Next Issue
Volume 14, IOCN 2023
Previous Issue
Volume 12, Stand Alone Papers 2022
 
 
materproc-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Mater. Proc., 2023, MATBUD’ 2023

10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference

Cracow, Poland | 19–21 April 2023

Volume Editors:
Katarzyna Mróz, Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Tomasz Tracz, Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Tomasz Zdeb, Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Izabela Hager, Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Number of Papers: 46

Printed Edition Available!

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image): The jubilee 10th MATBUD'2023 Conference on ‘Building Materials Engineering and Innovative Sustainable Materials’ is organized within the framework of the Welcome to Poland project [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Other

1 pages, 180 KiB  
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
by Katarzyna Mróz, Tomasz Tracz, Tomasz Zdeb and Izabela Hager
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013045 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 792
Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to Materials Proceedings, the volume editors of the proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to peer review administered by the volume editors [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)

Other

Jump to: Editorial

8 pages, 1781 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fiber-Reinforced Alkali-Activated Materials Based on Waste Materials
by Martin Mildner, Jan Fořt and Robert Černý
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013001 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 920
Abstract
The adverse effects associated with a rise in global temperature require substantial advances in various industries, the building industry in particular, with an emphasis on sustainability and circular economy measures. Research effort on the design of alkali-activated materials with sufficient engineering properties is [...] Read more.
The adverse effects associated with a rise in global temperature require substantial advances in various industries, the building industry in particular, with an emphasis on sustainability and circular economy measures. Research effort on the design of alkali-activated materials with sufficient engineering properties is thus on the rise, as these materials form a possible way to replace cementitious binders in the future. This paper deals with the description of an alternative material without the use of cementitious binders. The alkaline activation of a blended precursor composed of a finely ground granulated blast furnace slag and metashale, activated using waste alkalis from industrial production is studied. In addition, this material was reinforced using 25 mm long fibers of a waste fiberglass reinforcement fabric to improve the mechanical properties. This research confirmed the suitability of using a range of waste or secondary raw materials to produce new materials which then have lower environmental impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 256 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Potential Use of Construction Waste for the Production of Geopolymers: A Review
by Liga Radina, Andina Sprince, Leonids Pakrastins, Rihards Gailitis and Gita Sakale
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013002 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
In recent decades, geopolymer concrete has often been viewed as an alternative to traditional concrete. Although its comparatively lower production of greenhouse gas emissions during a lifecycle is usually mentioned at the top of the list of benefits, the possibility of using various [...] Read more.
In recent decades, geopolymer concrete has often been viewed as an alternative to traditional concrete. Although its comparatively lower production of greenhouse gas emissions during a lifecycle is usually mentioned at the top of the list of benefits, the possibility of using various waste materials in its production is a clear advantage as well. This literature review summarizes and analyses the existing information on the different available construction wastes for the production of geopolymer and foamed geopolymer concrete and analyzes the curing conditions, constituents in the aluminosilicate precursor, mechanical properties, and the activator type. As part of the literature review, the use of autoclaved aerated concrete and brick wastes has been evaluated. Autoclaved concrete has been chosen because it is a typical low-strength, cement-based construction material and demolition waste that is currently disposed of in landfills, making it quite a challenge for direct use as a supplementary cementitious material. On the other hand, brick waste, one of the most common construction wastes, can be feasibly used in the form of brick dust. This literature review uses data from randomly selected studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
8 pages, 5457 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Study of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymers with Basalt Flour Addition
by Barbara Kozub, Krzysztof Miernik and Szymon Gądek
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013003 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1150
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of basalt flour addition, replacing quartz sand, and its proportion on fly ash-based geopolymers’ properties. As a base material, F-grade fly ash was used. The activation process was carried out using a 10 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of basalt flour addition, replacing quartz sand, and its proportion on fly ash-based geopolymers’ properties. As a base material, F-grade fly ash was used. The activation process was carried out using a 10 mol solution of sodium hydroxide and an aqueous solution of sodium silicate. The tests included measurements of density, compressive and flexural strength, abrasion resistance, and observation of the microstructure of geopolymers. The results of the study showed that basalt flour significantly increases compressive strength and causes a slight increase in flexural strength—by about 106% and 11%, respectively—and it allows for the reduction of the size of voids and the share of porosity in the structure of the tested geopolymers. Basalt flour has an application potential in geopolymer materials to make them more useful in construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 9056 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Influence of the Size of Milled Coal Gangue Particles on the Mechanical Properties of Geopolymers
by Beata Figiela, Kinga Korniejenko, Alperen Bulut, Baran Şahin, Göksu Azizağaoğlu, Kinga Pławecka and Barbara Kozub
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013004 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 860
Abstract
Geopolymers are inorganic materials resulting from the synthesis of silicon and aluminum in a polycondensation reaction. In this study, coal mine waste material from the Wieczorek mine in the Śląskie Voivodeship was used to produce geopolymers. The material was prepared, crushed and milled [...] Read more.
Geopolymers are inorganic materials resulting from the synthesis of silicon and aluminum in a polycondensation reaction. In this study, coal mine waste material from the Wieczorek mine in the Śląskie Voivodeship was used to produce geopolymers. The material was prepared, crushed and milled beforehand due to its large dimensions. The material was subjected to sieve analysis, which allowed to distinguish three fractions. The next step was thermal activation of the obtained powder grain sizes. After thermal activation, the material was combined with an alkaline solution to prepare geopolymers. Photographs of the microstructure were taken in order to determine the chemical composition of the geopolymer and to study the phase composition. The best compressive and bending strengths were exhibited by geopolymer samples with particle sizes ranging below 200 µm—19 MPa and 5.7 MPa, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1967 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Influence of Casting Static Compaction Pressure on Carbonated Reactive Magnesia Cement (CRMC)-Based Mortars
by Erick Grünhäuser Soares, João Castro-Gomes and Manuel Magrinho
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013005 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 795
Abstract
The current study evaluates the influence of the static compaction pressure applied during the casting process on Carbonated Reactive Magnesia Cement-based mortars. For this purpose, mortars, embodying biomass fly ash as filler, were designed and moulded through static compaction pressures of 10, 30, [...] Read more.
