is located at the Serra do Mar State Park, Brazil in five permanent plots (three old growth forests, one that was subjected to selective logging, and one late succession forest). The non-vascular epiphyte biomass was estimated using an allometric model and the amount of water stored in the wet biomass was calculated from the estimated dry biomass. The amount of water stored in the non-vascular epiphytes that were installed in old growth areas was higher than it was in the other ones, and the amount of water was higher in the understory. Full article
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6 pages, 1140 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Spatial Dynamics of Tree Stand Disturbance under Siberian Silk Moth (Dendrolimus sibiricus) Impact in Central Siberia in 2016–2020 Based on Remote Sensing Data
by Evgenii I. Ponomarev, Andrey A. Goroshko, Evgeny G. Shvetsov, Nikita D. Yakimov, Pavel D. Tretyakov, Svetlana M. Sultson and Pavel V. Mikhaylov
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13056 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 683
Abstract
In this study, we have analyzed the spatial dynamics of the forests disturbed by Siberian Silk Moth (Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschetverikov (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)) in Central Siberia and obtained model equations that fit these dynamics. We considered three sites that experienced silk [...] Read more.
In this study, we have analyzed the spatial dynamics of the forests disturbed by Siberian Silk Moth (Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschetverikov (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)) in Central Siberia and obtained model equations that fit these dynamics. We considered three sites that experienced silk moth outbreaks in 1993–1996, 2015–2018, and 2018–2020 and used satellite data (NOAA/AVHRR, Terra/MODIS, Landsat/ETM/OLI), field data, a digital elevation model, and maps of predominant forests. Silk moth-disturbed areas were classified using NDVI, which was calculated for each 15-day period during the growing season (April–September). Time series of disturbed forest areas were obtained for three sites located in the Krasnoyarsk region (Central Siberia, Russia). Total damaged areas for these sites were 41, 430, and 470 thousand hectares. We obtained formalized descriptions for the temporal dynamics of the disturbed area. Full article
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6 pages, 977 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fire Damage to Boreal Forests of Siberia Estimated Based on the dNBR Index
by Evgenii I. Ponomarev, Andrey N. Zabrodin and Nikita D. Yakimov
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13119 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 869
Abstract
The impact of fire on the boreal forests of eastern Siberia was analyzed using the normalized burn ratio (NBR) and its pre- versus post-fire difference (dNBR) applied to Landsat-8/OLI data. We provided the classification of fire impact in relation to dominant tree stands [...] Read more.
The impact of fire on the boreal forests of eastern Siberia was analyzed using the normalized burn ratio (NBR) and its pre- versus post-fire difference (dNBR) applied to Landsat-8/OLI data. We provided the classification of fire impact in relation to dominant tree stands and vegetation types. For post-fire areas of different disturbance levels, we evaluated the 5-year dynamics of restoration processes in terms of anomalies in the surface temperature (ΔT/Tbg, %) and in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (ΔNDVI/NDVIbg, %), which can indirectly characterize the post-fire state of vegetation and recovery. Full article
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5 pages, 1084 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Climate Trends and Average Increase in Aspen Forests’ Carbon Stock in Siberia According to Forest Inventory Data
by Andrey A. Vais, Valentina V. Popova, Alina A. Andronova, Olga A. Gerasimova, Viktor N. Nemich and Pavel V. Mikhaylov
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13079 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Aspen trees (Populus tremula L., 1753) are native to the boreal region of Siberia. These species’ fast growth and ability to regrow from root suckers mean carbon farms can be created using aspen trees for efficient atmospheric carbon sequestration. This paper presents [...] Read more.
Aspen trees (Populus tremula L., 1753) are native to the boreal region of Siberia. These species’ fast growth and ability to regrow from root suckers mean carbon farms can be created using aspen trees for efficient atmospheric carbon sequestration. This paper presents the findings of research focusing on the dynamics of aspen forests’ growth and conditions in a changing climate according to forest inventories conducted in 1972, 1982, 2002 and partially 2021. The research was carried out in aspen stands growing in the Central Siberian subtaiga forest-steppe ecoregion. From 1982 to 2002, there was a steady trend towards increasing growing season temperature sum. At the same time, the amount of precipitation in the same season and period did not exceed the median value. With an increase in the temperature sum in 1982–2002 from 1800 °C to 2100 °C, the average forest carbon stock increased from 0.56 to 1.48 tonnes of carbon per hectare per year. This statement is true for pure aspen forests aged 10 to 30 years. A drastic decrease in the carbon sequestration potential was observed in aspen stands from the age of 40. After 55 years, the average increase in aspen forests’ carbon stock leveled off, and the differences became insignificant. Along with age-related increasing biomass growth rates in aspen forests, natural and pathological dieback led to reductions in resilience and wood loss. Aspen is characterized by rapid early growth rates, which allows aspen forests’ sequestration potential to be used to achieve effective carbon conservation. Full article
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5 pages, 229 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Relationships between the Content of C, N, P and Their Stoichiometry in the Soils of Selected Reserves of the Białowieża Primeval Forest
by Irena Burzyńska and Krzysztof Sztabkowski
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13064 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 514
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between the content of C, N, P and their stoichiometry in the soils of Białowieża Primeval Forest in northeastern Poland. The studies were carried out in the forest reserves of Białowieża Primeval Forest, [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between the content of C, N, P and their stoichiometry in the soils of Białowieża Primeval Forest in northeastern Poland. The studies were carried out in the forest reserves of Białowieża Primeval Forest, i.e., in Władysław Szafer Landscape (WS), in Dębowy Grąd (DG), in Lipiny (LP), and in Koryciny Reserve (KOR) in northeastern Poland (Podlaskie Voivodeship). A close relationship was found between the content of TC and TN in the soils of the studied deposits, which is confirmed by positive linear relationships for the soils of the 0–5 cm layer (r = 0.965 ***, r2 = 0.931) and 5–40 cm depth (r = 0.959 ***, r2 = 0.919). The C:N ratio ranged from 17.40 to 24.50, with the highest content recorded in the soil of Lipiny reserve, which may indicate slowed decomposition processes and accumulation of organic matter in the soil due to a very acidic soil reaction (pHCaCl2 3.98). The C:P ratio in reserves of Koryciny and Dębowy Grąd ranged from 114.4 to 229.7, and the mean value in the litter was 547.8. The value of C:P ratio > 300 may favor biological sorption of phosphorus in the soil of Lipiny reserve. The values of stoichiometric C:N:P ratio may be an indicator of the intensity of nutrient flux entering forest soils from dead plant residues. Full article
5 pages, 1775 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Potential Use of Sentinel-2 Data for Discrimination of Tectona grandis L. Healthy and Non-Healthy Tree Species Using Spectral Angle Mapper
by Ashwini Mudaliar
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13130 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 772
Abstract
The functional activity of a tree is affected by various biotic and abiotic factors. The vitality and health status of a tree also affects the growth. Recent remote sensing technologies provide pow-erful means for monitoring forest health. The aim of this study is [...] Read more.
The functional activity of a tree is affected by various biotic and abiotic factors. The vitality and health status of a tree also affects the growth. Recent remote sensing technologies provide pow-erful means for monitoring forest health. The aim of this study is to discriminate Tectona grandis L. healthy trees from non-healthy or infected trees using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm. The present study site was located in a Southern Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests, of Gujarat, western India. The forest was dominated by Tectona grandis L. The healthy and the unhealthy plots of T. grandis were chosen for the present research. Vitality of T. grandis was understood after detailed study on damage assessment in 45 different plots distributed in the study area. A mask for forest area from non-forest area was applied to extract forest area from the data. Pure endmembers of the masked dataset for healthy and non-healthy or infected tree were extracted. By utilizing the derived pure endmembers, spectral angle mapping was applied to differentiate between healthy and non-healthy or infected trees in the image. The results show that SAM of Sentinel-2 data can provide T. grandis maps that compare favorably with ground truth, suggesting that there is a great potential of discrimination of T. grandis healthy trees from the non-healthy or infected using Sentinel-2 data. Full article
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6 pages, 557 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mapping the Wildland-Urban Interface from Houses Location and Terrain Slope in Patagonia, Argentina
by Corina Sanucci, Sofía Gonzalez and Luciana Ghermandi
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13041 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
Urbanization of forested areas increases the surface of wildland–urban interface (WUI), where fire is the primary hazard for humans and ecosystems. We determined the WUI using a novel approach in NW Patagonia, Argentina and evaluated its relationship with the fire ignition points. The [...] Read more.
