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Electricity, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 9 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Switching mode converters are incorporated in most renewable energy interfaces, including photovoltaic (PV) systems, as the most prevalent energy source widely adopted. It is of great importance to accommodate the increasing demand for small-sized, low-cost, and efficient switching converters. The switching transitions of conventional pulse width modulation (PWM) converters with hard-switching operation are always lossy due to voltage and current stresses experienced during switching. Switching losses can be eliminated using soft switching techniques such as zero-voltage switching (ZVS) and zero-current switching (ZCS). In this study, a novel control strategy is proposed to facilitate soft switching operation and to enforce maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for improving the overall efficiency of a PV-based battery charging system. View this paper
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17 pages, 4636 KiB  
Article
A Novel Combined Control Strategy for a Two-Stage Parallel Full-Wave ZCS Quasi Resonant Boost Converter for PV-Based Battery Charging Systems with Maximum Power Point Tracking
by Reza Sabzehgar, Rami Ghali and Poria Fajri
Electricity 2022, 3(1), 145-161; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3010009 - 8 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2891
Abstract
This work deals with the design and validation of a combined control strategy to satisfy the requirements for both soft switching and Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for a Photo Voltaic based (PV-based) battery charging system. The proposed controller is employed for a [...] Read more.
This work deals with the design and validation of a combined control strategy to satisfy the requirements for both soft switching and Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for a Photo Voltaic based (PV-based) battery charging system. The proposed controller is employed for a two-stage parallel full-wave Zero Current Switching (ZCS) quasi resonant boost converter to obtain maximum voltage using Perturb and Observation (P&O) method. The controller utilizes frequency modulation to regulate the output voltage, considering any changes experienced due to the intermittent nature of the PV system. Operating principles of the tow-stage parallel boost converter are thoroughly analyzed, and Matlab Simscape toolbox and its real-time workshop capability is utilized to evaluate the performance of the proposed controller for a battery charging system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems)
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14 pages, 3829 KiB  
Article
Pulsed-Supplied Water Electrolysis via Two-Switch Converter for PV Capacity Firming
by Pavlos Nikolaidis
Electricity 2022, 3(1), 131-144; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3010008 - 8 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2656
Abstract
Hydrogen constitutes the only carbon-free fuel that can be used for energy conversion, producing water as the only by-product. With water being one of the most abundant and inexhaustible raw materials in the world, and the required electricity input being provided by renewable [...] Read more.
Hydrogen constitutes the only carbon-free fuel that can be used for energy conversion, producing water as the only by-product. With water being one of the most abundant and inexhaustible raw materials in the world, and the required electricity input being provided by renewable resources, the produced hydrogen via water electrolysis constitutes a green pathway towards sustainability. In this work, a hybrid PV power-to-hydrogen, storage and fuel cell system is proposed to satisfy the domestic load of a residential building. Identifying alkaline as a mandatory electrolysis technology, the performance of alkaline electrolysis cells is assessed considering the inclusion of a two-switch buck-boost converter. Following a comprehensive formulation with respect to each distinguished system component, the balance condition at DC and AC buses is determined. The proposed configuration is evaluated, taking into account PV systems of different ratings, namely 3 kW, 5 kW and 7 kW. Based on actual data relating to both PV generation and domestic load for the year 2020, the obtained results from the annual simulations are compared with feed-in tariff and net-metering schemes. According to the results, PV capacity firming is achieved, creating great opportunities for autonomy enhancement, not only for electricity, but also in other energy sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems)
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23 pages, 6675 KiB  
Article
Empowering Consumers within Energy Communities to Acquire PV Assets through Self-Consumption
by Arne Surmann, Stefan P. M. Chantrel, Manuel Utz, Robert Kohrs and Jens Strüker
Electricity 2022, 3(1), 108-130; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3010007 - 26 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3770
Abstract
The use of photovoltaic energy (PV) and the involvement of residents within energy communities are becoming increasingly important elements of decentralized energy systems. However, ownership structures are still too complex to empower electricity consumers to become prosumers. We developed a token-based system of [...] Read more.