The current study evaluates the influence of the static compaction pressure applied during the casting process on Carbonated Reactive Magnesia Cement-based mortars. For this purpose, mortars, embodying biomass fly ash as filler, were designed and moulded through static compaction pressures of 10, 30, 50, and 70 MPa. The moulded specimens were submitted to an accelerated carbonation curing period of 24 h under controlled conditions. The devised mortars were evaluated through compressive strength tests, and their microstructure was assessed through Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP), Thermogravimetry and Derivative Thermogravimetry (TG-DTG), and Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The results showed that the increment in the static compaction pressure during the specimens’ casting process not only led the mortars to reduce their porosity by up to ~30% and increase their compressive strength by up to ~58% (from 19.8 MPa to 31.2 MPa) but also that such a change seems to hinder the CO2 diffusion into the specimens’ core, thus resulting in a lower content of carbonated products. In addition, the MIP analyses demonstrated that the static compaction pressure applied in the mortar casting process changes the pores’ characteristics, while TG-DTG and FTIR analyses provided evidence that the devised mortars were carbonated to a certain degree. Therefore, this work demonstrated that Carbonated Reactive Magnesia Cement-based mortars are highly influenced by the static compaction pressure applied during the casting process, at least up to a certain value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 3127 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Influence of the Quality of Brick Firing on Their Calcium Diffusion Capacity and Biodegradation Potential—A Preliminary Study
by Klára Kobetičová, Jana Nábělková, Martin Keppert, Igor Medveď, Zbigniew Suchorab and Robert Černý
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013006 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 742
Abstract
The diffusion of calcium ions Ca2+ in aquatic solutions (10 g/l) was measured for two brick samples from a region in Bohemia (Vysoké Mýto, Holešov-Žopy). The experiment was performed under laboratory conditions at the ambient temperature of 20 ± 2 °C for [...] Read more.
The diffusion of calcium ions Ca2+ in aquatic solutions (10 g/l) was measured for two brick samples from a region in Bohemia (Vysoké Mýto, Holešov-Žopy). The experiment was performed under laboratory conditions at the ambient temperature of 20 ± 2 °C for a period of 240 h. The bricks were cut into three depth layers. The calcium concentrations were analyzed chelatometrically. The biodegradation potential of the individual layers was also studied. The results indicated that the depth and quality of firing are of importance regarding the transport of calcium, and they affect the success of bio-colonization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 2938 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fire Resistance of Geopolymer Materials—A Change in Physical and Mechanical Properties
by Tarreck Mahaman Manssour Issa, Katarzyna Mróz, Mateusz Sitarz, Izabela Hager and Ewa Słupska
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013007 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 825
Abstract
Geopolymers are new environmentally friendly cementitious materials that may offer an alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. Not only do they have excellent mechanical properties, but they also have high temperature resistance. This research focuses on the high temperature exposure effect on geopolymer mortars. [...] Read more.
Geopolymers are new environmentally friendly cementitious materials that may offer an alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. Not only do they have excellent mechanical properties, but they also have high temperature resistance. This research focuses on the high temperature exposure effect on geopolymer mortars. Two types of geopolymer mortars were prepared and exposed to different temperatures (20, 200, 400, 800 °C). The main goal of this work is to assess the changes in the mechanical and physical properties of geopolymer mortars after being exposed to a high temperature. Two types of mixtures were tested: one containing 100% fly ash (M0-K) and the other one containing 50% fly ash and ground Granulated blast furnace slag (M50-K). The paper presents an evaluation of compressive and tensile strength, density, porosity, and ultrasonic pulse velocity for both M50-K and M0-K after exposure to high temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 3703 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Influence of Spent Fluid Catalytic Cracking Catalyst on the Properties of the New Binder Based on Fly Ash and Portland Cement
by Jelena Rakić and Zvezdana Baščarević
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013008 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 775
Abstract
One of the measures to reduce the carbon footprint of the Portland cement (PC) manufacturing process is through a wider use of supplementary cementitious and waste materials. The main objective of this work was to produce a new binder using two different waste [...] Read more.
One of the measures to reduce the carbon footprint of the Portland cement (PC) manufacturing process is through a wider use of supplementary cementitious and waste materials. The main objective of this work was to produce a new binder using two different waste materials: fly ash (FA) from thermal power plants and spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (sFCCC) from petrol refineries. In order to improve their reactivity, both FA and sFCCC were mechanically activated prior to the preparation of the binder. The new binder consisted mostly of the waste materials (70 mass %), with PC as a minor component (30 mass %). It was found that using sFCCC as the binder component accelerated cement hydration and the pozzolanic reaction. The new binder had a shorter setting time and a higher early strength than the binder prepared without sFCCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 896 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Study on the Blending Characteristics of Ternary Cementless Materials
by Yi-Hua Chang, Lukáš Fiala, Martina Záleská, Dana Koňáková, Wei-Ting Lin and An Cheng
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013009 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 799
Abstract
In this study, three industrial by-products (ultrafine fly ash, ground granulated blast-furnace slag (ggbs) and circulating fluidized bed co-fired fly ash) were used to produce ternary cementless composites without using alkali activators. The finenesses of ultrafine fly ash, ggbs and co-fired fly ash [...] Read more.
In this study, three industrial by-products (ultrafine fly ash, ground granulated blast-furnace slag (ggbs) and circulating fluidized bed co-fired fly ash) were used to produce ternary cementless composites without using alkali activators. The finenesses of ultrafine fly ash, ggbs and co-fired fly ash were 33,800, 5830 and 5130 cm2/g, respectively. The composite material was developed by mixing supplementary cementing materials of different particle sizes and exploiting the high-alkaline properties of the co-fired fly ash to develop a substantial hardening property like cement. The test specimens were made in the form of pastes and the water-to-cementitious-material ratio for the test was fixed at 0.55. The test results show that the flowability of the six different mixtures could be up to 120% and the setting time could be controlled within 24 h. At 60% of the ggbs proportion, the setting time could be held for 8 h. The compressive strength of each proportion reached 7 MPa at 7 days and 14 MPa at 28 days. The water-cured specimens exhibited better strength behavior than the air-cured specimens. Scanning electron microscopy found the main components of strength growth of the specimens to be hydrated reactants of C-A-S-H or ettringite. The results of the XRF analysis show that the specimens responded to higher compressive strengths as the Ca/Si and Ca/Al ratios increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 2007 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Impact of Waste Fluid Catalytic Cracking Catalyst Addition on the Selected Properties of Cement Pastes
by Paweł Niewiadomski and Michał Cisiński
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013010 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1094
Abstract
The significant reduction in CO2 emissions arising from the cementitious composites industry is one of the highest priorities for the construction sector’s movement towards climate neutrality and sustainable development. One of the approaches to cope with this issue is to partially substitute [...] Read more.
The significant reduction in CO2 emissions arising from the cementitious composites industry is one of the highest priorities for the construction sector’s movement towards climate neutrality and sustainable development. One of the approaches to cope with this issue is to partially substitute cement with supplementary cementitious materials. Recently, various oil refinery wastes (ORW) have attracted researchers’ attention in terms of being investigated for such an application. As such, the present paper shows the preliminary results of investigations conducted on cement pastes with the addition of a spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst derived from a Polish oil refinery company. It is worth mentioning that the incorporation of ORW in cementitious composites might enable the production of more environmentally friendly construction materials without sacrificing quality, whilst, simultaneously providing an opportunity for recycling petrochemical wastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 2176 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Properties of the Cement, Slag and Fly Ash Mixture Composition Corresponding to CEM II/C-M and CEM VI
by Ewelina Tkaczewska and Grzegorz Malata
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013011 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1037
Abstract
In the study, cement mixtures containing granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and siliceous fly ash (SFA) were tested, including those corresponding to special cements according to the PN-B-19707: 2013 standard. Measurements included the period of development of standard strength (up to 28 days) [...] Read more.