Urbanization of forested areas increases the surface of wildland–urban interface (WUI), where fire is the primary hazard for humans and ecosystems. We determined the WUI using a novel approach in NW Patagonia, Argentina and evaluated its relationship with the fire ignition points. The WUI expands a greater distance on upslopes, where the rate of fire spread is highest. The WUI reaches the maximum distance under the most hazardous conditions: houses surrounded by fuel with steep slopes towards them. In the Bariloche district in 2021, the WUI included 81% of the houses and occupied 37% (11,006 ha) of the total study area. Between 2015 and 2021, 77% of fire ignitions occurred in the WUI, highlighting the relevance of urban growth planning and the management of fuel load in order to reduce wildfire risk. Full article
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6 pages, 734 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Decade-Long Dynamics of the Ground Vegetation in an Ecotone between Coniferous Forest and Clear-Cut Site
by Nadezhda Genikova and Viktor Mamontov
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13338 - 01 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
When the forest is clear-cut, there forms an ecotone complex (EC) made up of the forest, the transition from the forest to the clear-cut area under the tree stand canopy and beyond the canopy, and the clear-cut area per se. Our surveys were [...] Read more.
When the forest is clear-cut, there forms an ecotone complex (EC) made up of the forest, the transition from the forest to the clear-cut area under the tree stand canopy and beyond the canopy, and the clear-cut area per se. Our surveys were carried out in North Russian boreal forests (64.4° N, 41.8° E). We studied how the abundance of vascular plants in the forest—clear-cutting EC changed during the first ten years after logging. The abundance of Vaccinium myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea declined immediately after tree stand removal both in the open clear-cut area and in the EC transitional zones. The projective cover of bilberry declined gradually from the forest towards the clear-cut site. The abundance of cowberry in the transitional zones grew throughout the period of observations. As the tree layer regenerated in the clear-cut area, the abundance of the dwarf shrubs also recovered. The average projective cover of Deschampsia flexuosa remained stable in the forest part of the EC and in the transitional zones, not exceeding 2%. In the clear-cut site, its abundance grew slightly in the second year after tree stand removal and reached a maximum in 5-year-old clear-cut area. By the time of canopy closure 10 years after logging, its abundance had declined notably. Epilobium angustifolium in the forest part was very rare, its contribution to the ground cover not exceeding 1%. Its abundance in the forest edge impact area was also extremely low. Fireweed abundance in the clear-cut area reached its maximum 3–5 years after logging and had declined in 10-year-old clear-cuts. Full article
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6 pages, 1054 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Temporal Dynamics of Vegetation Indices for Fires of Various Severities in Southern Siberia
by Evgeny Shvetsov
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13048 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 800
Abstract
Wildfire is a critical environmental disturbance affecting forest dynamics, succession, and the carbon cycle in Siberian forests. In recent decades, forests of southern and central Siberia experienced an increase in fire-disturbed area. The main goal of this study was to assess the degree [...] Read more.
Wildfire is a critical environmental disturbance affecting forest dynamics, succession, and the carbon cycle in Siberian forests. In recent decades, forests of southern and central Siberia experienced an increase in fire-disturbed area. The main goal of this study was to assess the degree of fire disturbance in the southern regions of central Siberia, as well as the dynamics of post-fire changes for fires of different intensities. Remote sensing data from MODIS and VIIRS sensors were used to estimate burned area, fire radiative power (FRP), and post-fire dynamics using the normalized burn ratio (NBR) and normalized difference index vegetation (NDVI). The mean annual forest burned area between 2001 and 2021 in the region was about 250 thousand ha per year, with the largest burned areas observed in mixed and larch-dominant forests. Fires detected in the dark-needle coniferous (DNC) and larch-dominant forests were found to have higher (by about 25%) fire radiative power compared with fires in pine-dominant and mixed forests. The analysis of FRP together with NBR showed a significant correlation (R2 = 0.46; p < 0.05) between these variables, indicating that fires with higher intensity generally result in a higher degree of fire disturbance. Evaluation of the post-fire dynamics showed that NBR is more sensitive to fire-related disturbances compared with NDVI and requires more than 16 years to return to pre-fire values. At the same time, in case of the NDVI, the difference between disturbed and background areas was less than 1σ after 11 years since fire. Full article
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4 pages, 416 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Who Is Gaining, Who Is Losing? Examining Benefit Sharing Mechanism (BSM) under REDD+ in India
by Amir Sohel, Farhat Naz and Bidhan Das
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13057 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 792
Abstract
This paper critically assesses the institutional structure of the Benefit Sharing Mechanism (BSM) under the Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in the global south, managing forest sustainably to conserve carbon (REDD+) in India. Moreover, this paper examines the problems and prospects [...] Read more.
This paper critically assesses the institutional structure of the Benefit Sharing Mechanism (BSM) under the Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in the global south, managing forest sustainably to conserve carbon (REDD+) in India. Moreover, this paper examines the problems and prospects of livelihood enhancement of the local community. The findings of the study indicate that the intervention of the carbon market promotes the neoliberal capitalist agenda which can adversely impact the livelihood of local communities through forest grabbing. The proposed top-down centralized model of BSM can hinder its effectiveness and increase leakage. At the local level, the existing institution of Joint Forest Management (JFM) in India failed to achieve sustainability and decentralized right-based forest management systems. Our work has led us to conclude without safeguarding the rights of local communities and securing basic necessities for local forest-dependent communities, livelihood enhancement would not be possible. Full article
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7 pages, 831 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Individual Tree Species Classification Using the Pointwise MLP-Based Point Cloud Deep Learning Method
by Bingjie Liu, Huaguo Huang, Xin Tian and Min Ren
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13049 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1511
Abstract
Tree species is a critical factor in the practice of forest resource field sample surveys. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) can obtain three-dimensional structural information about forests and trees and is increasingly being used in forest resource surveys. We used three pointwise multi-layer [...] Read more.
Tree species is a critical factor in the practice of forest resource field sample surveys. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) can obtain three-dimensional structural information about forests and trees and is increasingly being used in forest resource surveys. We used three pointwise multi-layer perceptron (MLP)-based deep learning methods (PointNet, PointNet++, and PointMLP) to identify individual tree point clouds of seven different tree species to explore the effectiveness of point cloud deep learning in classifying individual tree point clouds. Experiment results were extremely exciting. Higher classification accuracy can be attained in trials utilizing 2048 points. The tree classification accuracies of PointMLP and PointNet++ on the test set were 0.9474 and 0.9483, respectively, in classification experiments with a balanced sample size. PointMLP, the current state-of-the-art pointwise MLP-based model, is faster to train and performs better. Full article
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7 pages, 1226 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Preparation Method of Softwood Lignin Derivatives: US9347177B2 Patent Evaluation
by Chaymaa Hachimi Alaoui and Ahmed Fatimi
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13069 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 738
Abstract
This study, in the form of a patent evaluation, which is a technique for studying the information present within and attached to patents, describes the state of the art by introducing what has been patented in relation to softwood lignin derivatives. Inventors have [...] Read more.
