#
High-Strength Concrete Using Ash and Slag Cements^{ †}

^{*}

^{†}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

_{3}S—63.95%; C

_{2}S—15.15%; C

_{3}A—7.42%, C

_{4}AF—12.48%.

- fly ash: (SiO
_{2}+ Al_{2}O_{3}+ Fe_{2}O_{3})—85.8%, SO_{3}—2.3%, CaO_{free}—2.8%, MgO—2%, Na_{2}O + K_{2}O—1.2%, LOI—5.1%; - blast furnace slag: SiO
_{2}—39.5%, Al_{2}O_{3}—6.4%, Fe_{2}O_{3}—0.2%, CaO—47.2%, MgO—3.1%, MnO—1.1%, SO_{3}—1.7%.

_{f}= 1.95 and crushed stone with D

_{max}= 20 mm were used. Samples were tested after 1 and 28 days. The conditions for planning the experiments are given in Table 4. After the implementation and statistical processing of experiments, mathematical models of the water consumption and the concrete compressive strength were obtained.

## 3. Results and Discussion

_{ssa}), and, to a lesser extent, on the ash:slag ratio (Table 1). However, decreasing the ratio of ash to slag significantly affects the kinetics of CaO bonding, increasing the amount of bound CaO, especially in the period from 7 to 28 days.

- PFM
_{1}—PG + Sika VC 225; - PFM
_{2}—PG + SP-1.

_{1}and S

_{ssa}= 450 m

^{2}/kg reaches 60 at the age of 28 days, S

_{ssa}= 550 m

^{2}/kg—70. When PFM

_{2}is introduced, it is 55 and 60 MPa, respectively. At the same time, at the 3 days, the strength of cement with PFM

_{1}reaches 50% of the 28-day strength.

_{1}using mathematical planning of experiments (Table 4) made it possible to obtain mathematical models of the concrete mixture water demand (W) and the concrete compressive strength at the 1 (f

^{1}

_{cm}) and 28 days (f

^{28}

_{cm}):

_{critical}. At the same time, the results of the study show that the polycarboxylate superplasticizers addition makes it possible to shift the critical value W/C

_{critical}towards lower values. For concrete without superplasticizers, it is usually in the range of 0.43–0.4 [28]. The water demand model also reflects the increase in the concrete mixture water demand as the specific surface area of the cement increases.

#### Numerical Example

_{ssa}= 350 m

^{2}/kg and PFM

_{1}0.7% of the mass of cement. Materials: granite crushed stone fractions 5–20 mm with true density (ρ

_{cs}) −2720 kg/m

^{3}and bulk density (ρ

_{bcs}) −1350 kg/m

^{3}, sand with true density (ρ

_{s}) −2650 kg/m

^{3}.

- Let us find the required average strength of concrete class C 40/50, determined on sample cubes with a variation coefficient of 13.5% [1].f
_{c}^{28}= 50: 0.778 = 64.3 MPa - With the consumption of the additive PFM
_{1}= 0.7% (X_{1}= 0) and the specific surface area of the CC S_{ssa}= 350 m^{2}/kg (X_{2}= −1), calculate the necessary W/C from model (4).W/C = 0.311With W/C = 0.311 (X_{3}= −0.39), S_{ssa}= 350 m^{2}/kg (X_{2}= −1), as well as the slump Sl = 13 cm(X_{4}= 0), the concrete at one-day strength from model (3) is 22.4 MPa, which exceeds30% f_{c}^{28}. Thus, for further calculations, we accept W/C = 0.311. - By model (2), when X
_{1}= 0, X_{2}= −1, X_{3}= −0.39, X_{4}= 0, we will find the concrete mixture water demand: W = 145 L/m^{3} - Cement Consumption:$C=\frac{W}{W/C}=\frac{145}{0.311}=466$ kg/m
^{3}

_{cs}

^{p}—the crushed stone intergranular voids.

^{3}: C = 466 kg/m

^{3}, W = 145 kg/m

^{3},

^{3}, S = 757 kg/m

^{3}, PFM

_{1}= 466 × 0.007 = 3.26 kg/m

^{3}, (PG = 0.0004C = 0.18 kg/m

^{3}, SP = 0.0066C = 3.07 kg/m

^{3}).