In the study, cement mixtures containing granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and siliceous fly ash (SFA) were tested, including those corresponding to special cements according to the PN-B-19707: 2013 standard. Measurements included the period of development of standard strength (up to 28 days) and concerned the compressive strength, linear changes and phase composition of cement mixtures. Furthermore, an evaluation of the microstructure of cement mortar was carried out by SEM. The mixture of composition CEM II/C-M (S-V) satisfies the requirements of the 32.5R or 32.5N strength class, whereas that of CEM VI (S-V) is of the 32.5N strength class, as opposed to stronger mixtures richer in Portland clinker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 4496 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Numerical Modelling of Structural Behaviour of Curved Insulating Glass Units
by Marcin Kozłowski and Kinga Zemła
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013012 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1032
Abstract
The application of curved Insulating Glass Units (IGUs) in facades has emerged as a novel solution to meet aesthetic and energy performance objectives. Due to improved stiffness, curved IGUs cannot equalise internal and atmospheric pressure changes by pillowing, as flat IGUs do. Thus, [...] Read more.
The application of curved Insulating Glass Units (IGUs) in facades has emerged as a novel solution to meet aesthetic and energy performance objectives. Due to improved stiffness, curved IGUs cannot equalise internal and atmospheric pressure changes by pillowing, as flat IGUs do. Thus, the climatic loads in curved IGUs may be several times higher than those in flat units. This paper deals with experiments and numerical simulations of cylindrically curved IGUs. It presents the results of an experimental campaign designed to collect data that validate the numerical model of a curved IGU developed within this study. The model is sequentially used to analyse a case study that compares the resulting internal pressure, displacement, and stress in glass in a flat and curved IGU subjected to the characteristic climatic actions given by DIN18008-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 2794 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Potassium Formate on Alkali–Silica Reaction in Aggregates with Different Categories of Reactivity
by Aneta Antolik, Daria Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka, Kinga Dziedzic and Paweł Lisowski
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013013 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 884
Abstract
During the wintertime, concrete pavements experience harsh exposure conditions due to the presence of both the freezing–thawing and wetting–drying cycles. Airport concrete pavements are commonly de-iced using chloride-free organic salts such as potassium formate or potassium acetate. However, these materials contain alkali ions [...] Read more.
During the wintertime, concrete pavements experience harsh exposure conditions due to the presence of both the freezing–thawing and wetting–drying cycles. Airport concrete pavements are commonly de-iced using chloride-free organic salts such as potassium formate or potassium acetate. However, these materials contain alkali ions which can have harmful effects on both the cement matrix and the aggregate. Specifically, there is an increased risk of occurrence of the alkali–silica reaction (ASR). The goal of this research was to estimate the influence of potassium formate on the potential of causing alkali–silica reaction in aggregates with different categories of reactivity (R0, R1, R2). The accelerated mortar bar test and its modification (which involves replacing sodium hydroxide solution with a potassium formate solution) were used. Detailed SEM-EDS examinations were performed to confirm the presence of alkali–silica reaction and to analyze the influence of potassium formate on the microstructure of mortar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 574 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Low Carbon Concrete Possibilities: EPD and Regulations in Northern Periphery and Arctic
by Iveta Novakova, Priyadharshini Perumal, Andrzej Cwirzen and Olafur Haralds Wallevik
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013014 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1596
Abstract
Concrete is one of the most common building materials in the Northern Periphery and Arctic, and therefore we should pay attention to its quality while reducing its carbon footprint. The concrete industry has established many measures to limit greenhouse gas emissions from concrete, [...] Read more.
Concrete is one of the most common building materials in the Northern Periphery and Arctic, and therefore we should pay attention to its quality while reducing its carbon footprint. The concrete industry has established many measures to limit greenhouse gas emissions from concrete, as stated in the environmental product declaration (EPD). The most significant contributor is cement (common dose between 250 and 600 kg per 1 m3 of concrete) in a concrete binder. Aside from the use of alternative fuels for cement production, new alternative materials for cement replacement are being sought. Those materials are called supplementary cementitious materials and mainly originate from industrial waste streams. Some of the materials are already standard and limited by the maximum allowed replacement, and some are new and still under investigation. The benefits and limitations of low-carbon concrete regulations in Norway, Sweden, Iceland, and Finland are demonstrated on three different concrete mixes in this article. The sorting of a reference mix and two low-carbon concrete mixes according to 4 different systems showed the informative character of the Icelandic system and the underestimation of possibilities for the carbon footprint of concrete in the Swedish classification system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 2842 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Low-Quality Calcined Clay on the Suppression of the Alkali–Silica Reaction
by Daria Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka, Roman Jaskulski, Kinga Dziedzic and Aneta Antolik
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013015 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
This article presents the results of an experimental investigation into the mitigation of the alkali–silica reaction (ASR) resulting from using low-grade clay calcined at 850 °C. The clay used in the experiment was domestic clay with an Al2O3 content equal [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of an experimental investigation into the mitigation of the alkali–silica reaction (ASR) resulting from using low-grade clay calcined at 850 °C. The clay used in the experiment was domestic clay with an Al2O3 content equal to 26% and a SiO2 content of 58%. The performance of calcined clay in ASR mitigation was evaluated according to ASTM C1567 using reactive aggregates. The control mortar mixture consisted of 100% Portland cement (Na2Oeq = 1.12%) binder and reactive aggregate. The test mixtures used the same reactive aggregate and binders, in which part of the cement was replaced with either 10%, 20% or 30% calcined clay. The microstructure of specimens was examined on the polished sections using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) operated in the backscattered mode (BSE). The results of expansion obtained from the mortar bars made with the reactive aggregate showed that replacing cement by calcined clay reduced their expansion, with the level of expansion decreasing with the increase in the level of cement replacement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 2562 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
High-Strength Concrete Using Ash and Slag Cements
by Leonid Dvorkin, Vadim Zhitkovsky, Vitaliy Marchuk and Ruslan Makarenko
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013016 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 706
Abstract
The article discusses the possibility of improving the properties of concrete made with composite ash-containing cement (CC) by introducing complex chemical additives. The pozzolanic activity of CC and its degree of hydration increases with the increasing dispersion of cement resulting from the introduction [...] Read more.
The article discusses the possibility of improving the properties of concrete made with composite ash-containing cement (CC) by introducing complex chemical additives. The pozzolanic activity of CC and its degree of hydration increases with the increasing dispersion of cement resulting from the introduction of a complex additive in the form of a polyfunctional modifier (PFM) during grinding, including a grinding intensifier-propylene glycol and a superplasticizer. The analysis of mathematical models of water demand and strength of concrete made with the PFM additive showed that a significant reduction in water demand and an increase in the strength of concrete based on the ash-containing CC is possible with the introduction of the PFM additive. For concrete based on CC with the addition of PFM, it has been demonstrated that it is possible to design concrete mixes on the basis of the obtained models. Relevant examples are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1318 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Geopolymers Based on Fly Ash from the Bełchatów Power Plant
by Agnieszka Bąk, Patrycja Bazan, Kinga Pławecka and Michał Łach
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013017 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Geopolymer materials are attracting increasing interest from scientists due to their specific properties and the possibility of using waste materials from the power industry for their production. The most common raw material for their production is fly ash from the combustion of hard [...] Read more.