This study, in the form of a patent evaluation, which is a technique for studying the information present within and attached to patents, describes the state of the art by introducing what has been patented in relation to softwood lignin derivatives. Inventors have described and claimed, through the US9347177B2 patent, a method for the preparation of derivatives of native lignin from softwood sources that have a certain aliphatic hydroxyl content. The invention covered by the patent concerns the processes of treating or compounding macromolecular substances and compositions of lignin-containing materials, as well as lignin and products derived therefrom. To prove the concept of this invention, recovery of lignin derivatives has been carried out from three softwood species. Samples of each softwood biomass feedstock were treated using an acid-catalyzed ethanol organosolv pulping process under different conditions. As a result, the recovered lignin derivatives may have an aliphatic hydroxyl content of 2.5−7 mmol.g−1, a phenolic hydroxyl content of 2−8 mmol.g−1, a molecular weight that varies in the range of 200−4000 g.mol−1, and any suitable polydispersity of 1−5. These features result in a product with more consistent antioxidant activity. Furthermore, these recovered lignin derivatives may be advantageous when formulating such compositions, making these materials highly desired for wide applications. Full article
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6 pages, 282 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synergistic Activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Mentha piperita Essential Oils against the Pinewood Nematode
by Diogo Gonçalves, Tomás Cavaco, Ana Pombo, Cristina Moiteiro, Dora Martins Teixeira, Maria L. Inácio and Jorge M. S. Faria
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13054 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1224
Abstract
The pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a major threat to pine forests. Research on sustainable pest management strategies is now a priority. Essential oils (EOs) are biodegradable, complex mixtures of volatiles that can show low toxicity to mammals and powerful nematicidal activities depending [...] Read more.
The pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a major threat to pine forests. Research on sustainable pest management strategies is now a priority. Essential oils (EOs) are biodegradable, complex mixtures of volatiles that can show low toxicity to mammals and powerful nematicidal activities depending on their chemical composition. In the present work, the EOs of four plants were screened against the PWN, solely and in combination to identify possible synergistic interactions. The combination of Cymbopogon citratus and Mentha piperita EOs (1:1) resulted in higher activities than those of each tested solely, suggesting the occurrence of synergistic interactions between the compounds of these EOs. Research on the combination of synergistic EOs may lead to the development of plant based biopesticides with optimized activities against the PWN. Full article
6 pages, 1597 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Improvement of Dimensional Stability, Water Resistance, and Decay Resistance of Pine Wood by the Incorporation of Polyvinyl Chloride-Abietic Acid Copolymer with AgNPs
by Ahmet Can and Baki Hazer
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13036 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 886
Abstract
In this study, Abietic acid (Aba), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and nano silver (AgNPs) were blended by mixing and dissolving them in tetrahydrofuran. Pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood was impregnated with the PVC-Aba-AgNPs under a vacuum in a small-scale impregnation container. The weight [...] Read more.
In this study, Abietic acid (Aba), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and nano silver (AgNPs) were blended by mixing and dissolving them in tetrahydrofuran. Pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood was impregnated with the PVC-Aba-AgNPs under a vacuum in a small-scale impregnation container. The weight percent gain, density, water absorption, swelling properties, and decay resistance of the treated wood were measured in detail. PVC-Aba-AgNPs treatments decreased the swelling properties and water absorption of wood, and increased the anti-swelling efficiency (ASE) to approximately 12% after 8-day immersion in water. Mostly, the treated samples were found to be more resistant to decay compared to the control. Unleached and leached test samples showed the same mass loss after fungal decay tests. Full article
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4 pages, 1272 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Properties of Thermally Modified Woods by a Brazilian Process
by Eraldo Antonio Bonfatti Júnior, Elaine Cristina Lengowski, Silvana Nisgoski, Graciela Inês Bolzon Muñiz and Umberto Klock
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13042 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 744
Abstract
Thermal modification processes are strategies used to improve the properties of wood with an environmental liability when no chemicals are used. The Vap HolzSysteme®, developed in Brazil, promotes a thermal modification in wood when using an atmosphere saturated with water vapor [...] Read more.
Thermal modification processes are strategies used to improve the properties of wood with an environmental liability when no chemicals are used. The Vap HolzSysteme®, developed in Brazil, promotes a thermal modification in wood when using an atmosphere saturated with water vapor thus ensuring a low oxygen content in the pressure system. To evaluate this process, samples of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis woods were treated in an industrial autoclave at a final cycle temperature of 160 °C. Consequently, the anatomical characteristics were maintained; however, equilibrium moisture, basic density, chemical composition, and mechanical properties were modified. Some modifications were different considering the wood species, mainly in their mechanical properties. Full article
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7 pages, 533 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A New Model for Calculating the Impact of Forests and Wood Use on the Balance of C-CO2 in the Earth’s Atmosphere
by Gennady Aleksandrovich Bulatkin
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13040 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 628
Abstract
An original methodology was formulated and a new three-stage method for assessing the CO2 balance in plant communities was developed. In managed forests, when calculating the carbon balance, it is necessary to take into account the release of CO2 and not [...] Read more.
An original methodology was formulated and a new three-stage method for assessing the CO2 balance in plant communities was developed. In managed forests, when calculating the carbon balance, it is necessary to take into account the release of CO2 and not only direct but also indirect costs of technical energy for laying plantations, caring for plantings, and felling for final use. As a model, the costs of technical energy for the cultivation of natural and genetically modified forms of aspen Populus tremula L. are calculated. The large role of indirect costs of technical energy in the balance of C-CO2 in forest plantations is shown. The final amount of CO2 runoff from the atmosphere depends not only on the area of forests and their productivity but also on the way the wood is used. Full article
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5 pages, 3355 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Diversity, Species Composition, and Carbon Stock Assessment of Trees in Aurora, Philippines: Variations between Preserved and Developed Ecosystems
by Ericson Esquibel Coracero, Pastor Jr. L. Malabrigo, Jayvee M. Bambalan, Ivhon Kyle S. Palapal, Reynan V. Guleng, RB J. Gallego and Mark John A. Suniega
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13061 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1825
Abstract
Forest and tree cover loss decreases the ecosystem services that they may provide such as food and livelihood, protection from calamities, oxygen to breathe, and storing of carbon. This study assessed the diversity, species composition, and carbon stock potential of trees located in [...] Read more.
Forest and tree cover loss decreases the ecosystem services that they may provide such as food and livelihood, protection from calamities, oxygen to breathe, and storing of carbon. This study assessed the diversity, species composition, and carbon stock potential of trees located in Aurora, Philippines. Two areas were surveyed to represent preserved and developed ecosystems. The preserved ecosystem was represented by the ultramafic forest in Baler, Aurora, whereas the developed ecosystem was represented by the urbanizing portion of Dipaculao, Aurora. The sampling site in Baler included 27,400 m2 plots and the site surveyed in Dipaculao had a total of 72.72 hectares of developed area. Results showed a higher tree diversity in Baler (H′ = 4.096) than in Dipaculao (H′ = 3.278). Species composition assessment also revealed a higher number of ecologically important species in Baler. Ecologically important species in Baler included 100% natives, 34.5% endemics, and 20.86% threatened. Dominant species in Baler were the native, endemic, and threatened Xanthostemon philippinensis Merr. and the native Teijsmanniodendron ahernianum (Merr.) Bakh. On the other hand, the developed ecosystem had 54.4% native, 4.41% endemic, and 11.76% threatened species. Dipaculao was dominated by introduced and invasive species such as Swietenia macrophylla King and Gmelina arborea Roxb. ex Sm. For the tree carbon stock assessment, a tremendous difference was found wherein the preserved ecosystem had 272.28 tons/ha carbon whereas the developed ecosystem had 16.28 tons/ha carbon. This study revealed ideal forest ecosystem characteristics in preserved forests with high diversity, the presence of many important species, and a large amount of carbon stock. This calls for immediate action from the government to continuously protect the natural forests and prioritize proper land use planning and the right choice of species to be integrated with developed areas to improve the ecosystem’s capacity to provide vital ecological services. Full article
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6 pages, 13064 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Application of Forest By-Products in the Textile Industry: Dyeing with Pine and Eucalyptus Bark Extracts
by Jorge Santos, Sandra Monteiro, Susana Oliveira, Pedro Magalhães, Fernão D. Magalhães, Jorge Manuel Martins and Luisa Hora de Carvalho
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13053 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1033
Abstract
The main by-product generated in the forestry industry is bark, derived from the debarking process. Pinus and eucalyptus are nowadays two of the most important tree species exploited by the forestry industry in southwestern Europe. This work investigates the application of Maritime pine [...] Read more.