## 4. Conclusions

- The rational ratio of fly ash and blast-furnace granulated slag in the composition of the composite additive provides its increased pozzolanic activity, which increases significantly with an increase in the cement-specific surface area.
- The joint addition of propylene glycol and superplasticizers into the composite cement during its grinding ensures that its specific surface is achieved without a significant increase in the duration of grinding and, as a result, a significant increase in the degree of hydration and strength, especially in the early stages of hardening.
- Using mathematical planning, experimentally obtained experimental-statistical models of water demand, 1 daily and 28 daily strength of concrete on composite cement containing a polyfunctional modifier, including a polycarboxylate superplasticizer and a grinding intensifier. The models made it possible to quantify the influence of the main factors of concrete compositions and their interaction, as well as to design compositions of high-strength concretes with given values of workability and strength.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

- Dvorkin, L.I. Concrete Science (In 2 Volumes); Infra-Engineering: Moscow, Russia, 2021; 1300p. (In Russian) [Google Scholar]
- Amin, M.; Abu El-Hassan, K. Effect of using different types of nano materials on mechanical properties of high strength concrete. Constr. Build. Mater.
**2015**, 80, 116–124. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Pu, X. Super-High-Strength High Performance Concrete; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2012; 276p. [Google Scholar]
- Kodeboyina, G.B. High Performance Self Consolidating Cementitious Composites; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2018; 433p. [Google Scholar]
- Caldarone, M.A. High-Strength Concrete: A Practical Guide; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2008; 272p. [Google Scholar]
- Papayianni, I.; Anastasiou, E. Production of high-strength concrete using high volume of industrial by-products. Constr. Build. Mater.
**2010**, 24, 1412–1417. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Bazhenov, Y. Modified High Quality Concrete; Association of Civil Engineering Education: Moscow, Russia, 2006; 368p. (In Russian) [Google Scholar]
- Kalashnikov, V.; Tarakanov, O.; Kusnetsov, Y.; Volodin, V.; Belyakov, E. Next generation concrete on the basis of fine grained dry powder mixes. Mag. Civ. Eng.
**2012**, 8, 47–53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Kalashnikov, V.I.; Valiyev, D.M.; Gutseva, Y.V.; Volodin, V.M. Vysokoprochnyye poroshkovo-aktivirovannyye proparivayemyye betony novogo pokoleniya. Iz-vo Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedeniy
**2011**, 5, 14–19. (In Russian) [Google Scholar] - Dvorkin, L.; Zhitkovsky, V.; Sitarz, M.; Hager, I. Cement with Fly Ash and Metakaolin Blend—Drive towards a More Sustainable Construction. Energies
**2022**, 15, 3556. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Svatovskaya, L.B.; Sychev, M.M. Activated Hardening of Cements [Aktivirovannoye Tverdeniye Tsementov]; Stroyizdat: Moscow, Russia, 1983; 160p. (In Russian) [Google Scholar]
- Gibbs, D. Thermodynamic Works [Termodinamicheskiye Raboty]; Gostekhizdat: Moscow, Russia, 1950; 492p. (In Russian) [Google Scholar]
- Siddique, R. Utilization of silica fume in concrete: Review of hardened properties. Resour. Conserv. Recycl.
**2011**, 55, 921–932. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Khan, M.; Rehman, A.; Ali, M. Efficiency of silica-fume content in plain and natural fiber reinforced concrete for concrete road. Constr. Build. Mater.
**2020**, 244, 118382. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Gonen, T.; Vazicioglu, S. The influence of mineral admixtures on the short and long-term performance of Concrete. Build. Environ.
**2007**, 42, 3080–3085. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Dvorkin, L.I.; Dvorkin, O.L.; Ribakov, Y. Construction Materials Based on Industrial Waste Products; Nova Science Publishers: Hauppauge, NY, USA, 2016; 242p. [Google Scholar]
- Batrakov, V.G. Modified Concretes. Theory and Practice. [Modifitsirovannyye Betony. Teoriya i Praktika]; Stroyizdat: Moscow, Russia, 1998; 768p. (In Russian) [Google Scholar]
- Dvorkin, L.I.; Dvorkin, O.L.; Garnitskiy, Y.u.V.; Chorna, I.V.; Marchuk, V.V. High-Strength Concretes on Low-Water-Consumption Cements Using Dusty Industrial Waste. [Visokomitsni betoni na tsementakh nizkoї vodopotrebi z vikoristannyam pilovidnikh vidkhodiv promislovosti]; Budivelni Materiali, Virobi ta Sanitarna Tekhnika: Kiїv, Ukraine, 2012; pp. 73–81. (In Ukrainian) [Google Scholar]
- Donatello, S.; Tyrer, M.; Cheeseman, C. Comparison of test methods to assess pozzolanic activity. Cem. Concr. Compos.
**2010**, 32, 121–127. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - EN 196–5:2011; Methods of Testing Cement. Pozzolanicity Test for Pozzolanic Cement. NSAI: Nashua, NH, USA, 2011.
- ISO 13317-1:2001; Determination of Particle Size Distribution by Gravitational Liquid Sedimentation Methods. ISO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2001; 17p.
- Liao, W.; Sun, X.; Kumar, A.; Sun, H.; Ma, H. Hydration of Binary Portland Cement Blends Containing Silica Fume: A Decoupling Method to Estimate Degrees of Hydration and Pozzolanic Reaction. Front. Mater.
**2019**, 6, 78. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - EN 196-1; Methods of Testing Cement–Part 1: Determination of Strength. CEN: Brussels, Belgium, 2005; 12p.
- Montgomery, D.C. Design and Analysis of Experiments, 5th ed.; Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2000; 688p. [Google Scholar]
- Box, G.E.P.; Hunter, J.S.; Hunter, W.G. Statistics for Experimenters: Design, Discovery, and Innovation, 2nd ed.; Wiley: Hoboken, NY, USA, 2005; 672p. [Google Scholar]
- Dvorkin, L.; Dvorkin, O.; Ribakov, Y. Mathematical Experiments Planning in Concrete Technology; Nova Science Publishers: Hauppauge, NY, USA, 2012; 175p. [Google Scholar]
- EN 12390-1:2021; Testing Hardened Concrete-Part 1: Shape, Dimensions and Other Requirements for Specimens and Moulds. CEN: Brussels, Belgium, 2021; 12p.
- Spiratos, N.; Page, M.; Mailvaganam, N.; Malhotra, V.; Jolicoeur, C. Superplasticizers for Concrete: Fundamentals, Technology and Practice; Supplementary Cementing Materials for Sustainable Development Inc.: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2017; 322p. [Google Scholar]
- Locher, F.W. Cement: Principle of Production and Use; Verlag Bau + Technic.: Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, 2006; 534p. [Google Scholar]