Geopolymer materials are attracting increasing interest from scientists due to their specific properties and the possibility of using waste materials from the power industry for their production. The most common raw material for their production is fly ash from the combustion of hard coal in pulverized coal boilers, but it is also possible to use ash from the combustion of lignite for this purpose. This article presents the results of a study of geopolymers produced with the use of ashes from lignite combustion at the Bełchatów Power Plant. It includes characterization of the ashes (laser particle size analysis, SEM/EDS morphology, XRD phase composition) and the strength properties of geopolymers made from these ashes and activated with 10 M and 14 M aqueous sodium hydroxide solution with water glass. As a result of this study, it was found that it is possible to obtain geopolymers characterized by flexural strength of almost 3 MPa and compressive strength of 30 MPa. A comparison of activators with concentrations of 10 M and 14 M made it possible to conclude that, due to the lack of significant differences in the properties of the obtained geopolymers, from an economic point of view, it is more advantageous in this case to use activators with a lower concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 596 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Three-Dimensional, Printable Paving Stone: A Preliminary Study
by Volkan Arslan and Zekeriya Dogan
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013018 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 826
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) printing applications have emerged as a new production method in the construction industry. The materials that are to be used in 3D production process play an important role for a sustainable built environment. The main objective of this study is to [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing applications have emerged as a new production method in the construction industry. The materials that are to be used in 3D production process play an important role for a sustainable built environment. The main objective of this study is to design a suitable mixture to produce 3D printed concrete paving stones. In this respect, a unique 3D printer was also developed. The results show that the setting time of cement-based mortars was shortened by increasing the ratio of the added accelerator admixture. However, the optimum mixture proportions for 3D printed concrete paving stones were not reached. The results of the study are expected to develop a sustainable method of paving stone production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 4847 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Feasibility Study of Waste Gypsum as a Full Replacement for Fine Aggregates of Controlled Low-Strength Material
by Wei-Ting Lin, Kinga Korniejenko, Dariusz Mierzwiński, Michał Łach, An Cheng and Kae-Long Lin
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013019 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
The waste gypsum used in this study was a by-product of petroleum coke burning by petrochemical companies which has been treated with hydration. The waste gypsum has been stored in the atmosphere for over ten years and can be considered an inert filler. [...] Read more.
The waste gypsum used in this study was a by-product of petroleum coke burning by petrochemical companies which has been treated with hydration. The waste gypsum has been stored in the atmosphere for over ten years and can be considered an inert filler. Its main chemical components were calcium sulfate dihydrate (47.90%), calcium hydroxide (21.64%) and calcium carbonate (14.80%). In this study, Portland cement and fly ash were used as cementitious materials, and waste gypsum of the particle size from 9.53 mm to 0.149 mm was selected as the fine aggregate to produce a controlled low-strength material (CLSM) and to verify the suitability of reusing waste gypsum. The water to binder ratio of 0.65 was used for the specimen. The test results showed that the CLSM specimen with a high amount of waste gypsum had air-hardening properties. The placement of the specimen in water caused abnormalities, such as cracking and disintegration of the specimens. The compressive strength of atmospherically maintained specimens increased with age, with 4.71 MPa and 6.08 MPa at 28 and 56 days, respectively. No significant changes in weight or volume were measured after the specimens had been left for 56 days and then immersed in seawater and water for 28 days. As specimens were immersed in seawater for up to 100 days, needle-shaped ettringite and C-S-H colloids filled the interface between the pores and the colloids. In accordance with the concept of eco-engineering, special consideration should be given to avoid long-term contact with water and to ensure the safety and durability of waste gypsum reuse through the design of multiple protective layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 1350 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Influence of the Ageing Process on the Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortars with Nano-SiO2 Admixture Initially Subjected to Thermal Treatment
by Elżbieta Horszczaruk and Paweł Łukowski
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013020 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
The research aimed to evaluate the effect of nano-silica (NS) on the strength recovery of the previously heated cement mortars. One hundred twenty cement mortar specimens were prepared with 1% to 5% of NS. The specimens were heated at temperatures ranging from 200 [...] Read more.
The research aimed to evaluate the effect of nano-silica (NS) on the strength recovery of the previously heated cement mortars. One hundred twenty cement mortar specimens were prepared with 1% to 5% of NS. The specimens were heated at temperatures ranging from 200 °C to 800 °C. Half of the samples, after heating and cooling, were mechanically tested. The other half of the specimens were stored for 24 months in 90% relative humidity. The presence of NS fostered partial recovery of the compressive strength of the heated mortars. The cement mortars regained more than 40% of their compressive strength after heating at 400 °C and about 25% after heating at 600 °C. The strength recovery phenomenon faded away at 800 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 3163 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Characterization of a Coal Shale from Marcel Mining as Raw Material for Geopolymer Manufacturing
by Kinga Korniejenko, Beata Figiela, Kinga Pławecka, Alperen Bulut, Baran Şahin, Göksu Azizağaoğlu and Michał Łach
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013021 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 978
Abstract
Implementing the idea of a circular economy is one way to reduce carbon emissions and, at the same time, the consumption of natural resources. The use of mining waste as a raw material helps meet the growing demand for construction materials with a [...] Read more.
Implementing the idea of a circular economy is one way to reduce carbon emissions and, at the same time, the consumption of natural resources. The use of mining waste as a raw material helps meet the growing demand for construction materials with a smaller carbon footprint. The article shows the possibility of using a coal shale from Marcel mining to create new eco-friendly materials, geopolymers. The main aim of the presented research includes characteristics of raw material and synthesis of geopolymers based on mining waste (coal shale from Marcel mining) and next, investigations of the obtained materials. Geopolymer was prepared using a sodium activator plus milled and calcinated precursor materials. In this study, the following research methods were used: particle size analysis, XRD analysis, mechanical properties tests (compressive and bonding strength), and microstructure analysis—scanning electron microscopy. The results show potential for the extraction of waste from the Marcel company to obtain material for advanced applications in the geopolymerization process. The material had a compressive strength of 12.7 MPa and a bending strength of 3.4 MPa, which makes it possible for use in construction applications such as various types of foundations, walls, columns, lintels, terraces, stairs, ceilings, small building elements, and small architecture. The proposed process could be a promising alternative to current methods of managing waste rock, in particular hard coal mining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 3606 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Sulfate Resistance in Carbonated Low-Calcium Silicate Cement Pastes
by Raikhan Tokpatayeva, Jan Olek and Sadananda Sahu
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013022 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 795
Abstract
This paper focuses on the evaluation of sulfate resistance in carbonated pastes prepared from low-lime calcium silicates (CCS). The chemical interaction between the sulfate solution and paste powders was assessed by monitoring the leaching of the Ca and Si species, reduction in the [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the evaluation of sulfate resistance in carbonated pastes prepared from low-lime calcium silicates (CCS). The chemical interaction between the sulfate solution and paste powders was assessed by monitoring the leaching of the Ca and Si species, reduction in the content of carbonates and formation of gypsum. The analytical techniques used in the study included TGA, ICP-OES and IC. The results of the study revealed that the level of the resistance to the chemical effect of the sulfates depends on the type of the calcium silicate, degree of crystallinity of calcium carbonate, and the type of cation present in the sulfate solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 6873 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Surface Modification of Photocatalytic Cementitious Composites with Polyacrylic Superabsorbent Polymers (SAP)
by Maciej Kalinowski, Piotr Woyciechowski and Wioletta Jackiewicz-Rek
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013023 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 988
Abstract
This study focuses on developing new surface modification methods for photocatalytic cementitious composites. The question that was investigated was if superabsorbent polymers can act as an intermediate environment, intensifying the incorporation of TiO2 particles on the surface of the tested material. Four [...] Read more.