The main by-product generated in the forestry industry is bark, derived from the debarking process. Pinus and eucalyptus are nowadays two of the most important tree species exploited by the forestry industry in southwestern Europe. This work investigates the application of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.) barks as a source of high polyphenolic content extracts, to be used as natural dyes in the textile industry. We demonstrated that it is possible to use the extracts obtained from both forest by-products as textile dyes without the need for using any metallic mordant. Full article
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6 pages, 466 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
How Does Mycorrhiza Interact with Different Levels of Fertilization on Prosopis alba?
by María Gracia Senilliani, Analía del Valle Guzmán, Adriana Teresita Gomez, Ana Carolina Santacruz-García, Monica Sagadin, Mauricio Ewens, Cristian Coria, Joaquín Gómez, Rodrigo Frias and Mónica Azucena Nazareno
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13088 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 711
Abstract
This study assessed how the interactions between chemical fertilization levels and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus species (AMF) affect the seedling’s morphology and biochemical traits in Prosopis alba. Subsequently, the seedlings were inoculated or not with a mixture of native AMF from two origins [...] Read more.
This study assessed how the interactions between chemical fertilization levels and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus species (AMF) affect the seedling’s morphology and biochemical traits in Prosopis alba. Subsequently, the seedlings were inoculated or not with a mixture of native AMF from two origins of contrasting sites in the Chaco Region. Preliminarily, we observed a positive mycorrhizal response to the AMF in interaction with chemical fertilization (at 60% fertilizer concentration). These results were reflected mainly over some morphological parameters than over biochemical parameters. The lack of a clear answer is probably since the benefits of the symbiosis on the host plant could be observed in the establishment phase in the field. Full article
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8 pages, 213 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Digitalization Framework of the National Forest System at 2020
by Francesco Barbarese, Alessandro Alivernini, Marco Bascietto, Loredana Oreti and Francesco Carbone
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13111 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 586
Abstract
The digitalization of processes is a priority objective on the agenda of the Italian National Government. The forestry system could benefit from its introduction, both for the purposes of administration, management, monitoring and governance of the national forest heritage. The authors, through questionnaires [...] Read more.
The digitalization of processes is a priority objective on the agenda of the Italian National Government. The forestry system could benefit from its introduction, both for the purposes of administration, management, monitoring and governance of the national forest heritage. The authors, through questionnaires and interviews, defined the degree of digitalization of the forestry sector. While the computerisation phase has been completed, at the beginning of 2021, forest digitalization is still in the early stages, except for some realities that represent excellence. Full article
6 pages, 1503 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Genetic Diversity of Silver Fir (Abies alba) and European Beech (Fagus sylvatica) Populations from the South-Eastern Limits of Their Natural Distribution
by Eleftheria Dalmaris, Nikolaos Tourvas and Filippos A. Aravanopoulos
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13129 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity, as well as allelic richness (AR) were calculated using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) genotyping for two important European keystone forest tree species. Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica are under pressure in a large part of their distribution [...] Read more.
Observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity, as well as allelic richness (AR) were calculated using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) genotyping for two important European keystone forest tree species. Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica are under pressure in a large part of their distribution due to climate change. Since Greece is their south-eastern limits, climatic pressure is even higher. As rear edge/peripheral populations, it is expected to harbor valuable and well-adapted germplasm in conditions such as those expected in central Europe by the end of the century. Comparison of their genetic variation amongst the Greek marginal populations and population from the SW, S or main range of their distribution was performed, finding no statistical differences. Full article
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6 pages, 555 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Shading Effects Needle Xylem Traits and Leaf Gas Exchange Parameters in Scots Pine
by Vladislava B. Pridacha, Natalia V. Tumanik, Denis E. Semin and Tatiana A. Sazonova
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13122 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Forest productivity is closely related to how effectively woody plants utilize the most important environmental factors—light and moisture. Assessment of the ecological plasticity of structural and functional traits in woody plants is necessary to predict the dynamics of forest communities in the changing [...] Read more.
Forest productivity is closely related to how effectively woody plants utilize the most important environmental factors—light and moisture. Assessment of the ecological plasticity of structural and functional traits in woody plants is necessary to predict the dynamics of forest communities in the changing natural environment and climate. In this study, needle xylem anatomical and hydraulic traits and their relationships with leaf CO2/H2O-gas exchange parameters were investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees during natural reforestation after clear-cutting of boreal pine forest in Eastern Fennoscandia. We analyzed the effect of shading on needle structural and functional traits in Scots pine trees of the same age in a clear-cut site and under a bilberry-type pine forest canopy in the middle taiga. The highest values of tracheid lumen diameter (D95), number of tracheids per needle (Tnum) and xylem area per needle (Ax), theoretical needle hydraulic conductivity (Kth_n), and theoretical leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks_leaf), stomatal conductance (gs), rates of photosynthesis (A) and transpiration (E), number of stomata per unit needle area (Nst) and, on the contrary, the lowest values of photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUEi, WUE) and plasticity index (PI) of all structural and functional traits were noted in Scots pine trees growing in the clear-cut and getting sufficient amounts of light. At the same time, the values of theoretical needle xylem-specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks_xylem) were similar in habitats with high (clear-cut site), medium (shading in the clear-cut), and low (forest canopy) light levels. The features of the relationship between the hydraulic structure, photosynthetic capacity, and water use efficiency in Scots pine trees under different habitat conditions are discussed. Full article
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6 pages, 5432 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Application of Tasseled Cap Transformation of Sentinel-2—MSI Data for Forest Monitoring and Change Detection on Territory of Natural Park “BLUE STONES”
by Andrey Stoyanov
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13073 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1521
Abstract
The goal of the present research is to monitor the forest vegetation’s condition and detect the changes that occurred in the territorial disturbance of the forest cover in the area of Natural Park “Blue Stones”, located in Bulgaria, by the use of a [...] Read more.
The goal of the present research is to monitor the forest vegetation’s condition and detect the changes that occurred in the territorial disturbance of the forest cover in the area of Natural Park “Blue Stones”, located in Bulgaria, by the use of a combinative approach of Remote Sensing’s methods. Tasseled Cap Orthogonal Transformation is applied to the selected satellite images, resulting in three segmented TCT components: “brightness”, “greenness” and “wetness”. On the basis of the “greenness” component from different temporal points (satellite scenes), the Normalized Differential Greenness Index has been calculated, which gives accurate and precise data on the dynamics of forest vegetation for short-term and long-term time periods. Full article
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7 pages, 1019 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of Anthropogenic Disturbances on Alpine Floristic Diversity along the Altitudinal Gradient of Northwestern Himalayas
by Simran Tomar, Pooja Nautiyal, Sunil Puri, Khilendra Singh Kanwal and Kamaraj Chandra Sekar
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13093 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
Vegetation patterns in the high-altitude Himalayas are influenced by a complex set of biotic and abiotic factors. Anthropogenic disturbances are one of the primary factors influencing the community patterns and diversity, which are largely determined by the level of accessibility in the Himalayas. [...] Read more.