The use of photovoltaic energy (PV) and the involvement of residents within energy communities are becoming increasingly important elements of decentralized energy systems. However, ownership structures are still too complex to empower electricity consumers to become prosumers. We developed a token-based system of the gradual transfer of PV ownership rights, from the initial investor to residential and small-scale commercial consumers. To demonstrate the system, we set up a simulation of a 27-party mixed usage building with different load profiles, ranging from single student apartments to office units with battery electric vehicles, in a German energy community. As a result, we show that the proposed system design is economically viable for all involved stakeholders over the simulation horizon from 2022 to 2036, with a payback time of <5 years, 4 years to distribute 50% of the PV tokens, and an overall self-consumption share of 69%. Full article
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33 pages, 2380 KiB  
Review
Analytical Methods of Voltage Stability in Renewable Dominated Power Systems: A Review
by Xinyu Liang, Hua Chai and Jayashri Ravishankar
Electricity 2022, 3(1), 75-107; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3010006 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 8719
Abstract
The ongoing development of renewable energy and microgrid technologies has gradually transformed the conventional energy infrastructure and upgraded it into a modernized system with more distributed generation and localized energy storage options. Compared with power grids utilizing synchronous generation, inverter-based networks cannot physically [...] Read more.
The ongoing development of renewable energy and microgrid technologies has gradually transformed the conventional energy infrastructure and upgraded it into a modernized system with more distributed generation and localized energy storage options. Compared with power grids utilizing synchronous generation, inverter-based networks cannot physically provide large amounts of inertia, which means that more advanced and extensive studies regarding stability considerations are required for such systems. Therefore, appropriate analytical methods are needed for the voltage stability analysis of renewable-dominated power systems, which incorporate a large number of inverters and distributed energy sources. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of voltage stability analyses of power systems with high levels of renewable energy penetration. A series of generalized evaluation schemes and improvement methods relating to the voltage stability of power systems integrated with various distributed energy resources are discussed. The existing voltage stability analysis methods and corresponding simulation verification models for microgrids are also reviewed in a systematic manner. The traditional and improved voltage stability analysis methods are reviewed according to the microgrid operation mode, the types of distributed generators, and the microgrid configurations. Moreover, the voltage stability indices, which play a crucial role in voltage stability assessments, are critically evaluated in terms of the applicable conditions. The associated modeling and simulation techniques are also presented and discussed. This contribution presents guidelines for voltage stability analysis and instability mitigation methods for modern renewable-rich power systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances toward Carbon-Neutral Power System)
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22 pages, 5518 KiB  
Article
Effect of Battery Degradation on the Probabilistic Optimal Operation of Renewable-Based Microgrids
by Mahshid Javidsharifi, Hamoun Pourroshanfekr Arabani, Tamas Kerekes, Dezso Sera, Sergiu Spataru and Josep M. Guerrero
Electricity 2022, 3(1), 53-74; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3010005 - 4 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3328
Abstract
In order to maximize the use of renewable-based distributed generators (DGs), in addition to dealing with the effects of the inherent power management uncertainties of microgrids (MGs), applying storage devices is essential in the electrical system. The main goal of this paper is [...] Read more.