**Figure 1.**The influence of additives on the specific surface area of CC at different durations of grinding. 1—PG—0.04%, Sika VC 225—0.5%; 2—PG—0.04%; 3—PG—0.02%, Sika VC 225—0.5%; 4—PG—0.02%; 5—SP-1—0.5%, PG—0.04%; 6—SP-1—0.5%; 7—Sika VC 225—0.5%; 8—without additives.

**Figure 2.**The influence of the hydration duration on the degree of hydration of composite cements (α) (line numbering is given for cements according to Figure 1).

**Figure 3.**The influence of W/C and PFM

_{1}additives on the concrete mixture water consumption (S

_{ssa}= 450 m

^{2}/kg, Sl = 13 cm).

**Figure 4.**The influence of W/C and the specific surface area of the CC on the concrete mixture water consumption (PFM

_{1}= 0.7%, Sl = 13 cm).

**Figure 5.**The influence of W/C and specific surface area on the concrete compressive strength at the 1 day (PFM

_{1}= 0.7%).

**Figure 6.**The influence of W/C and PFM

_{1}content on the concrete compressive strength at the 1 day (S

_{ssa}= 450 m

^{2}/kg).

**Figure 7.**The influence of W/C and specific surface area on the concrete compressive strength at 28 days (PFM

_{1}= 0.7).