Vegetation patterns in the high-altitude Himalayas are influenced by a complex set of biotic and abiotic factors. Anthropogenic disturbances are one of the primary factors influencing the community patterns and diversity, which are largely determined by the level of accessibility in the Himalayas. However, with advancing urbanization and accessibility, limited efforts have been made to quantify the impact of road constructions on the alpine flora of the Himalayas. To overcome this data gap, this study aimed to quantify the impact of anthropogenic disturbance on the alpine vegetation community pattern along the altitudinal gradient, i.e., 3264–4340 m in Kullu district and 3148–4634 m in Lahaul and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh, Northwestern Himalayas. The impact of anthropogenic disturbance was assessed by comparing species diversity and richness between selected disturbed and undisturbed sites. The diversity profiles of disturbed sites (2.45), near roads and highways (within 25–50 m), were indicative of a higher level of anthropogenic disturbances than undisturbed sites (2.56), which were located at a farther distance (more than 25–50 m) from roads and highways. The variation in diversity profiles of disturbed and undisturbed sites was further favored by lower values of soil moisture, potassium, phosphorous, and nitrogen content in disturbed sites. In addition, the disturbed sites have lower numbers of threatened and endemic species (15 and 29, respectively) than undisturbed sites (30 and 15, respectively). Linear modelling between soil properties and density indicated a perfect linear relationship for both disturbed and undisturbed sites. Canonical correspondence analysis for disturbed sites indicated sand, silt, clay and bulk density as major controlling factors. The present study indicated a significant impact of anthropogenic disturbances on the alpine floristic diversity and soil properties which needs urgent mitigation actions to conserve the unique and threatened alpine floristic diversity of the Himalayas. Full article
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5 pages, 476 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Climate Change, Forest Mortality, and the Need for a Solid Scientific Foundation in Forestry
by Rodney Arthur Savidge
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13072 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 830
Abstract
Tree mortality is becoming more common in wild forests, plantations, and orchards. Remedial or preventative counteracting measures are limited because, before the onset of overt dying, reliable methods to distinguish intrinsically healthy trees from unhealthy trees are lacking. Survivotypes within dead populations can [...] Read more.
Tree mortality is becoming more common in wild forests, plantations, and orchards. Remedial or preventative counteracting measures are limited because, before the onset of overt dying, reliable methods to distinguish intrinsically healthy trees from unhealthy trees are lacking. Survivotypes within dead populations can nevertheless be identified and conserved in support of achieving suitably adapted future forests. Full article
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6 pages, 769 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Rainfall Interception Variations According to Eucalyptus Genotypes
by Juan Carlos Valverde, Rafael Rubilar, Alex Medina, Oscar Mardones, Verónica Emhart, Daniel Bozo, Yosselin Espinoza and Octavio Campoe
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13334 - 01 Nov 2022
Viewed by 609
Abstract
The selection of taxa/genotypes that have a rainfall interception that suits the conditions of each region is key to maintaining water stability and minimizing the effects of drought. This study evaluated rainfall interception on a seven-year-old plantation with the eight genotypes (Eucalyptus [...] Read more.
The selection of taxa/genotypes that have a rainfall interception that suits the conditions of each region is key to maintaining water stability and minimizing the effects of drought. This study evaluated rainfall interception on a seven-year-old plantation with the eight genotypes (Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens x globulus (high and low productivity), E. nitens, E. badjensis, E. smithii, and E. camaldulensis x globulus) in Yumbel, Bio-Bio, Chile. In addition, diameter (DBH), total height (H), and Leaf Area Index (LAI) were considered and compared with stemflow (Sf), throughfall (Tf), and interception (INT). The results showed that DBH and H did not infer the rainfall interception parameters. In contrast, Tf and Int varied in each genotype; E. badjensis and E. smithii had a LAI > 5.1 m2m−2 had the minimum Tf and maximum Int; in contrast, E. globulus and E. nitens x globulus with a LAI < 4.0 m2m−2 showed low Int and high Tf. With Sf did not show differences between genotypes. These suggest the opportunity to select genotypes considering canopy interception to balance productivity and water resources under climate change scenarios. Full article
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5 pages, 570 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Qualitative and Quantitative Characterization of Deadwood Related to the Accessibility of Managed Beech Forests of the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park
by Angela Lo Monaco, Bianca Sipala, Francesco Latterini and Rodolfo Picchio
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13085 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 759
Abstract
Deadwood is a basic component in forest ecosystems since it supports many ecological and functional roles. Despite the importance of deadwood for assessing the sustainability of forest management, information on this fundamental parameter of forest ecosystems is documented mainly for protected areas, while [...] Read more.
Deadwood is a basic component in forest ecosystems since it supports many ecological and functional roles. Despite the importance of deadwood for assessing the sustainability of forest management, information on this fundamental parameter of forest ecosystems is documented mainly for protected areas, while for managed forests it is much scarcer. The study aims to assess the deadwood in managed beech forests of the National Park of Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise. These forests have an important socio-economic function for the local population, who collect the deadwood as allowed by the park regulation. The presence of deadwood found from inside the forest to logging roads was investigated. Three accessibility classes were established, and data analysis was performed according to this classification. The result showed that the accessibility to the forest affects the quantity and the decay class of the deadwood. In conclusion, the deadwood removal influences the quantity of deadwood in the forest and the removal is affected by the distance from the road. Full article
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4 pages, 237 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Differentiation of Tropical Tree Species with Leaf Measurements of Hyperspectral Reflectance
by Juan Carlos Valverde, Dagoberto Arias-Aguilar, María Rodríguez-Solís and Nelson Zamora Villalobos
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13084 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 560
Abstract
The development of non-destructive indicators of leaf-level hyperspectral reflectance is the first step in mapping endangered tree species in the tropics. Therefore, hyperspectral reflectance at the leaf level was implemented to differentiate 15 tree species from Costa Rica’s forests. The hyperspectral reflectance (310 [...] Read more.
The development of non-destructive indicators of leaf-level hyperspectral reflectance is the first step in mapping endangered tree species in the tropics. Therefore, hyperspectral reflectance at the leaf level was implemented to differentiate 15 tree species from Costa Rica’s forests. The hyperspectral reflectance (310 to 1100 nm) was evaluated in six individuals per species (30 leaves per individual) in the rainy season. In addition, the specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf thickness (LT) were evaluated. The data were first analyzed by one-way ANOVA to identify differentiating bands between species. Then, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to classify the species and define the degree of similarity, and the contribution of each narrow band to the classification was estimated with the absolute value of the standardized coefficients associated with the discriminant function (kappa value). Subsequently, we determined whether the SLA or LT correlated with the species differentiation. The results showed that the wavebands al 350, 700, 750, 780, 790, 800, and 1010 nm were key to differentiating the species, with an average kappa value of 0.88. Furthermore, the correlation of the hyperspectral reflectance with the SLA and LT was ruled out. Our results suggest the value of differentiating tropical tree species through non-destructive methods, which can facilitate the mapping of endangered populations and the development of conservation strategies. Full article
6 pages, 899 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Some Problems Arising during the Initiation of Somatic Embryogenesis in Pinus sylvestris L.
by Roman V. Ignatenko, Olga V. Chirva, Maria A. Ershova and Natalia A. Galibina
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13364 - 01 Nov 2022
Viewed by 815
Abstract
The use of biotechnological tools, in particular somatic embryogenesis (SE) for mass propagation of conifers, is relevant since this method allows to quickly replicate plant material with desired features. However, there are still a number of difficulties in obtaining an embryogenic cell culture [...] Read more.