This study focuses on developing new surface modification methods for photocatalytic cementitious composites. The question that was investigated was if superabsorbent polymers can act as an intermediate environment, intensifying the incorporation of TiO2 particles on the surface of the tested material. Four variants of surface modification were designed: water dispersions of TiO2 with non-saturated SAP, with SAP in a hydrogel form, and two reference series. Due to the use of SAP, the efficiency in air purification from NOx under different light conditions compared to the reference series increased significantly, exceeding a 75% increase under a UV-A light and a 600% increase under visible light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1895 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of Thermal and Mechanical Parameters of the BFRP Bars
by Małgorzata Wydra, Piotr Dolny, Grzegorz Sadowski, Natalia Grochowska, Piotr Turkowski and Jadwiga Fangrat
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013024 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 984
Abstract
Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcement bars are gaining interest in terms of using them as an internal reinforcement in concrete construction parts due to their high tensile strength, corrosion resistance, low weight, and electrical indifference. Nevertheless, low elasticity and difficulties related to a high [...] Read more.
Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcement bars are gaining interest in terms of using them as an internal reinforcement in concrete construction parts due to their high tensile strength, corrosion resistance, low weight, and electrical indifference. Nevertheless, low elasticity and difficulties related to a high reduction in mechanical properties at even slightly elevated temperatures seem to limit this potential, due to existing fire safety requirements for buildings. Basalt FRP, which is the subject of this experimental study, is a relatively new type of non-metallic bars, and their environmental friendliness has been underlined in previous studies. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanical properties of BFRP bars, such as tensile and compressive strength and elasticity modulus, at normal and elevated temperatures up to 200 °C. The medium values of compressive strength at room temperature were in the range of 441.2–466.8 MPa, and it was significantly lower than the tensile strength (930.5–1121.3 MPa). Additionally, low values of elasticity modulus, especially when comparing to steel bars (typically about 210 GPa), were found in both compression (mean values: 31.0–38.4 GPa) and tension (mean values: 43.3–44.6 GPa). Low elasticity modulus may lead to difficulties with excessive deflections and crack widths, when designing bent elements with such reinforcement. Moreover, reduced mechanical properties at compression should not be neglected when designing compressed parts. Additionally, the phase change parameters, e.g., glass transition temperature, have been determined by means of DMA method, and the glass transition temperature was found to be equal to 107.5 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1714 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Manufacturing of Low-Cost Bricks Using Waste Materials
by Kalaimani Ramakrishnan, Vigneshkumar Chellappa and Subha Chandrasekarabarathi
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013025 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6248
Abstract
Bricks consume a massive quantity of clay. Using clay bricks causes erosion, lowers the water table, and harms the environment. This research examined various waste materials, including fly ash, quarry dust, marble dust, eggshell powder (ESP), and rice husk ash (RHA), in varying [...] Read more.
Bricks consume a massive quantity of clay. Using clay bricks causes erosion, lowers the water table, and harms the environment. This research examined various waste materials, including fly ash, quarry dust, marble dust, eggshell powder (ESP), and rice husk ash (RHA), in varying percentages to avoid using clay in manufacturing bricks. Compressive strength and water absorption tests were conducted, and the results were compared with the specifications for traditional clay bricks. It was observed that the compressive strength and water absorption values met the relevant standards needed for standard construction bricks. Furthermore, the cost of manufacturing bricks from waste materials was estimated, and the findings show that manufacturing bricks from waste materials cost less than conventional bricks. Finally, it was concluded that the brick industry could become more sustainable and economically feasible by using specific waste materials in manufacturing bricks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 2320 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Physico-Chemical Properties of Sewage Sludge Ash and Its Influence on the Chemical Shrinkage of Cement Pastes
by Marcin Adamczyk, Tomasz Zdeb and Tomasz Tracz
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013026 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1076
Abstract
According to European Union regulations regarding the storage and disposal of industrial waste, waste generated during the treatment of municipal sewage should be managed in an environmentally friendly manner. In order to reduce environmental risks and minimise volume, sewage undergoes thermal treatment. The [...] Read more.
According to European Union regulations regarding the storage and disposal of industrial waste, waste generated during the treatment of municipal sewage should be managed in an environmentally friendly manner. In order to reduce environmental risks and minimise volume, sewage undergoes thermal treatment. The resulting ash contains toxic components, so it is essential to properly dispose of it. For this reason, the possibility of utilising this type of waste in cement composites has been subject to preliminary verification. To this end, so far, basic tests regarding the parameters such as water demand and setting time have been performed for cement pastes containing ash from the incineration of sludge produced from municipal sewage (Sewage Sludge Ash—SSA). The main purpose of this article is to describe the chemical shrinkage of cement pastes containing this additive. CEM I Portland cement and fly ash obtained at the Thermal Sludge Disposal Station at the Płaszów Sewage Treatment Plant were used in this study. Cement was replaced with ash in the rates of 10%, 20%, and 30%. The results confirm that with an increase in the SSA additive, a reduction of chemical shrinkage of 9.5%, 21.4%, and 31% is observed at 10%, 20%, and 30% content of the additive, respectively. The presented results confirm the possibility of using this material as a cement replacement in cement composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 2090 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Increasing the Pozzolanic Reactivity of Recovered CDW Cement Stone by Mechanical Activation
by Roland Szabó, Máté Szűcs, Mária Ambrus and Gábor Mucsi
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013027 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
The study focuses on enhancing the reactivity of the fine size fraction of construction and demolition waste (CDW) by mechanical activation in a stirred media mill. Systematic measurements were carried out to monitor the change in cement stone reactivity. The fine size fraction [...] Read more.