Material | Sssa, m^{2}/kg | Absorption of CaO mg/g | ||
---|---|---|---|---|

7 Days | 28 Days | 60 Days | ||

Fly ash | 350 | 15 | 52 | 78 |

Fly ash | 450 | 18 | 65 | 97 |

Fly ash | 550 | 25 | 90 | 135 |

Fly ash + slag (1:1) | 350 | 20 | 70 | 83 |

Fly ash + slag (2:1) | 350 | 17 | 63 | 81 |

Fly ash + slag (1:1) | 450 | 21 | 83 | 105 |

Fly ash + slag (2:1) | 450 | 19 | 73 | 101 |

No. | Additives | Content of Fractions, % | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

<10 µm | 10–20 µm | 20–40 µm | 40–60 µm | >60 µm | ||

1 | PG—0.04%, Sika VC 225—0.5%; | 35.5 | 33.1 | 15.5 | 12.4 | 3.3 |

2 | PG—0.04% | 31.2 | 36.4 | 14.2 | 14.6 | 3.6 |

3 | PG—0.02%, Sika VC 225—0.5%; | 28.2 | 36.1 | 16.7 | 15.1 | 3.9 |

4 | PG—0.02 % | 26.5 | 33.7 | 18.4 | 17.2 | 4.2 |

5 | PG—0.04%, SP-1—0.5% | 29.8 | 35.5 | 14.3 | 15.8 | 4.6 |

6 | SP-1—0.5% | 22.8 | 35.1 | 19.6 | 17.3 | 5.4 |

7 | Sika VC 225—0.5% | 17.4 | 36.6 | 21.8 | 17.5 | 6.7 |

8 | Without additives | 15.6 | 35.5 | 22.5 | 18.2 | 8.2 |

No. | Specific Surface Area S_{ssa}, m^{2}/kg | Additive PFM, % | Normal Consistency, % | Compressive/Bending Strength, MPa in Age, Days | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 3 | 7 | 28 | ||||

1 | 350 | without additives | 27.8 | 15.5/2.5 | 22.4/3.2 | 31.6/4.1 | 41.5/5.8 |

2 | 450 | –//– | 28.3 | 19.3/3.1 | 25.5/3.6 | 39.7/4.8 | 52.3/6.2 |

3 | 450 | PFM_{1}(PG—0.04%, Sika VC 225—0.5%) | 18.5 | 24.7/4.1 | 32.3/4.8 | 45.8/5.6 | 61.5/6.7 |

4 | 550 | –//– | 19.7 | 30.3/4.3 | 39.6/4.9 | 50.6/6.1 | 71.8/7.5 |

5 | 450 | PFM_{2}(PG—0.04%, SP-1-0.5%) | 21.5 | 21.8/3.6 | 28.3/4.1 | 37.4/4.6 | 57.8/6.8 |

6 | 550 | –//– | 22.8 | 25.2/3.9 | 31.3/4.2 | 41.2/5.6 | 61.3/7.2 |

**Table 4.**Conditions for planning experiments when obtaining models of the concrete mixture water consumption and the concrete at the CC strength.

No. | Factors | Levels of Variation | Interval | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Natural | Coded | –1 | 0 | +1 | ||

1 | The content of PFM_{1} additive in CC, % | X_{1} | 0.4 | 0.7 | 1.0 | 0.3 |

2 | Specific surface area of CC, S_{ssa}, m^{2}/kg | X_{2} | 350 | 450 | 550 | 100 |

3 | Water-cement ratio, W/C | X_{3} | 0.25 | 0.35 | 0.45 | 0.1 |

4 | Slump, Sl, cm | X_{4} | 2 | 13 | 24 | 11 |

Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content. |

© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Dvorkin, L.; Zhitkovsky, V.; Marchuk, V.; Makarenko, R.
High-Strength Concrete Using Ash and Slag Cements. *Mater. Proc.* **2023**, *13*, 16.
https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013016

**AMA Style**

Dvorkin L, Zhitkovsky V, Marchuk V, Makarenko R.
High-Strength Concrete Using Ash and Slag Cements. *Materials Proceedings*. 2023; 13(1):16.
https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013016

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Dvorkin, Leonid, Vadim Zhitkovsky, Vitaliy Marchuk, and Ruslan Makarenko.
2023. "High-Strength Concrete Using Ash and Slag Cements" *Materials Proceedings* 13, no. 1: 16.
https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013016