The use of biotechnological tools, in particular somatic embryogenesis (SE) for mass propagation of conifers, is relevant since this method allows to quickly replicate plant material with desired features. However, there are still a number of difficulties in obtaining an embryogenic cell culture for Pinus sylvestris. One of the important and unsolved problems is the search for SE-competent genotypes. We cultured 674 megagametophytes from 22 donor plants (16 genotypes) in vitro during the 2021 summer period. As a result of the experiment, callus formation was not recorded for the studied genotypes; however, 9.4 ± 1.0% of the explants formed plants. In addition to the genotype effect, unsuitable nutrient medium or late developmental stages of zygotic embryos could be the reasons for the lack of callus induction. To solve these problems, a number of studies were carried out: (1) the effect of the nutrient medium composition and density (MS, MSG, ½LV, DCR) on the callus initiation from mature seeds was analyzed, (2) the effect of various growth regulators concentrations on the initiation of callus formation was studied, (3) the analysis of the reproductive competence of donor plants was performed by the method of vegetative buds cultivation. As a result, several genotypes were found to have the ability for embryogenic callus formation, and the conditions for explants cultivation were selected. Full article
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6 pages, 1378 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Long-Term Dynamics of the Thermal State of Technogenic Plots in Siberia Based on Satellite Data
by Tatiana Ponomareva, Nikita Yakimov, Georgy Ponomarev and Evgenii Ponomarev
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13081 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 546
Abstract
We studied the dynamics of relative anomalies (ΔT/Tbg) in the ground cover thermal regime of technogenic territories in Siberia under the conditions of gold mining impact. The impact of gold deposit mining determines the change in the thermal state of the [...] Read more.
We studied the dynamics of relative anomalies (ΔT/Tbg) in the ground cover thermal regime of technogenic territories in Siberia under the conditions of gold mining impact. The impact of gold deposit mining determines the change in the thermal state of the post-technogenic plots for a long time, which is an important feature of ecosystem stability monitoring. We analyzed the spectral characteristics of four technogenic sites that had gold mining quarries of different age. We evaluated the stages of technogenic plots according to the initial level of thermal anomaly, the rate of decrease in thermal anomaly, the time of stabilization recovery processes, and dispersing of the residual level of thermal anomaly. Full article
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6 pages, 1793 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Estimation of Tree Height in Burned Areas with GEDI Laser Data in Northern Portugal and Galicia (Spain)
by Saulo Folharini, Sarah Moura Batista dos Santos, António Bento-Gonçalves and António Vieira
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13050 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 947
Abstract
We analyzed the tree height of four areas affected by wildfires in northern Portugal and Galicia (Spain) using the GEE platform, random forest regression model, and GEDI data. Before the fires, the heights varied from 5.21 to 20.16 m, with r2 values [...] Read more.
We analyzed the tree height of four areas affected by wildfires in northern Portugal and Galicia (Spain) using the GEE platform, random forest regression model, and GEDI data. Before the fires, the heights varied from 5.21 to 20.16 m, with r2 values of 0.82 and 0.67. After the fires, heights of 5.55 to 9.12 m were recorded, with values of r2 0.47 and 1. These r2 values after fires indicate the absence or limitation of sample data. We concluded that the GEDI data have great potential to assist in the mapping of areas affected by wildfires. Full article
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5 pages, 683 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mid-Rotation Response of Soil Preparation Intensity and Timing of Weed Control on Radiata Pine
by Daniel Bozo, Rafael Rubilar, Yosselin Espinoza, Otavio Campoe, Rachel Cook, David Carter and Timothy Albaugh
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13094 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 609
Abstract
A good instance to improve the availability of resources for tree planting is during the establishment of stands, increasing the survival and initial growth of plants. Despite the common use of soil preparation, there are uncertainties about its long-term effects on stand growth [...] Read more.
A good instance to improve the availability of resources for tree planting is during the establishment of stands, increasing the survival and initial growth of plants. Despite the common use of soil preparation, there are uncertainties about its long-term effects on stand growth and the intensity required. Weeds compete with crop plants for site resources, such as light, water, and nutrients, so evaluating the best time to apply this treatment is key. The objective of this study is to quantify the effects of soil preparation intensity and the timing of weed control on the long-term growth responses of radiata pine on a metamorphic soil in Chile. The study was established on a split-plot design with cultivation as the main plot treatment (shovel, subsoiling, and disking) and weed control as subplots (none, pre- and post-, and only post-planting) to remove all competing vegetation. Subsoiling was performed to 80 cm and disking to a 30 cm depth. Trees were planted in 2013 and were measured annually for diameter at breast height (DBH) and total height. Nine years after establishment, soil preparation treatments with weed control applied at pre- and post-establishment showed the lowest mortality. The best responses in cumulative volume were observed for disking and subsoiling plus weed control at pre-establishment, and the lowest responses were observed for treatments not including weed control. Weed control was the key treatment providing good growth response. Interestingly, the hypothesis that deep soil tillage was required on long dry season sites such as these was rejected given that disking to 30 cm provided equal or even larger growth responses. Full article
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4 pages, 244 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Contribution to the Ecophysiological Study of Four Mediterranean Forest Species (Quercus suber, Ceratonia siliqua, Tetraclinis articulata, Cedrus atlantica)
by Mohamed Mouafik, Mohamed Ouajdi, Oumaima Ninich, Jalila Aoujdad and Ahmed El Aboudi
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13125 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 665
Abstract
Forest degradation has been accentuated in recent years by climate change and drought. This study consists of producing quality plants and understanding their ecophysiological behavior in the face of water stress. The plants of two broadleaves (Quercus suber, Ceratonia siliqua) [...] Read more.
Forest degradation has been accentuated in recent years by climate change and drought. This study consists of producing quality plants and understanding their ecophysiological behavior in the face of water stress. The plants of two broadleaves (Quercus suber, Ceratonia siliqua) and two conifers (Tetraclinis articulata, Cedrus atlantica) aged 6 months were subjected to water stress. The basic (Ψb) and minimum (Ψm) leaf water potential was measured and processed according to climatic factors for the 4 forest species. The results show that the leaf water potential in Quercus suber presents more negative values (−0.42 MPa) for basic leaf water potential and (−1.43 MPa) for minimum leaf water potential than the other forest species studied. While Cedrus atlantica presents the least negative values for minimum leaf water potential (−0.89 MPa). These results allowed us to define the species that is more resistant to water stress and climate change. However, they refer us to more general questions concerning the mechanisms of water use in forest plants. Full article
6 pages, 271 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Could the Interaction between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Biostimulants Improve the Plant Physiological Status of Prosopis alba Seedlings?
by Ana Carolina Santacruz-García, Adriana Teresita Gomez, María Gracia Senilliani, Analia del Valle Guzmán, Mónica Beatriz Sagadin, Mauricio Ewens, Rodrigo Sebastian Frías, Cristian Coria, Joaquín Gómez and Mónica Azucena Nazareno
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13089 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 743
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the synergy between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and foliar biostimulant applications (phytoextracts) on an important Argentinian forest native species (Prosopis alba) during the nursery stage. We tested biochemical parameters (MDA, malondialdehyde, an oxidative stress biomarker, and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the synergy between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and foliar biostimulant applications (phytoextracts) on an important Argentinian forest native species (Prosopis alba) during the nursery stage. We tested biochemical parameters (MDA, malondialdehyde, an oxidative stress biomarker, and photosynthetic pigments) on P. alba seedlings sprayed with three different phytoextracts and inoculated with mycorrhizal strains of different local origins. Considering that the statistical model was not significant at the preliminary level, we did not observe synergism between the different forms of bioinsumes evaluated by analysing biochemical characteristics. However, regardless of AMF inoculation, plants with foliar applications of Larrea divaricata at 3% w/v showed a lower accumulation of the oxidative stress biomarker, MDA and a lower total carotenoid content (p > 0.1). Although there were no significant differences, trends indicate positive relationships between neck diameter and mycorrhizal response in plants treated with M1 with foliar applications of Larrea divaricata at 3% w/v. However, height does not consistently respond to mycorrhizae interacting with biostimulants. Consequently, deeper analysis is needed to understand the effect of the interaction between AMF with biostimulants for improving the plant’s physiological status. Deepening research in this regard will result in significant benefits for restoration activities. Full article
7 pages, 1743 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Determination of the Impact of Urbanization in Istanbul Northern Forests by Remote Sensing
by Büşra Sarıbaş and Filiz Bektaş Balçık
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13059 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Urban forests provide many benefits for the city’s resilience to climate change by improving the degree of shading, evaporative cooling, rainwater interception, and storage and filtration functions. With the increasing population and unplanned urbanization, the Northern Forests, which play a major role in [...] Read more.