The study focuses on enhancing the reactivity of the fine size fraction of construction and demolition waste (CDW) by mechanical activation in a stirred media mill. Systematic measurements were carried out to monitor the change in cement stone reactivity. The fine size fraction of CDW (<200 µm) was milled in a stirred media mill for 1, 3, 5, and 10 min. The dispersion characteristics (particle size distribution, specific surface area (SSA)) of the mechanically activated CDW powder were determined using a laser particle size analyzer. Changes in the structure of the mechanically activated CDW powder particles were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. The effect of the mechanical activation on the pozzolanic reactivity of CDW powder was measured by lime sorption test and compressive strength measurements. The results clearly show that Portland cement can be replaced with mechanically activated CDW powder; however, increasing its amount decreases the strength. Furthermore, the grinding fineness significantly influenced the pozzolanic reactivity of the mechanically activated CDW powder, and thus the strength of the specimens. The CDW powder milled for 10 min had 51% more lime uptake than the initial CDW sample, and the specimen strength at the age of 7 days was 23% higher using ground CDW powder than using initial CDW at a 20% cement replacement ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1683 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Use of Calcined Diatomite as an Additive to Geopolymeric Materials
by Kinga Pławecka, Agnieszka Bąk, Maria Hebdowska-Krupa and Michał Łach
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013028 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
Diatomites are mineral resources formed from diatoms. They are widely used in sorption processes, medicine, cosmetology, and in protecting animals from parasites. Attempts are being made to incorporate them into concretes and construction binders to improve various performance properties. This paper presents the [...] Read more.
Diatomites are mineral resources formed from diatoms. They are widely used in sorption processes, medicine, cosmetology, and in protecting animals from parasites. Attempts are being made to incorporate them into concretes and construction binders to improve various performance properties. This paper presents the results of analyses (particle size analysis, XRD, and SEM) of a fine fraction of non-calcined and calcined diatomite as an additive to geopolymers made from fly ash from lignite combustion. The fly ash was also analyzed in the same way. Diatomite was introduced in its calcined and non-calcined form at 10%, 15%, and 30% by weight, replacing parts of the filler sand. The geopolymer mixtures were activated with 10 and 14 M aqueous sodium hydroxide solution with sodium water glass. As a result, it was found that it was possible to obtain geopolymers with diatomite additives with a compressive strength of about 34 MPa. In addition, after the strength tests, the microstructure of the obtained geopolymers was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 3335 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Flexural Performance of Chopped Basalt Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams
by Birgir Leo Olafsson, Gudbjartur Jon Einarsson and Eythor Rafn Thorhallsson
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013029 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1049
Abstract
This article discusses the flexural strength of fiber reinforced concrete beams made by adding an optimal percentage of basalt fibers to the concrete mix. Two types of standard C30/37: XC1 concrete were used in this study, one with the aggregate size limit 19 [...] Read more.
This article discusses the flexural strength of fiber reinforced concrete beams made by adding an optimal percentage of basalt fibers to the concrete mix. Two types of standard C30/37: XC1 concrete were used in this study, one with the aggregate size limit 19 mm and the other with the aggregate size of max. 4 mm. The basalt fibers used are two different types: Reforcetech minibar is a stiff basalt fiber, and its diameter is 0.72 mm and length 50 mm; Basaltex BCS17-25.4-KV1 is 30 mm in length with a flat cross-section of 0.017 × 4 mm. The test method measures the flexural efficiency of the strength parameters extracted from fiber reinforced concrete. The conclusion of this study is that the scale, quantity and type of basalt fibers have an impact on how the concrete acts under load. All types of fiber show promising results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1307 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Lightweight Geopolymer Composites: The Impact of the Aggregate
by Zélia Alves, João A. Labrincha and Rui M. Novais
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013030 - 21 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1051
Abstract
In this work, lightweight geopolymer composites were produced by varying the content of expanded perlite and geopolymer spheres, used as aggregates. Firstly, highly porous geopolymer spheres containing mostly red mud as the solid precursor were produced, which leads to the valorization of significant [...] Read more.
In this work, lightweight geopolymer composites were produced by varying the content of expanded perlite and geopolymer spheres, used as aggregates. Firstly, highly porous geopolymer spheres containing mostly red mud as the solid precursor were produced, which leads to the valorization of significant amounts of this metallurgical waste. Then, the incorporation of each aggregate in the slag matrix demonstrated that the geometric density, compressive strength, and thermal conductivity of the geopolymer composites decrease when their content increases. Composites with low density (0.8 g/cm3) and low thermal conductivity (0.130 W/m K) were produced by using the expanded perlite. However, the sphere-containing composites showed higher specific strength and good thermal insulation properties. The results show an interesting potential of using a waste-derived aggregate, synthesized at much lower temperatures compared to expanded perlite, addressing the demand for developing novel energy efficient materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1672 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Placing on the Market Modern Construction Products and Systems Contributing to Next Generation of Healthy, Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings
by Aneta Nowak-Michta
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013031 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 998
Abstract
In Europe, the construction sector currently generates more than a third of CO2 emissions. Moreover, residential buildings consume about 40% of the energy that we are able to produce. Construction product manufacturers implement innovative solutions that give us a chance to achieve [...] Read more.
In Europe, the construction sector currently generates more than a third of CO2 emissions. Moreover, residential buildings consume about 40% of the energy that we are able to produce. Construction product manufacturers implement innovative solutions that give us a chance to achieve more widespread construction of zero-emission and zero-energy buildings. However, they face legal barriers related to the lack of standardization procedures enabling the rapid placing of innovative construction products on the market to be achieved. The MEZeroE project (“Measuring Envelope products and systems contributing to next generation of healthy nearly Zero Energy Buildings”), funded by European Union Horizon 2020, aims to create a platform combining science and business to facilitate the development of nearly zero-energy buildings. The aim of this paper is to present the European procedure for placing innovative construction products on the market under the MEZeroE project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 2290 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Influence of the Addition of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Fly Silica Ash and Limestone on Selected Properties of Cement Mortars
by Wacław Brachaczek, Adam Chleboś, Magdalena Kupczak, Sebastian Spisak, Michał Stybak and Katarzyna Żyrek
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013032 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
This publication presents the results of a study of the effect of partial replacement of cement with waste and natural materials: ground blast furnace slag, fly ash and lime meal on the strength properties of mortars compared to a reference mortar without these [...] Read more.
This publication presents the results of a study of the effect of partial replacement of cement with waste and natural materials: ground blast furnace slag, fly ash and lime meal on the strength properties of mortars compared to a reference mortar without these additives. In subsequent tests, these materials were gradually replaced with up to 10% CEM I cement. Their effects on consistency and compressive and flexural tensile strengths after 28 days of maturation were investigated. The tests were carried out on blocks measuring 40 mm × 40 mm × 160 mm according to the standard. In the range of tests analysed, the results obtained make it feasible to consider the possibility of partially replacing cement with silica fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag in cement mortars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1797 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Fungi Removal Method on the Mechanical Properties of Polymer Composites Reinforced with Oat and Millet Husks
by Maria Goron and Ewa Sudoł
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013033 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 867
Abstract
Polymer composites reinforced with crop husks show susceptibility to fungi of the Agaricomycotina subdivision, particularly Coniophora puteana. The material’s resistance to the fungi is evaluated by exposing specimens to the fungus for 16 weeks, and then determining the mass loss and changes [...] Read more.