In order to maximize the use of renewable-based distributed generators (DGs), in addition to dealing with the effects of the inherent power management uncertainties of microgrids (MGs), applying storage devices is essential in the electrical system. The main goal of this paper is to minimize the total operation cost as well as the emissions of MG energy resources, alongside the better utilization of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy storage systems. The uncertainties of wind speed, solar irradiation, market price and electrical load demand are modeled using reduced unscented transformation (RUT) method. Simulation results reveal that, as expected, by increasing the battery efficiency, the achievable minimum daily operational cost of the system is reduced. For example, with 93% battery efficiency, the operational cost equals EUR 9200, while for an efficiency of 97%, the achievable minimum daily operational cost is EUR 8900. Moreover, the proper economic/environmental performance of the suggested approach, which contributes to the possibility of selecting a compromise solution for the MG operator in accordance with technical and economic constraints, is justified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Energy Storage Systems)
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2 pages, 195 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Electricity in 2021
by Electricity Editorial Office
Electricity 2022, 3(1), 51-52; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3010004 - 27 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2044
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
18 pages, 692 KiB  
Article
Model Predictive Operation Control of Islanded Microgrids under Nonlinear Conversion Losses of Storage Units
by Milad Gholami and Alessandro Pisano
Electricity 2022, 3(1), 33-50; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3010003 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2827
Abstract
This paper proposes a certainty equivalence model predictive control (MPC) approach for the operation of islanded microgrids with a very high share of renewable energy sources. First, to make the MG model more realistic, the conversion losses of the storage units and the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a certainty equivalence model predictive control (MPC) approach for the operation of islanded microgrids with a very high share of renewable energy sources. First, to make the MG model more realistic, the conversion losses of the storage units and the conversion losses of the power electronic devices are considered by the quadratic functions in the dynamic of units. Then, to mitigate the effect of errors in the storage units’ state of charge prediction, the conversion loss functions are reformulated by the mixed-integer linear inequality functions and included in the proposed scheme. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed certainty MPC is verified by a numerical case study. Full article
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17 pages, 2829 KiB  
Article
Modelling of the Ability of a Mixed Renewable Generation Electricity System with Storage to Meet Consumer Demand
by Constance Crozier, Christopher Quarton, Noramalina Mansor, Dario Pagnano and Ian Llewellyn
Electricity 2022, 3(1), 16-32; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3010002 - 6 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3577
Abstract
In this paper, we explore how effectively renewable generation can be used to meet a country’s electricity demands. We consider a range of different generation mixes and capacities, as well as the use of energy storage. First, we introduce a new open-source model [...] Read more.
In this paper, we explore how effectively renewable generation can be used to meet a country’s electricity demands. We consider a range of different generation mixes and capacities, as well as the use of energy storage. First, we introduce a new open-source model that uses hourly wind speed and solar irradiance data to estimate the output of a renewable electricity generator at a specific location. Then, we construct a case study of the Great Britain (GB) electricity system as an example using historic hourly demand and weather data. Three specific sources of renewable generation are considered: offshore wind, onshore wind, and solar PV. Li-ion batteries are considered as the form of electricity storage. We demonstrate that the ability of a renewables-based electricity system to meet expected demand profiles can be increased by optimising the ratio of onshore wind, offshore wind and solar PV. Additionally, we show how including Li-ion battery storage can reduce overall generation needs, therefore lowering system costs. For the GB system, we explore how the residual load that would need to be met with other forms of flexibility, such as dispatchable generation sources or demand-side response, varies for different ratios of renewable generation and storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances toward Carbon-Neutral Power System)
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15 pages, 7584 KiB  
Article
Conception of High-Frequency Power Planar Transformer Prototypes Based on FabLab Platform
by Simon Thomy, Xavier Margueron, Jean-Sylvio Ngoua Teu Magambo, Reda Bakri and Philippe Le Moigne
Electricity 2022, 3(1), 1-15; https://doi.org/10.3390/electricity3010001 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 7295
Abstract
Conceiving planar magnetic components for power electronic converters is very constraining, especially in the case of prototype development. Indeed, such making requires skills, specific appliances as well as human time for setting up the machine tools and the fabrication process. With the emergence [...] Read more.
Conceiving planar magnetic components for power electronic converters is very constraining, especially in the case of prototype development. Indeed, such making requires skills, specific appliances as well as human time for setting up the machine tools and the fabrication process. With the emergence of Fabrication Laboratory (FabLab), conceiving of planar copper foil prototypes becomes more feasible in a shortened time process for engineers and researchers. This paper presents a methodology and process for conceiving power planar transformers with the help of machines and tools that can be found in the usual FabLab. Full article
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