Urban forests provide many benefits for the city’s resilience to climate change by improving the degree of shading, evaporative cooling, rainwater interception, and storage and filtration functions. With the increasing population and unplanned urbanization, the Northern Forests, which play a major role in Istanbul, are being destroyed over time. In this study, forest area changes were determined by using object-based classification and landscape metrics. Landsat TM and Landsat OLI and TIRS images dated from 2009 and 2019 were used to detect the forest area changes in the selected area. Selected landscape metrics such as the aggregation index, edge density, the largest patch index, and patch density were calculated from the classification results to understand the devastation of urbanization in forest areas. According to the results, forest areas decreased from 318.2 km2 to 292.1 km2, and were fragmented from whole and large pieces to smaller pieces. Full article
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5 pages, 1029 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analyses of Forest Road Damages over the Past 19 Years Using Rainfall Evaluation with Return Periods in Gunma Prefecture, Japan
by Ryo Kobayashi, Isei Watanabe and Kazuhiro Aruga
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13078 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 645
Abstract
This study acquired governmental-subsidized recovery costs from forest road damages over the past 19 years, between 2001 and 2019, in Gunma Prefecture. Then, this study analyzed correlation coefficients between return periods of rainfall intensity in relation to the soil water index as well [...] Read more.
This study acquired governmental-subsidized recovery costs from forest road damages over the past 19 years, between 2001 and 2019, in Gunma Prefecture. Then, this study analyzed correlation coefficients between return periods of rainfall intensity in relation to the soil water index as well as three-layer water tanks and recovery costs. The study sites were four AMeDAS stations, such as Kanna, Fujioka, Nishinomaki, and Tashiro, which had relatively large governmental subsidized recovery costs in 2001, 2007, and 2019. As a result, large forest road damages were implied as a result of deep rainwater penetration because correlation coefficients between water tanks and recovery costs per forest road length tended to increase with deeper tanks. Full article
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5 pages, 601 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Potential Geography and Conservation of Ipomoea beninensis, an Endangered Plant Species for Benin (West Africa)
by Rodrigue Idohou, Hospice Dassou, Gafarou Agounde, Guillaume Hounsou-Dindin and Aristide Adomou
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13345 - 01 Nov 2022
Viewed by 726
Abstract
The endemic plant of Benin, Ipomoea beninensis Akoègn, Lisowski and Sinsin, is threatened in its natural habitats. This study assesses the suitability of the current and future habitat for its conservation countrywide. Maxent models were run using records added to environmental variables under [...] Read more.
The endemic plant of Benin, Ipomoea beninensis Akoègn, Lisowski and Sinsin, is threatened in its natural habitats. This study assesses the suitability of the current and future habitat for its conservation countrywide. Maxent models were run using records added to environmental variables under present and two climates. The results showed that the most suitable areas for I. beninensis will be mainly in the phytodistrict of southern and northern Borgou. The species could lose 9% and 13.6% of its suitable habitats under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. Urgent and timely strategies are needed to save the remaining population of the species. Full article
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5 pages, 923 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Plasticity of Leaf Morphological Traits Impacted by Livestock Grazing on Trees in Zagros Semi-Arid Forest
by Hamid R. Naji, Maryam Janbakhshi, Mehdi Heydari, Mohammad N. Shirkhani, Kobra Azizi and Stephen Woodward
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13092 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Livestock grazing makes deformed, thorny, and twisted branches. The leaves are the main food resource for livestock. We aimed to investigate the leaf morphological characteristics of the Zagros Forest species under livestock grazing. Therefore, the leaf morphological characteristics of six forest species were [...] Read more.
Livestock grazing makes deformed, thorny, and twisted branches. The leaves are the main food resource for livestock. We aimed to investigate the leaf morphological characteristics of the Zagros Forest species under livestock grazing. Therefore, the leaf morphological characteristics of six forest species were investigated in five forest stands in Ilam province. Morphological traits, including leaf width, leaf length, petiole length, leaf area, and leaf dry weight, were measured. The results show that grazing affects most of the leaf morphological traits. To sum up, the findings showed that tree leaves are more susceptible to grazing stress as the grazing will damage the tree growth and forest regeneration and structure. Therefore, knowing how livestock causes damage to the forest trees will help to lessen forest destruction and manage the forest better. Full article
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5 pages, 1023 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Using Radar Imagery Data to Determine Mixed Forests’ Characteristics
by Viktor Sidorenkov, Iuliia Achikolova, Daniil Astapov and Oleg Ryabtsev
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13046 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 528
Abstract
Implementing inventory in remote and hard-to-reach forests is rather challenging. This study develops methods for identifying the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of mixed forests using Sentinel-1 imagery. The relationships between standing volume, forest density, age, and number of trees and radar survey indicators [...] Read more.
Implementing inventory in remote and hard-to-reach forests is rather challenging. This study develops methods for identifying the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of mixed forests using Sentinel-1 imagery. The relationships between standing volume, forest density, age, and number of trees and radar survey indicators are revealed. The results are compared with forest inventory materials for a part of the study area. For most stands, there is a similarity in the standing volume and forest density definition. The study demonstrates that it is possible to identify quantitative and qualitative forest characteristics using radar survey data. Full article
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6 pages, 591 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Employing a Nondestructive Method for the Estimation of Foliar Area of Quina (Cinchona officinalis)
by Andrea Sueldo, Sheyla Chumbimune, Erik Mendoza, Wilian Salazar, Benjamin Minaya and Carlos I. Arbizu
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13051 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 916
Abstract
Leaf area is related to tree growth, water balance, and mechanical resistance to physical and biotic agents. Given its importance, the purpose of the study was to compare two nondestructive methods of leaf area estimation using the free software ImageJ vs. graph paper [...] Read more.
Leaf area is related to tree growth, water balance, and mechanical resistance to physical and biotic agents. Given its importance, the purpose of the study was to compare two nondestructive methods of leaf area estimation using the free software ImageJ vs. graph paper in seedlings of quina tree. Three young and mature leaves were evaluated on 18 quina seedlings. Descriptive statistics were obtained, and both methods were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test, and a regression equation was estimated based on leaf width and length. Full article
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8 pages, 911 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparison of Approaches for Determining Grazing Capacity in Forest Rangelands: The Case of Pisoderion Forest Florina-Greece
by Katerina Melfou, Dimitrios Kalfas, Fotios Chatzitheodoridis, Stavros Kalogiannidis, Efstratios Loizou and Ermelinda Toska
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13055 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 695
Abstract
False-alpine grasslands, also known as summer grasslands or rangelands, are mainly associated with transhumance. In the past, transhumance and grazing were organized on a mainly family basis, and there existed an informal management system for grazing that was respected by all livestock farmers [...] Read more.