Polymer composites reinforced with crop husks show susceptibility to fungi of the Agaricomycotina subdivision, particularly Coniophora puteana. The material’s resistance to the fungi is evaluated by exposing specimens to the fungus for 16 weeks, and then determining the mass loss and changes in mechanical properties. An important pre-testing step is cleaning the samples of mycelium. The study compares the effects of the manual cleaning method with a soft brush and with water under pressure. The aim of the study is to select a method that is non-destructive to the material. The results will be evaluated by mass loss, bending strength and modulus of elasticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1533 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigation of the Electrical Properties of Graphene-Reinforced Geopolymer Composites
by R. S. Krishna, Suman Saha, Kinga Korniejenko, Tanvir S. Qureshi and Syed Mohammed Mustakim
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013034 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
Geopolymer composites provide an environmentally friendly alternative to cement-based composites in the construction industry. Due to their distinctive material composition, geopolymers also exhibit electrically conductive properties, which permit their application as a functional material. The current work aims to study the distinctive electrical [...] Read more.
Geopolymer composites provide an environmentally friendly alternative to cement-based composites in the construction industry. Due to their distinctive material composition, geopolymers also exhibit electrically conductive properties, which permit their application as a functional material. The current work aims to study the distinctive electrical properties of fly-ash-based geopolymer composites. Varying dosages of graphene oxide (i.e., 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4% (by wt. of binder)) were introduced into the geopolymer matrix to enhance electrical conductivity. While GO (graphene oxide) is typically less conductive, the interaction of GO sheets with the alkaline solution during geopolymerisation reduced the functional groups and produced cross-linked rGO (reduced graphene oxide) sheets with increased mechanical and electrical conductivity properties. Solid-state impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize the electrical properties of geopolymer composites in terms of several parameters, such as impedance, electrical conductivity and dielectric properties, within the frequency ranging from 101 to 105 Hz. The relationship between the electrical properties and graphene oxide reinforcement can effectively establish geopolymer composite development as smart materials with desirable functionality. The results suggest an effective enhancement in electrical conductivity of up to 7.72 × 10−13 Ω⋅mm−1 and the dielectric response performance of graphene-reinforced fly-ash-based geopolymer composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 8352 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Early-Age Creep and Shrinkage Properties of Printed and Cast Cement Composite
by Rihards Gailitis, Pauls Pudans, Krists Ziemelis, Girts Bumanis and Andina Sprince
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013035 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 901
Abstract
In recent years, 3D printing has been more and more used in the development of buildings and building elements. Mostly-printed structures are subjected to compression that is oriented perpendicular to the layer laying direction. When applying load in this way, the printed structure [...] Read more.
In recent years, 3D printing has been more and more used in the development of buildings and building elements. Mostly-printed structures are subjected to compression that is oriented perpendicular to the layer laying direction. When applying load in this way, the printed structure exhibits characteristics similar to masonry structures. However, as the technology and application of 3D printing develop, the structures also become more complicated and subjected not only to direct compression but other stresses as well. In this paper, long-term properties together with compressive strength were determined for 3D-printed specimens with load applied in the same direction as the layers are laid. The long-term and mechanical properties were compared with cast same-composition specimens. Results show that for the printed specimens, the compressive strength was more than two times lower than cast specimens, while the creep properties were slightly lower for the printed specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1589 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Use of Bonded Joints for Fastening Sheet-Metal Components to Contemporary Facades Fitted with an External Thermal Insulation Composite System with Thin-Layer Acrylic Plaster
by Jiří Šlanhof, Aleš Průcha, Barbora Nečasová and Adam Boháček
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013036 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
This paper deals with the issue of fastening sheet-metal components on the facades of contemporary buildings that are massively insulated with external thermal insulation composite systems. This research focused on facades with thin-layer acrylic plaster and sheet-metal components made of aluminium, copper and [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the issue of fastening sheet-metal components on the facades of contemporary buildings that are massively insulated with external thermal insulation composite systems. This research focused on facades with thin-layer acrylic plaster and sheet-metal components made of aluminium, copper and hot-dipped galvanized sheet metal. Two different test methods and test sample geometries were used to determine the most critical aspects for the studied application sectors. Surprisingly high tensile properties as well as shear stresses in the bonded joints were recorded for all the selected combinations. The presented results confirmed the assumed benefits for the construction industry and the future practical use of this technology in construction, although the durability of a bonded joint will always depend mainly on the quality of the bonded substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 991 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Physico-Chemical Modelling of Chloride Migration in Cement-Based Materials Considering Electrode Processes
by Zine-Eddine Kribes, Rachid Cherif and Abdelkarim Aït-Mokhtar
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013037 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 936
Abstract
A multispecies model for chloride migration in cementitious materials was proposed. The model is applied to simulate chloride migration in the concrete submitted to the chloride migration test, considering the electrode processes. These processes are very rarely integrated into the literature, despite their [...] Read more.
A multispecies model for chloride migration in cementitious materials was proposed. The model is applied to simulate chloride migration in the concrete submitted to the chloride migration test, considering the electrode processes. These processes are very rarely integrated into the literature, despite their impact on the chloride migration and the electroneutrality in the pore solution of the material. The generation of OH in the cathode and H+ in the anode allows for the monitoring of the electroneutrality. The modelling considers all the ions of the pore solution. Ion fluxes are calculated using Nernst–Planck equation. The Langmuir model is used to simulate the chloride isotherms. The thermodynamic equilibrium in the material is considered, which reflects the liquid–solid interactions during the migration. The ion profiles with and without considering the electrode processes are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1388 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Effect of Preconditioning Temperature on Gas Permeability of Alkali-Activated Concretes
by Patrycja Duży, Marta Choinska Colombel, Izabela Hager and Ouali Amiri
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013038 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 825
Abstract
Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) are a group of environmentally friendly binders considered alternatives to conventional cementitious binders. They utilise industrial wastes such as slag and fly ash to reduce cement production and related CO2 emissions. Despite the strong interest of researchers, the application [...] Read more.
Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) are a group of environmentally friendly binders considered alternatives to conventional cementitious binders. They utilise industrial wastes such as slag and fly ash to reduce cement production and related CO2 emissions. Despite the strong interest of researchers, the application of alkali-activated concrete (AAC) in constructions is still very limited. Given the difference in the process of producing the AAC and ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPCC), some of the testing methods need to be adjusted to a new type of binder. The increased sensitivity of AAM to high temperatures leads to discussions on the results achieved in the gas permeability tests that require the samples to be dried first. In this paper, the influence of drying temperature applied to the samples on the gas permeability will be presented. The binders’ precursors are blends of fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) in slag proportions of 5%, 20%, and 35%, expressed by the mass of FA. Materials are denoted AAC5, AAC20, and AAC35, respectively. Measurements of the gas permeability of concretes were conducted by the RILEM–CEMBUREAU method, with lab adaptation for gas flow measurements. The comparison of results obtained shows the increase in gas permeability values with the temperature. However, the corresponding effect of temperature on permeability is driven by, on the one hand, the binder composition, and on the other hand, the aggregate’s nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1219 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Thermal Performance Evaluation of a PCM-Integrated Gypsum Plaster Board
by Katarzyna Nowak, Tomasz Kisilewicz, Umberto Berardi and Anna Zastawna-Rumin
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013039 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
In order to design and optimize building materials containing phase changing material (PCM), it is important to accurately characterize the thermal properties of these composites: the enthalpy curve and its hysteresis. This paper presents the initial tests of these properties for a composite [...] Read more.