False-alpine grasslands, also known as summer grasslands or rangelands, are mainly associated with transhumance. In the past, transhumance and grazing were organized on a mainly family basis, and there existed an informal management system for grazing that was respected by all livestock farmers who used the summer pastures. Nomadic animal husbandry has disappeared, and with it a sense of respect for nature, the rangelands, and more generally, the environment. The aim of this paper is to assess the grazing capacity of rangelands in the Pisoderion Forest, which is located in the region of Florina in Greece, under various specifications introduced by forest management plans and relatively recent legislation. The grazing capacity that is theoretically expected following the specifications of previous forest management plans is compared to the grazing capacity according to the specifications introduced by relatively recent legislation. The conclusion that can be drawn is that the rangelands are underused, and with an appropriate holistic management approach, such as the traditional system of dividing the forest grasslands into yards, the livestock capital can be doubled in these rangelands. Full article
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7 pages, 297 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Influence of the Arboreal Component in the Productive and Nutritional Parameters of Brachiaria mutica Grass in Northeastern Peru
by Leandro Valqui, Edvin L. Lopez, Cesar A. Lopez, Lamberto Valqui-Valqui, Leidy G. Bobadilla, Carmen N. Vigo and Héctor V. Vásquez
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13063 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 714
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth (cm), yield (kg/m2), crude protein (CP %), crude fiber (CF %), ether extract (EE %), NDF (%), ADF (%), gross energy (GE kcal/kg), ELN (%), Ash (%), and in vitro digestibility [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth (cm), yield (kg/m2), crude protein (CP %), crude fiber (CF %), ether extract (EE %), NDF (%), ADF (%), gross energy (GE kcal/kg), ELN (%), Ash (%), and in vitro digestibility (IVD %) of Brachiaria mutica grass; under three silvopastoral systems, guava (Inga edulis), poplar (Populus alba), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus labill) and a treeless system (TS) in the northeast of peru. These were analyzed under a completely randomized design (CRD) with four treatments and four repetitions, and the results were analyzed by analysis of variance (α = 0.05%) and Tukey’s means test (p ≤ 0.05). The SPS of guava showed higher growth at 30 days (59.57 cm), and the there was no difference between systems at 45 (98.43–107.14 cm), 60 (138.86–146.57 cm), and 75 days (159.81–165.67 cm); the highest yield at 30 days was for SPS with guava (0.41 kg/m2), at 45 and 60 days there was no difference (1.01–1.15 and 1.57–1.76 kg/m2), and at 75 days the highest yield was from TS (2.88 kg/m2); the nutritional composition was evaluated in two cut-off frequencies (30 and 75 days); for 30 days, the SPS with guava had a higher value for CP (16.03%), IVD (68.13%), and GE (4502 kcal/kg); the SPS with eucalyptus had a higher percentage for CF (21.08), NDF (33.17), FDA (56.42), and ash (7.74); the highest EE content was in the SPS with poplar (2.46%) and the TS presented the highest percentage of ELN (50.88); for 75 days, the SPS with guava presented a higher value for CP (13.61%), FDA (36.78), and GE (4504.33 kcal/kg), the SPS with eucalyptus had a higher percentage for CF (23.51) and ash (6.42), and the the SPS with poplar had the highest percentage of EE (2.24), ELN (59.18) FDN (62.67), and IVD (56.59).. Full article
4 pages, 266 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Generalized Tree Volume Equations for Eucalyptus Genotypes under Contrasting Irrigation
by Juan Carlos Valverde, Rafael Rubilar, Alex Medina, Oscar Mardones, Verónica Emhart, Daniel Bozo, Yosselin Espinoza and Otávio C. Campoe
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13074 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 541
Abstract
Tree volume equations for Eucalyptus plantations are essential to estimate productivity, generalize equations that consider different genotypes and low-bias water regimes, and simplify plantation management. Our study evaluated the possibility of a generalized tree volume equation for eight Eucalyptus genotypes under contrasting irrigation [...] Read more.
Tree volume equations for Eucalyptus plantations are essential to estimate productivity, generalize equations that consider different genotypes and low-bias water regimes, and simplify plantation management. Our study evaluated the possibility of a generalized tree volume equation for eight Eucalyptus genotypes under contrasting irrigation regimens. We evaluated a seven-year-old plantation with eight Eucalyptus genotypes in two contrasting irrigation regimens (summer-irrigated vs. non-irrigated conditions). Diameter (DBH) and total height (H) measurements were considered in the tree equations (Schumacher and Hall (1933), Honer (1967), and Clutter et al. (1983)). The equation with the best fit considered the coefficient of determination, mean square error, and AIC and BIC parameters. The results showed that it is possible to use a generalized tree volume equation; the genotype, irrigation regime, and their interaction were not statistically significant for all equations. The best tree volume equation was Schumacher and Hall (1933), which showed the best fit and minor bias, with a small trend of underestimating the total volume in trees with a DBH >18.3 cm. These results suggest that it is possible to use a generalized tree volume equation to simplify plantation productivity projections while maintaining a good fit and low bias. Full article
5 pages, 241 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Who, Where, When, and How? Challenges for Prediction and Control of Forest Damage
by Valentyna Meshkova
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13044 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 557
Abstract
The purpose of the research was to combine our own data and the published data from forests in Ukraine on the approaches for improving the prediction and control of forest insect pests. Climate change and anthropogenic activity bring changes in forest structure, its [...] Read more.
The purpose of the research was to combine our own data and the published data from forests in Ukraine on the approaches for improving the prediction and control of forest insect pests. Climate change and anthropogenic activity bring changes in forest structure, its vulnerability to pests, pest species composition, and harm. The most dangerous alien species are Leptoglossus occidentalis, Corythucha arcuata, and Agrilus planipennis. Forecasts should consider contemporary pest composition, seasonal development, harm, the area and structure of vulnerable forests, and foliage mass depending on the natural zone, tree health condition, and additional damaging factors. Full article
5 pages, 664 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Norm of Annual Forest Burning in Russia
by Roman Kotelnikov and Vladimir Ivanov
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13120 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 706
Abstract
Wildfires are a serious problem in many countries. In 2022, the President of Russia tasked the leadership of the different regions to reduce the average annual area of forest fires by two times by 2030. To implement this, the amount of funding has [...] Read more.
Wildfires are a serious problem in many countries. In 2022, the President of Russia tasked the leadership of the different regions to reduce the average annual area of forest fires by two times by 2030. To implement this, the amount of funding has been doubled. For each region, a standard for annual forest burnability was established to prevent excessive burning, to satisfactorily protect forests from fires. At the same time, when calculating the standard, a simplified approach was used, where a value that decreased from the current level was inversely proportional to an increase in funding. This paper presents an alternative approach to the calculation of the standard, based on the rate of restoration of the initial (to fire) reforestation and taking into account the correction coefficients. Full article
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5 pages, 1602 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Eucalyptus Genotypes Water Use and Site Interactions on Water Resource Sustainability and Productivity
by Rafael Rubilar, Daniel Bozo, Juan Valverde, Matias Pincheira, Veronica Emhart, Alex Medina and Hector Valenzuela
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2022-13118 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 760
Abstract
Water use, water use efficiency, and water use sustainability are challenging issues for the expansion of Eucalyptus plantations around the world nowadays. Fast-growing species’ effects on water resources are of concern to society, and the forest industry wonders about the effects on productivity [...] Read more.
Water use, water use efficiency, and water use sustainability are challenging issues for the expansion of Eucalyptus plantations around the world nowadays. Fast-growing species’ effects on water resources are of concern to society, and the forest industry wonders about the effects on productivity and water sustainability under climate change. We evaluated growth, water use, and water use efficiency response at canopy closure (3 to 4 years of age) of eight selected E. globulus, E. nitens, and E. nitens × globulus (E. gloni) genotypes at four contrasting environments. Across sites and genotypes, the growth rate and water use ranged from 35–70-m3/ha/year and 350 to 900 mm ha−1. Despite specific genotype cases, our results showed similar water use vs. productivity relationships for a single taxon (90 m3 of water per m3 of wood) but suggested large differences among taxa across sites. Our results suggest that hybrids may provide large productivity benefits but may need a more precise understanding of their physiological mechanisms. Interesting opportunities exist for matching genotypes to sites in order to reduce environmental concerns on water resource use for Eucalyptus plantations. Full article
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