In order to design and optimize building materials containing phase changing material (PCM), it is important to accurately characterize the thermal properties of these composites: the enthalpy curve and its hysteresis. This paper presents the initial tests of these properties for a composite panel: gypsum plasterboard with an evenly distributed layer of PCM. Performance testing of the selected material was carried out by means of the dynamic method. This method (dynamic heat flow meter apparatus (DHFMA)) involves the measurement of non-stationary heat flow to determine the stored energy (enthalpy change) as a function of temperature using a stationary heat flow measurement apparatus (HFMA). This method allows for the measurement of the sensible and latent heat capacity of the products containing phase change material. In addition to presenting the obtained results, the study will discuss the practical aspects of this test method, recently introduced in the standard ASTM C 1784-20. The preliminary experiments described in the article were aimed at learning a new research technique, determining the required conditions for conducting research and the capabilities of the possessed apparatus in this regard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 3846 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Glass Powder on the Cement Hydration, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mortar
by Magdalena Dobiszewska, Waldemar Pichór, Tomasz Tracz, Andrea Petrella and Michele Notarnicola
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013040 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
Cement production has the largest carbon-footprint since it leads to the release of carbon dioxide and enormous energy consumption. Therefore, scientific research is being conducted worldwide on the possibility of using other materials that can be used as a cement substitute. A potential [...] Read more.
Cement production has the largest carbon-footprint since it leads to the release of carbon dioxide and enormous energy consumption. Therefore, scientific research is being conducted worldwide on the possibility of using other materials that can be used as a cement substitute. A potential alternative material is glass powder. This paper present research results on the use of glass powder as a partial cement replacement with a substitution level of 0–20%. The pozzolanic activity and the influence of glass powder on cement hydration were analyzed. The porosity, the microstructure of the interfacial transition zone and the compressive strength of mortar were also investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 2830 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Alkali-Activated Metashale Mortar with Waste Cementitious Aggregate: Material Characterization
by Petr Hotěk, Lukáš Fiala, Wei-Ting Lin, Yi-Hua Chang and Robert Černý
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013041 - 01 Mar 2023
Viewed by 853
Abstract
The design of sustainable construction materials is continuously gaining increasing importance in civil engineering. Geopolymers are attractive alternatives to cementitious materials in terms of environmental impact and specific material properties, such as durability, an initial increase in mechanical properties, or chemical and thermal [...] Read more.
The design of sustainable construction materials is continuously gaining increasing importance in civil engineering. Geopolymers are attractive alternatives to cementitious materials in terms of environmental impact and specific material properties, such as durability, an initial increase in mechanical properties, or chemical and thermal resistance. Such favorable properties can be advantageously utilized within various applications involving the design of materials for heavily stressed industrial floors. The research presented in the paper was focused on the design of a geopolymer composite based on metashale MEFISTO L05 and waste metashale RON D460HR binders. The 1:4 raw/waste mix of binders activated by potassium hydroxide/silicate was supplemented by 0.11 wt.% of graphite fibers to optimize electrical properties and bestow on it some new material functions, such as self-heating. The further utilization of fine waste aggregate (crushed defective concrete products, waste concrete from auto-mixers) resulted in an ~85% utilization of input waste materials. An acceptable mechanical performance of the mortar for particular civil engineering applications was observed (28d: Rf ~ 2.5 MPa, Rc ~ 15 MPa), as well as favorable thermal and DC/AC electrical properties, predicting the self-heating potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 2557 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
About Gas Permeability and Diffusion through Concrete
by Takwa Lamouchi, Severine Levasseur, Ludovic Potier, Thierry Dubois and Frédéric Skoczylas
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013042 - 07 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1010
Abstract
Gas production is expected in radioactive-waste storage structures. This will induce a slow increase in gas pressure, which necessitates the study of gas transfer at a low pressure. In this special case, calculations of the flow through storing materials while solely using permeability [...] Read more.
Gas production is expected in radioactive-waste storage structures. This will induce a slow increase in gas pressure, which necessitates the study of gas transfer at a low pressure. In this special case, calculations of the flow through storing materials while solely using permeability and Darcy’s law are likely to be inadequate, as diffusion may play a crucial role in the process. The gas permeability and gas diffusion coefficient of industrial concrete have then been measured on the dry material. Diffusion tests were performed with a new device, specially designed for this study. The diffusion coefficient was directly measured with the use of the first Fick’s law, as the test was analyzed under a steady state. Using some simplified hypotheses, it was then possible to compare the proportion of flow occurring due to diffusion with the one occurring due to permeation. The tendency is very clear and unambiguously shows that diffusion is predominant at a very low injection pressure but becomes negligible as soon as the gas pressure exceeds a moderate value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 978 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Geopolymers—Base Materials and Properties of Green Structural Materials
by Tarreck Mahaman Manssour Issa, Mateusz Sitarz, Katarzyna Mrόz and Marcin Różycki
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013043 - 09 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1220
Abstract
Nowadays, most industrial solid waste, agriculture waste, and natural minerals are piled up, which not only occupies land resources, but also has a dangerous impact on the environment. The responsible management and recycling of these materials can have significant environmental benefits, while also [...] Read more.
Nowadays, most industrial solid waste, agriculture waste, and natural minerals are piled up, which not only occupies land resources, but also has a dangerous impact on the environment. The responsible management and recycling of these materials can have significant environmental benefits, while also providing a means of accessing raw materials for the creation of geopolymers. Geopolymers are new, environment-friendly, cementless materials and alternative construction materials to ordinary Portland cement. They not only have excellent mechanical properties, but also have valuable properties, e.g., high-temperature resistance. This paper summarizes the feasibility studies in terms of base materials and properties of today’s developing geopolymers. This paper also highlights the significance of developing sustainable materials for civil engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 2339 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Influence of Environmental Conditions on Steel Corrosion in Concrete Exposed to Gamma Radiation
by Mariusz Dąbrowski, Justyna Kuziak, Kinga Dziedzic and Michał A. Glinicki
Mater. Proc. 2023, 13(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2023013044 - 13 Mar 2023
Viewed by 839
Abstract
This article examines the problem of the service life of reinforced concrete structures intended for nuclear power plants and radiation waste storage bunkers when exposed to radiation. This research focused on assessing the corrosion resistance of steel bars under conditions of simultaneous exposure [...] Read more.
This article examines the problem of the service life of reinforced concrete structures intended for nuclear power plants and radiation waste storage bunkers when exposed to radiation. This research focused on assessing the corrosion resistance of steel bars under conditions of simultaneous exposure to gamma radiation and various environmental conditions affecting the rate of carbonation. Electrochemical measurements of steel bars were carried out on samples in three environmental conditions: in a laboratory–dry; enclosed in a can at RH = 50%; and enclosed in a can at RH = 100%. The durability of the passivation layer of steel on non-irradiated and irradiated specimens after 8 months of exposure to gamma radiation was compared. A lower degradation effect of gamma radiation was visible in fully water-saturated specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of 10th MATBUD’2023 Scientific-Technical Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop