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Eng. Proc., 2023, ASEC 2022

The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences

Online | 1–15 December 2022

Volume Editors:
Nunzio Cennamo, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Italy
Bruno Ando, University of Catania, Italy
Gianrico Spagnuolo, University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy
Anuj K. Sharma, National Institute of Technology Delhi, India
Roger Narayan, North Carolina State University, USA
Francesco Arcadio, University of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, Italy
Maria Pesavento, University of Pavia, Italy
Carlos Marques, University of Aveiro, Portugal
Letizia De Maria, Technologies for Transmission and Distribution, Italy

Number of Papers: 87
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Cover Story (view full-size image): This international conference, supported by the journal Applied Sciences, unites scientists from different areas to discuss important recent developments in a number of fields. It represents an [...] Read more.
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2 pages, 172 KiB  
Abstract
Robust Nonlinear Control and Maximum Power Point Tracking in PV Solar Energy System under Real Environmental Conditions
by Ambe Harrison, Jean de Dieu Nguimfack Ndongmo and Njimboh Henry Alombah
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13779 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 921
Abstract
The optimization of the operational performance of PV systems requires tracking the PV operating point at which maximum power is available. Given that, in practice, the PV system is subjected to environmental parameters, which are random, the continuous tracking of this point, the [...] Read more.
The optimization of the operational performance of PV systems requires tracking the PV operating point at which maximum power is available. Given that, in practice, the PV system is subjected to environmental parameters, which are random, the continuous tracking of this point, the maximum power point (MPP), becomes an absolute necessity. Numerous techniques for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) have been reported in the literature. However, these techniques suffer from numerous problems, such as oscillation around the maximum power point and robust inabilities. Taking into account the nonlinear nature of the PV coupled to the nonlinear time-variant nature of power electronic converters interfaced in PV systems, nonlinear control is a vital strategy to guarantee both an oscillation free and a robust PV-MPPT system. This work presents a nonlinear robust strategy for the MPPT control of the PV system using a Boost DC-DC converter. The nonlinear strategy is based on the integral backstepping controller. The control system uses a trained artificial neural network (ANN) to generate a reference voltage that is injected into the closed system for reference tracking. The stability of the closed system has been verified using Lyapunov functions. To ensure the effective and robust response of the closed loop system, mathematical equations derived by initializing tuning goals in the control law have been developed. Therefore, the closed-loop system forms a robust integral backstepping (RIBS) control. The performance of the RIBS-MPPT system has been investigated in real environmental conditions under the light as well as heavy load variations, which are perceived by the nonlinear controller as disturbances, while its performance has been benchmarked against the conventional perturb and observed (P&O). It was noted that the RIBS outperformed the P&O under all test conditions. An interesting feature of the proposed RIBS lies in its high reference tracking and zero steady-state oscillations potential under heavy disturbances in real environmental conditions. Therefore, the proposed nonlinear control scheme is suitable for the effective and efficient optimization of PV systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
1 pages, 198 KiB  
Abstract
Brain Targeting of Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Drugs
by Jéssica Antunes, Ana Cláudia Paiva-Santos, Francisco Veiga and Patrícia C. Pires
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13766 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 595
Abstract
Depression and anxiety are high incidence and debilitating psychiatric disorders, usually treated by antidepressant or anxiolytic drug administration, respectively. Nevertheless, this treatment is usually administered orally, but the low permeability of the blood–brain barrier, which serves many functions such as being a barrier [...] Read more.
Depression and anxiety are high incidence and debilitating psychiatric disorders, usually treated by antidepressant or anxiolytic drug administration, respectively. Nevertheless, this treatment is usually administered orally, but the low permeability of the blood–brain barrier, which serves many functions such as being a barrier to prevent the entry of external substances into the brain, reduces the amount of drugs that will be able to reach the brain, also reducing, consequently, therapeutic efficacy. This is why new solutions have been tried, i.e., to make these treatments more effective, safer, and faster. To overcome this obstacle, in the articles analyzed in this work, three main strategies were used to improve brain drug targeting: the intranasal route of administration, which allows the drug to be directly transported to the brain by neuronal pathways (olfactory and trigeminal nerves), bypassing the blood–brain barrier and avoiding hepatic and gastrointestinal metabolism; the use of nanosystems for drug encapsulation, including polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles, nanometric emulsions and nanogels; and drug molecule functionalization, by the attachment of ligands such as peptides and polymers. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic results showed that intranasal administration can be more efficient in brain targeting than other routes (such as intravenous or oral administration), as well as the use of nanoformulations and drug functionalization, which are also quite beneficial in increasing brain drug bioavailability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
2 pages, 193 KiB  
Abstract
Band Gap Closure in MnS under Pressure
by Evgeniy Chernov and Alexey Lukoyanov
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13784 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Manganese chalcogenides are being actively studied both experimentally and theoretically because of the metal-to-insulator transition under pressure and possible catalytic, optical and magnetic applications [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
1 pages, 168 KiB  
Abstract
Advanced Renewable Nanomaterials for Sustainable Development
by Mert Yildirim and Zeki Candan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13856 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
At the UN General Assembly, 193 United Nations Member States adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This initiative is a global call to action. To achieve sustainable development, 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been defined, and nanoscience and nanotechnology play a [...] Read more.
At the UN General Assembly, 193 United Nations Member States adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This initiative is a global call to action. To achieve sustainable development, 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been defined, and nanoscience and nanotechnology play a critical role in these goals. Nanotechnology is regarded as an enabling technology since it involves the study, modification, manipulation, or creation of processes, structures, materials, or devices at the nanoscale. Nanotechnology is rapidly expanding in many areas, including aerospace, energy, automotive, medicine, and food, as well as in the textile, chemical, and electrical-electronic industries, and is expected to have a bright future. Nanomaterials are materials that are purposefully designed in a size range of 1 to 100 nm in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions. Nanotechnology and nanomaterials have a wide range of applications in every area of science and engineering, resulting in greater improvements. In particular, lignocellulose-based nanomaterials with a nanofibrillar structure are produced from natural resources and can be used in a wide range of commercial applications. The eco-friendliness, unique properties, and diverse capabilities of nanomaterials are being explored in order to develop innovative materials and applications in almost all areas. This review focused on nanotechnology and advanced renewable nanomaterials for sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
1 pages, 167 KiB  
Abstract
Sensory Augmentation Using Subdermal Haptic Feedback
by Quinn D. Mooney and Masudul H. Imtiaz
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13771 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 576
Abstract
The goal of this study is to introduce an implantable haptic feedback device that allows a user to obtain better interactions and feedback from various sensory modules. A thorough analysis of the design of the sensor is provided in this work. The implantable [...] Read more.
The goal of this study is to introduce an implantable haptic feedback device that allows a user to obtain better interactions and feedback from various sensory modules. A thorough analysis of the design of the sensor is provided in this work. The implantable nature increases the user’s ability to integrate the vibrations into a more natural sense over time. Conscious training associating the vibrations with their meaning and the natural neuroplastic capacity of the brain will allow a user to have an intuitive and integrated understanding of the linked device. By using a standardized external battery module, design constraints surrounding internal power storage are avoided and present an opportunity for modular sensor packages. Current applications include blood glucose monitoring, radiation dosimetry, and pseudo-echolocation using an array of implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
2 pages, 172 KiB  
Abstract
Characterization of Essential Oil Antioxidant Properties by Coulometric Titration
by Alena Kalmykova, Olga Kupriyanova and Guzel Ziyatdinova
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13843 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 944
Abstract
Essential oils have been known about since ancient times and have been used in aromatherapy. Nowadays, their applications also cover the medicine and food industries due to their wide spectrum of bioactivity, including antioxidant properties. Thus, the estimation of essential oils’ antioxidant properties [...] Read more.
Essential oils have been known about since ancient times and have been used in aromatherapy. Nowadays, their applications also cover the medicine and food industries due to their wide spectrum of bioactivity, including antioxidant properties. Thus, the estimation of essential oils’ antioxidant properties is of practical interest. Phenolic compounds and terpenes are the major antioxidants present in essential oils according to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total antioxidant parameters are a good alternative to the characterization of individual components by GC-MS, allowing the avoidance of a time-consuming and expensive procedure. Coulometric titration with electrogenerated bromine and ferricyanide ions has been used for the estimation of the total antioxidant capacity and the ferric reducing power of essential oils for the first time. Data on the reaction of individual antioxidants (volatile phenolics and terpenes) with coulometric titrants confirm the applicability of the method for the characterization of essential oils’ antioxidant properties. The essential oils clove, cinnamon, nutmeg, lavender, ginger, anise, basil, bergamot, jasmine, ylang-ylang, marjoram, neroli, rosemary, thyme, and clary sage of various trademarks (total 27 samples) are investigated. The data are compared to the standard parameters (antioxidant activity towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and the total phenolic contents). Positive correlations with coefficients from 0.7051 to 0.9558 confirm the accuracy of the coulometric approach. Moreover, the ferric reducing power reflecting the phenolic antioxidant content can be used for all samples of essential oils, while the Folin–Ciocalteu method for total phenolic contents is applicable to four essential oils only. Another advantage of coulometry titration is the possibility of automation and its rapidity, making it an attractive tool for screening purposes in routine practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
1 pages, 168 KiB  
Abstract
Various Models for Predicting Wind Energy Production
by Seemant Tiwari
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13792 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 842
Abstract
Windmills represent one of the most virtually limitless sources of energy that may be used to generate electricity. It is regarded as a renewable source, but more investigation is indeed required to acquire the scientific knowledge and techniques that guarantee homogeneity in creation, [...] Read more.
Windmills represent one of the most virtually limitless sources of energy that may be used to generate electricity. It is regarded as a renewable source, but more investigation is indeed required to acquire the scientific knowledge and techniques that guarantee homogeneity in creation, improving the contribution of this origin to the electricity sector. This is because the wind exhibits sudden variants in speed, surface area, and other crucial factors. Comprehensive data collection methods of wind speed and phase are required for the assessment of wind resources in a location. Wind energy is produced when the wind makes contact well with the wind turbine’s rotors. The rotor rotates, converting wind speed into kinetic energy that powers the wind generator’s rotor and produces energy. In addition to assessing the energy production for the coming periods, which is valuable knowledge in the deployment of the producing units and the regulation of the power system, it is crucial to estimate the forecasts of wind activity a minimum of once a day in advance. This study creates a wind speed forecasting model for the ultra-short, short-, medium-, and long-term development of computational techniques. Utilizing wavelet-based prediction, artificial neural network approaches, including autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), are used, as well as other hybrid models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
2 pages, 196 KiB  
Abstract
A Neural Circuit Model of the Striatum Resolves the Conflict between Context and Dominance Apparent in the Prefrontal Cortex
by Silvia Vilariño and Salva Ardid
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13775 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) encode sensory and context information, as well as sensory dominance in context-dependent decision-making [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
1 pages, 187 KiB  
Abstract
Exploiting the Power of Decellularized ECM for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration
by Marta S. Carvalho
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13767 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Periodontitis is a worldwide prevalent infectious disease that causes the destruction of periodontal tissues and can lead ultimately to tooth loss. The goal of periodontal treatment is to control the infection and reconstruct the structure and function of all periodontal tissues, including cementum, [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is a worldwide prevalent infectious disease that causes the destruction of periodontal tissues and can lead ultimately to tooth loss. The goal of periodontal treatment is to control the infection and reconstruct the structure and function of all periodontal tissues, including cementum, periodontal ligament fibers and alveolar bone. However, most of the treatments, such as the use of membranes and bone grafts, lack bioactive signals that accelerate the process of tissue regeneration and cannot repair the attachment of periodontal tissues to teeth, leading to tooth loss. Therefore, it is imperative to exploit alternative strategies to repair the structure and function of all periodontal tissues. Decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) has been proven to be a promising biomaterial by providing a suitable microenvironment to support cell proliferation and differentiation. We explored dECM-derived scaffolds, such as sponges, to recreate the cell niche of periodontal tissues. Our findings demonstrated that incorporation of dECM derived from periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) promoted significant cell proliferation and enhanced osteogenic/periodontal differentiation of PDLSCs. Overall, dECM-scaffolds have the potential to be used as novel ‘off-the-shelf’ biomaterials, providing a biomimetic microenvironment that may contribute to improve health care of patients suffering with periodontal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
2 pages, 208 KiB  
Abstract
Selection of Conventional Photoinitiators to Produce Biocompatible UV Epoxidized Soybean Oil Resin Mixtures for 3D Printing Technology
by Elisabeth Ekoh, Inês Amaral, Sónia Martins, Ivo Manuel Bragança and Ana Catarina Sousa
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13760 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 686
Abstract
The use of natural-based resins as matrices for 3D printing is currently an expanding area with a considerable potential to explore. These materials, in addition to presenting high biocompatibility, come from renewable natural resources, causing them to be very attractive in terms of [...] Read more.
The use of natural-based resins as matrices for 3D printing is currently an expanding area with a considerable potential to explore. These materials, in addition to presenting high biocompatibility, come from renewable natural resources, causing them to be very attractive in terms of cost and environmental benefits. In the production of objects using photopolymerization, natural-based resins can be used with photoinitiators, causing them to be amenable to UV-curing. Thus, the choice of natural resins, photoinitiators, and light sources, which allow for proposing new formulations, with the biocompatibility properties of the natural material, and can compete with those available on the market, justify research in this area. Within this context, five conventional photoinitiators, namely benzophenone, 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone, ethylphenyl (2,4,6-trimetylbenzoyl) phosphinate, 2-chlorothioxannthen-9-one, and 2-isopropylthioxanthone, were tested and evaluated to promote UV curing a natural resin derived from epoxidized soybean oil. Different mixtures were prepared, with 1 to 0.01% of photoinitiators (w/w, initial resin basis) and operational parameters, such as time and wave-length source, were tested. Cured mixtures were evaluated concerning their physicochemical structures and mechanical and biological properties. The results showed that, of the five photoinitiators studied, the most suitable to produce epoxidized soybean oil resin mixtures for 3D printing was ethylphenyl (2,4,6-trimetylbenzoyl) phosphinate. With its use, even in reduced amounts 0.01% (w/w), it was possible to produce transparent films and print pieces using stereolithography, with greater thickness, than those displayed by similar pieces prepared from mixtures of the same resin with other photoinitiators. The mechanical properties were similar to those obtained for the pieces produced with a commercial resin, which was used as a reference, and no antibacterial activity was evidenced against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by these new materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
1 pages, 199 KiB  
Abstract
The Importance of Nanosystems in Antipsychotic Drugs Brain Targeting
by Maria Ferreira, Ana Cláudia Paiva-Santos, Francisco Veiga and Patrícia C. Pires
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13765 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Orally administered antipsychotic drugs are the first line of treatment in the management of psychotic disorders that affect millions of people globally and have a tremendous impact on patient and family lives, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Nevertheless, adverse drug reactions hinder [...] Read more.
Orally administered antipsychotic drugs are the first line of treatment in the management of psychotic disorders that affect millions of people globally and have a tremendous impact on patient and family lives, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Nevertheless, adverse drug reactions hinder clinical outcomes, resulting in patient non-compliance. The design and implementation of adequate formulation strategies for enhancing drug delivery and targeting to the brain has been a significant challenge, mainly due to the restrictive properties of the blood–brain barrier. However, recent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic in vivo assays confirmed that there is evidence of the advantage of the intranasal route when compared to oral and intravenous administration, as it allows the possibility of direct nose-to-brain transport via neuronal olfactory and trigeminal pathways, reducing systemic side effects, and maximizing therapeutic outcomes. In addition, the formulation of polymeric and solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, nanoemulsions, nanoemulgels, nanosuspensions, niosomes, Spanlastics and polymeric mixed micelles is a promising approach since they have a reduced particle size, ideal for nose-to-brain delivery, stability, high encapsulation efficiency, enhanced drug solubility, and drug protection from enzymatic degradation. Nevertheless, it is essential to continue research in this field, conducting more long-term studies with greater uniformity so that the true potential of these formulations can be assessed and a transposition into the pharmaceutical industry is someday possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
2 pages, 175 KiB  
Abstract
Comparison of Band Structures of ErSb and ErNiSb Intermetallics from Ab Initio Calculations
by Semyon T. Baidak and Alexey V. Lukoyanov
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13840 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 890
Abstract
RNiSb intermetallics are composed of R-rare earth, T-transition metals, and X-p elements. This family of compounds demonstrates many outstanding properties and phenomena perspectives in functional applications. The intermetallic compounds are crystalized in the cubic half-Heusler structure (space group F4¯ [...] Read more.
RNiSb intermetallics are composed of R-rare earth, T-transition metals, and X-p elements. This family of compounds demonstrates many outstanding properties and phenomena perspectives in functional applications. The intermetallic compounds are crystalized in the cubic half-Heusler structure (space group F4¯3 m). Similar binary RSb compounds with the same crystal structure are topological semimetals with unusual Dirac-cone-like states observed in ARPES studies. In this work, the band structure and magnetic properties of ErSb and ErNiSb compounds are investigated in the framework of the DFT+U method comprising the density functional theory and correction for strong electron correlations in Er 4f shell. The calculated magnetic properties of both alloys obtained, to be solely caused by the magnetic moments of the Er ions, provide good agreement with the experimental data. ErSb has the band structure of a topological semimetal. A narrow energy gap was found in the band structure of ErNiSb, i.e., this alloy is an indirect gap semiconductor. The energy gap in ErNiSb was calculated to be 0.25 eV due to the minority spin projection. The band structure exhibits the presence of occupied bands, which can form a hole pocket near Γ in the L-Γ-X and K-Γ directions. In the band structure of ErSb, one can find the hole pockets near the same k-point along L-Γ-X, K-Γ and an electron pocket along Γ-X-W. These bands form topological features in ErSb, in particular, and cause a semimetallic state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
2 pages, 199 KiB  
Abstract
Intranasal Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety Disorders
by Margarida Alberto, Ana Cláudia Paiva-Santos, Francisco Veiga and Patrícia C. Pires
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13853 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 962
Abstract
The treatment of central nervous system disorders, such as depression and anxiety, relies on the oral administration of drugs with antidepressant or anxiolytic action. Given the increased incidence of these diseases and the disadvantages of oral drug administration, studies are being performed with [...] Read more.
The treatment of central nervous system disorders, such as depression and anxiety, relies on the oral administration of drugs with antidepressant or anxiolytic action. Given the increased incidence of these diseases and the disadvantages of oral drug administration, studies are being performed with the aim of developing new ways of treatment in order to improve the effectiveness of the therapies that are applied. The intranasal pathway has gained interest as a route of administration for drugs to the intended target, the brain, due to its capability of direct transport to the central nervous system. In addition to the route of administration, nanoparticles have been studied as possible alternatives to conventional formulations, with the objective of improving drug bioavailability. The present work aimed to analyze the potential of intranasal nanoparticle administration for the treatment of depression and anxiety, using the analysis of several already performed studies. From the carried-out analysis, it was concluded that nanoparticle development takes into consideration the characteristics of the nasal mucosa to allow for enhanced drug absorption and permeability. The use of nanoparticles allows the protection of the drug from enzymatic degradation, and the modulation of its components provides advantages for intranasal administration. In vitro drug release and ex vivo drug permeation studies were conducted, demonstrating, in the majority of cases, an advantage in the use of these formulations. In vivo studies on rats or mice were also carried out, allowing the efficacy of the treatment with the developed formulations to be verified, with results proving very promising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
2 pages, 161 KiB  
Abstract
Regeneration and Rehabilitation of Sarafa Bazaar: A Study for Sustainable Heritage and Future Cities
by Sunera Imtiaz, Syyed Adnan Raheel Shah, Muhammad Shahzad, Hasan Ali Raza and Ghulam Muhammad
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13773 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 720
Abstract
The goal of this project is to revitalize the historic core of the city of Multan to encourage sustainable environmental protection and socio-economic development. This case study focuses on the implementation of an intervention at ‘Sarafa Bazaar’. The objective of the project is [...] Read more.
The goal of this project is to revitalize the historic core of the city of Multan to encourage sustainable environmental protection and socio-economic development. This case study focuses on the implementation of an intervention at ‘Sarafa Bazaar’. The objective of the project is to restore the structure and provide a framework for the development of the local community. The other goal of the intervention is to improve the tourist experience and promote energy efficiency. This type of project is carried out through a process that aims to identify and address the social and urban issues that have affected the development of the city. The selected section of ‘Sarafa Bazaar’ is approximately 80 m from the Musafir Khana building and is connected to the other side of the bazaar. The walls of the Sarafa Bazaar are being renovated and conserved. A laser scanner was used to identify the number of materials and steel reinforcements needed to balance the settled facade. The renovation of the façades of the Sarafa Bazaar is being carried out to improve the overall appearance of the area. The project has been carried out through the establishment of an integrated system for the development of the city’s urban area. It involves the renovation of the façades of the Sarafa Bazaar and the establishment of public spaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
1 pages, 174 KiB  
Abstract
“Aedes Vigilax” Detection from Buzz: Deep Learning Classification
by Saugata Bose
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13787 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Poor or excessive nutrient management may result in the generation of mosquitos in vineyards which is a potential impact of vineyards on residential areas [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
1 pages, 170 KiB  
Abstract
Fruit Fly Chemical Communication with Gut Bacteria
by Nazma Akter Tithi
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13801 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 750
Abstract
Relationships between tephritids and microorganisms have been a focus of entomological research, particularly due to the potential use of microbial emissions in pest control. Symbiotic interactions between fruit flies and their associated gut bacteria have been well-studied; however, the composition of volatile chemicals [...] Read more.
Relationships between tephritids and microorganisms have been a focus of entomological research, particularly due to the potential use of microbial emissions in pest control. Symbiotic interactions between fruit flies and their associated gut bacteria have been well-studied; however, the composition of volatile chemicals from these gut bacterial emissions and their role as mediators of fruit fly behaviour is still underexplored. Here, we hypothesise that the volatile emissions from fruit flies’ gut microbionts may attract host flies. To this end, we isolated culturable bacterial species, mostly belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, from the midgut of the wild adult Bactrocera tryoni, one of the most damaging horticultural pests in Australia. In a screening trap assay with more than 80 isolates, both male and female adult B. tryoni were attracted to the odours emitted by most cultured isolates and a few significantly deterred adult male and female flies. Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy analyses revealed a number of microbial volatile organic chemicals (mVOCs) in the headspace of liquid cultures of isolated bacteria, including ketones, carboxylic acids, alcohols and esters. Electrophysiological assays of selected isolates with the highest attraction identified a number of chemicals that elicit olfactory responses to adult Qflies. Behavioural assay determined the attraction potential of a few chemicals among these mVOCs. This is an important step in understanding fruit fly–bacteria chemical relationships and its potential to develop attractants and potential repellents for fruit fly pest management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)

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5 pages, 789 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Highly Sensitive Determination of Hesperidin Using Electrode Modified with Poly(Ferulic Acid)
by Elvira Yakupova and Guzel Ziyatdinova
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13786 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 652
Abstract
Hesperidin is a major phenolic antioxidant in orange fruits and is responsible for their positive health effect. It is used as part of the therapy for blood vessel conditions. Methods for hesperidin quantification are of practical interest. Recently, several voltammetric approaches have been [...] Read more.
Hesperidin is a major phenolic antioxidant in orange fruits and is responsible for their positive health effect. It is used as part of the therapy for blood vessel conditions. Methods for hesperidin quantification are of practical interest. Recently, several voltammetric approaches have been developed for hesperidin quantification. Nevertheless, the analytical characteristics could be improved. To solve this problem, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and poly(ferulic acid) has been developed. Polymeric coverage has been obtained electrochemically under potentiodynamic conditions. Their optimization based on the hesperidin voltammetric response has been performed. The poly(ferulic acid) layer has to be obtained from 250 µM monomer solution in 0.1 M NaOH by fifteen potential scans from −0.2 to 1.0 V with the scan rate of 100 mV s−1. Hesperidin oxidation currents are 2.8-fold increased at the polymer-modified electrode vs. carbon nanotube-based electrode at the same oxidation potential. Differential pulse voltammetry in phosphate buffer pH 5.5 has been used for the quantification of hesperidin. Linear dynamic ranges of 0.025–1.0 µM and 1.0–10 µM have been achieved with the limits of detection and quantification of 7.0 and 23.4 nM, respectively. The analytical characteristics obtained are the best ones reported to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 1916 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
MEMS Vibrating Ring Gyroscope with Worm-Shaped Support Springs for Space Applications
by Waqas Amin Gill, Ian Howard, Ilyas Mazhar and Kristoffer McKee
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13800 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1076
Abstract
Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices have gained tremendous attention in the field of smart electronics applications. A MEMS vibrating gyroscope is a rotational inertial sensor that is exhaustively used in many applications, from GPS, household, smart appliances, and space applications. The reliability of MEMS [...] Read more.
Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices have gained tremendous attention in the field of smart electronics applications. A MEMS vibrating gyroscope is a rotational inertial sensor that is exhaustively used in many applications, from GPS, household, smart appliances, and space applications. The reliability of MEMS devices for space applications is a big concern. The devices need to be robust in harsh environments. This paper reports a double-ring MEMS vibrating ring gyroscope with sixteen worm-shaped support springs. The inclusion of the two rings with sixteen worm-shaped springs enhances the sensitivity of the gyroscope. The design symmetry and the worm-shaped springs increase the robustness, mode matching, and gyroscopic sensitivity against harsh environments. The design modeling of the gyroscope is investigated using the ANSYSTM software. The design of the vibrating ring gyroscope incorporates two 10 µm thick rings with an outer ring radius of 1000 µm and an inner ring radius of 750 µm. Both rings are attached with sixteen worm-shaped springs, and a centrally placed anchor supports the whole structure with a radius of 260 µm. The proposed gyroscope operates in two identical wine glass modes. The first targeted resonant mode was recorded at 29.07 kHz, and the second mode of the same shape was recorded at 29.35 kHz. There is a low-mode mismatch of 0.38 kHz observed between the two resonant frequencies, which can be resolved with tuning electrodes. The initial modeling results show a good prospect for the design of a vibrating gyroscope for space applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 1987 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
First Principles Study on the Features of CaxSr2−xTa2O7 (x = 0, 1) as a Photocatalytic Material
by Marianela Gómez-Toledo, Khalid Boulahya and M. Elena Arroyo-de Dompablo
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13794 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 766
Abstract
With hydrogen as one of the energetic vectors craved for use in the future, the successful de-carbonization of the energy sector will require an increase in hydrogen production from renewable resources. Materials that are able to catalyze the water-splitting reaction through sunlight absorption [...] Read more.
With hydrogen as one of the energetic vectors craved for use in the future, the successful de-carbonization of the energy sector will require an increase in hydrogen production from renewable resources. Materials that are able to catalyze the water-splitting reaction through sunlight absorption have been widely studied as an adequate solution for green hydrogen generation. Among the proposed tantalum-based oxide materials, Sr2Ta2O7 displays moderate photocatalytic activity. Aiming to improve the photocatalytic properties by means of compositional modifications, this work presents a DFT study of the Sr substitution with Ca. The structural, energetic, and electronic features of the phases of CaxSr2−xTa2O7 (0 < x < 1) have been examined. The computational results utilizing the SCAN functional show that there is a slight decrement in the band gap value (from 3.65 eV for x = 0 to 3.50 eV for x = 1) concomitant to a minor distortion of the crystal structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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5 pages, 789 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Poly(Phenol Red)-Based Voltammetric Sensor for the Simultaneous Quantification of Hydroxycinnamic Acids
by Anastasiya Zhupanova and Guzel Ziyatdinova
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13863 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 690
Abstract
Hydroxycinnamic acids are one of the most widely distributed classes of natural phenolics in plants. Their coexistence requires selective methods for quantification. Voltammetry on chemically modified electrodes is one of the approaches to solving this problem. Electrodes based on electropolymerized triphenylmethane dyes give [...] Read more.
Hydroxycinnamic acids are one of the most widely distributed classes of natural phenolics in plants. Their coexistence requires selective methods for quantification. Voltammetry on chemically modified electrodes is one of the approaches to solving this problem. Electrodes based on electropolymerized triphenylmethane dyes give sensitive and selective responses to natural phenolic antioxidants of different classes. In this work, a combination of polyaminobenzene sulfonic acid functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWCNTs), and poly(phenol red) was used as an electrode surface modifier. The polymeric coverage was obtained by potentiodynamic electropolymerization, the conditions of which were optimized on the basis of the voltammetric response of the hydroxycinnamic acid mixture. Poly(phenol red)-based electrodes provided well-resolved peaks of caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, and a significant increase in the oxidation currents compared to bare glassy carbon (GCE) and f-SWCNTs-modified electrodes. Simultaneous voltammetric quantification of caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids was performed for the first time. Two linear dynamic ranges of 0.10–2.5 µM for all acids, 2.5–100 µM for caffeic acid, and 2.5–50 µM for ferulic and p-coumaric acids were achieved using differential pulse voltammetry in a Britton–Robinson buffer with a pH of 2.0. The limits of detection were 47.6, 22.4, and 38.0 nM for the caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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7 pages, 894 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Sensitive Voltammetric Sensor for Thymol and Carvacrol Based on the Electropolymerized Thymolphtalein
by Guzel Ziyatdinova and Natalia Chernousova
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13835 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 784
Abstract
Thymol and carvacrol (isopropylmethylphenols) are natural phenolic monoterpenoids with antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, and antioxidant properties. Their dose-dependent antioxidant effect requires control in real samples. Various modes of voltammetry have been successfully developed for thymol and carvacrol quantification. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified [...] Read more.
Thymol and carvacrol (isopropylmethylphenols) are natural phenolic monoterpenoids with antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, and antioxidant properties. Their dose-dependent antioxidant effect requires control in real samples. Various modes of voltammetry have been successfully developed for thymol and carvacrol quantification. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and electropolymerized thymolphthalein has been developed for this purpose. The conditions of thymolphthalein electropolymerization (monomer concentration, number of cycles, and parameters of electrolysis) providing the best response to thymol have been found. The scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods confirm the effectivity of the sensor developed. In differential pulse mode, the sensor gives a linear response in the ranges of 0.050–25 and 25–100 μM for thymol and 0.10–10 and 10–100 μM for carvacrol, with detection limits of 0.037 and 0.063 μM, respectively, that are significantly improved compared to those reported earlier. The sensor developed is selective to isopropylmethylphenols in the presence of typical interferences (inorganic ions, saccharides, and ascorbic acid) and other phenolics (caffeic, chlorogenic, gallic and rosmarinic acids, quercetin, and rutin). A sensor has been applied for the evaluation of total isopropylmethylphenols in oregano and thyme spices using single sonication-assisted extraction with methanol. The voltammetric sensor data agreed well with the independent spectrophotometric quantification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 257 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigation of the Effect of Whitening Mouthwashes on the Translucency of Resin Composites at Different Times
by Muhammet Fidan and Makbule Tugba Tuncdemir
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13753 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of whitening mouthwashes on the translucency parameter (TP) at different times of resin composites after coloring with coffee. A total of 90 samples were prepared from resin materials (Estelite Σ Quick, G-aenial Anterior, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of whitening mouthwashes on the translucency parameter (TP) at different times of resin composites after coloring with coffee. A total of 90 samples were prepared from resin materials (Estelite Σ Quick, G-aenial Anterior, Omnichroma). After being kept in coffee for 12 days, the samples were divided into three subgroups (n = 10). The initial (T0) measurement of the TP values was recorded. Control groups were kept in distilled water, and the other groups were kept in two different types of mouthwash (Listerine Advanced White and Crest 3D White). The TP values were recorded at the end of 24 h (T1) and 72 h (T2). The TP values were determined using the CIEDE2000 formula. Two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test were used (p < 0.05). The lowest ΔTP value was observed in the control group at T0–T1 and T0–T2. The highest ΔTP value was observed with Crest 3D White mouthwash at T0–T2. However, there was no difference with Listerine Advanced White. Among the composites, the highest ΔTP value was found in G-aenial Anterior at T0–T2, and the lowest ΔTP value was found in Omnichroma at T0–T1. Whitening mouthwashes caused an increase in the translucency values of resin composites over time. It should be noted that long-term use of whitening mouthwashes may affect the translucency values of resin composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
6 pages, 1075 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of News Sentiment in Economic Activity Forecasting
by Mantas Lukauskas, Vaida Pilinkienė, Jurgita Bruneckienė, Alina Stundžienė, Andrius Grybauskas and Tomas Ruzgas
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13790 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Natural language processing is a rapidly expanding field of artificial intelligence, the main goal of which is linguistics. This field allows various mathematical/computer science techniques to be applied to natural language processing. Sentiment analysis is one of the most common tasks that is [...] Read more.
Natural language processing is a rapidly expanding field of artificial intelligence, the main goal of which is linguistics. This field allows various mathematical/computer science techniques to be applied to natural language processing. Sentiment analysis is one of the most common tasks that is solved based on natural language processing. The primary purpose of sentiment analysis is to determine the mood (happy, sad, angry, and others) or polarity (negative, neutral, positive) of the presented text. Based on the relevance of the application of natural language processing, this study aims to create a dataset of Lithuanian news and determine the sentiment of this news. Identified news sentiment is associated with different indicators of economic activity. More than 1 million articles (1,256,227) have been collected from the largest news portal. The articles were collected from the first month of 2006 to the fifth month of 2022. More than 20,000 different LSTM, GRU, and RNN models were built with different parameters and datasets (univariate, individual sentiments, all sentiments, clusters). Based on the obtained results, it can be observed that the inclusion of sentiments in clustering increased the accuracy of forecasting different economic activity indicators. The highest accuracy in all cases was obtained based on the best sentiment for individual time series. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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5 pages, 395 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Classification of Breast Cancer Ultrasound Images with Deep Learning-Based Models
by Fatih Uysal and Mehmet Murat Köse
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13791 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1512
Abstract
Breast cancer is the type of cancer that affects women the most frequently in the world. Additionally, it is the highest cause of death for women. For the detection and treatment of breast cancer, there are numerous imaging techniques. For medical image analysts, [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is the type of cancer that affects women the most frequently in the world. Additionally, it is the highest cause of death for women. For the detection and treatment of breast cancer, there are numerous imaging techniques. For medical image analysts, making a diagnosis is arduous, routine, time-consuming and tedious. Additionally, the growing volume of ultrasounds to interpret has overloaded practitioners and analysts. In the past, investigations have been performed using mammogram images. This research aims to take a different approach. The hypothesis is that by using artificial intelligence (AI) for ultrasound analysis, the process of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) can be made more effective, interesting and free from subjectivity. The research’s purpose is to classify benign (non-cancerous), malignant (cancerous) and normal samples. The dataset contains 780 images in total. Data were split into 70% for training and 30% for validation. In this dataset, data augmentation and data preprocessing are also applied. Three models are used to classify samples. While ResNet50 scores 85.4% accuracy, ResNeXt50 scores 85.83%, and VGG16 scores 81.11%. Making the diagnosis by artificial intelligence will provide relief in the field of medicine. Computer vision models may be used in medicine. Therefore, providing more data and testing data more broadly will help improve the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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11 pages, 5761 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
On the Role of Leaf Area Index Parameterization in Simulating the Terrestrial Carbon Fluxes of Africa Using a Regional Coupled Climate–Vegetation Model
by Samy A. Anwar and Yeonjoo Kim
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13839 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 766
Abstract
In this study, the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) coupled with the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM45) including a module of carbon–nitrogen cycling (CN) (RegCM4-CLM45-CN) was used to examine the sensitivity of the terrestrial carbon fluxes of Africa to leaf area [...] Read more.
In this study, the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) coupled with the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM45) including a module of carbon–nitrogen cycling (CN) (RegCM4-CLM45-CN) was used to examine the sensitivity of the terrestrial carbon fluxes of Africa to leaf area index (LAI) parameterization. Two LAI formulas were implemented in CLM45-CN. The new LAI formula is based on a modified BioGeochemical Cycles ecosystem model. The two simulations were designated as LAIorg and LAImod, respectively, they both shared the same initial and lateral boundary conditions, and they were evaluated concerning reanalysis products and FLUXNET measurements. In LAIorg, the above-ground terrestrial carbon fluxes were overestimated to the reanalysis products, which were also noted for the below-ground terrestrial fluxes. On the other hand, in LAImod, terrestrial carbon fluxes were notably decreased relative to LAIorg, and the model bias was reduced. In the in situ observation, LAImod was better matched to the observation than LAIorg, although both were limited in capturing the observed magnitude and seasonality of gross primary production (GPP) to some extent. In conclusion, switching between the two formulas has a substantial effect on the simulated terrestrial carbon fluxes. Despite noted biases, the regional coupled RegCM4-CLM4-CN-LAImod model can be recommended for future studies to investigate the influence of climate change on the terrestrial carbon fluxes of Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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4 pages, 190 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Clinical Applications of the Algorithm “Pipeline Advanced Contrast Enhancement (Pace)” in Dental Radiology
by Gabriele Cervino, Marco Cicciu, Luca Fiorillo and Giovanni Finocchio
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13759 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 650
Abstract
The Panoramic radiography is the result of a radiological technique that allows the reproduction of the dental arches and the support structures of a unique image. The clinical utility of panoramic radiography allows the overall assessment as well as the detection of structural [...] Read more.
The Panoramic radiography is the result of a radiological technique that allows the reproduction of the dental arches and the support structures of a unique image. The clinical utility of panoramic radiography allows the overall assessment as well as the detection of structural abnormalities and/or possibly relates to pathological lesions. The disadvantage of this technique is related to the lower quality of the images compared to endoral radiographs and TC scans but especially to the attempt to represent a three-dimensional, curved anatomic region on a two-dimensional plane. This inevitably leads to geometric distortions of shape, enlargements and overlaps that adversely affect the detection of any pathological entities. However, the most important advantage is the possibility of reducing patient exposure to ionizing rays. The aim of digital radiology is to improve the characteristics of radiological machinery (through increasingly innovative and sophisticated data processing software and hardware) in order to obtain high-quality images while reducing dosimetry and to reduce “disturbing elements” in radiological images. To overcome the limitations of the panoramic technique and to improve the quality of radiological images, and thus the effectiveness of diagnosis, image optimization software can be used. In this regard, a tool called Pipeline for Advanced Contrast Enhancement (PACE) is being developed: This is an algorithm that allows image quality to be improved by optimizing contrast and reducing brightness inhomogeneity, resulting in increased definition, making details more evident. The purpose of the proposed investigation is to evaluate if the application of the PACE algorithm in dental radiology could be an advantage because of the possibility of enhancing the quality of radiological images to make details of anatomical structures and related pathological lesions more obvious. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
7 pages, 1236 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Curing Characteristics of Urethane-Dimethacrylate Homopolymers and Their Composites for Potential Application in Bone Cement
by Marta W. Chrószcz-Porębska and Izabela M. Barszczewska-Rybarek
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13798 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 675
Abstract
The polymerization of methacrylate compositions used in bone cement is often accompanied by a strong exothermic effect. The polymerizing mass heats up to very high temperatures at the cement application site, irritating the adjacent tissues and even cell death. On the other hand, [...] Read more.
The polymerization of methacrylate compositions used in bone cement is often accompanied by a strong exothermic effect. The polymerizing mass heats up to very high temperatures at the cement application site, irritating the adjacent tissues and even cell death. On the other hand, a bone cement composition should have the optimal curing time, which should be long enough to allow for proper preparation of the cement and short enough to prevent leaking of the cement out of the restoration place. Therefore, new compositions are being sought to reduce the curing temperature of bone cement and maintain a sufficiently long curing time. Our proposal is based on using five homopolymers obtained by polymerizing urethane-dimethacrylates. These were composed of diisocyanate cores: toluene 2,4 diisocyanate (TDI), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), 4,4′-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate) (CHMDI), and di-, tri-, and tetraethylene glycol monomethacrylate wings (DEGMMA, TEGMMA, TTEGMMA, respectively). The following monomers were obtained: DEGMMA/CHMDI, TEGMMA/IPDI, TEGMMA/TDI, TEGMMA/CHMDI, and TTEGMMA/CHMDI. Neat homopolymers as well as their composites with barium sulfate and hydroxyapatite were tested for curing temperature and time. Almost all of the proposed systems were characterized by appropriate values of both parameters. The presence of fillers positively affected the studied parameters by lowering the polymerization temperature and time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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7 pages, 1862 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Electrode Modified with Manganese Dioxide Nanorods for the Simultaneous Voltammetric Determination of Food Colorants
by Liliya Gimadutdinova and Guzel Ziyatdinova
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13837 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Synthetic colorants, in particular tartrazine and brilliant blue FCF, are widely used in food chemistry and technology although they can give negative health effects of various severities. Therefore, sensitive, selective, simple, and reliable methods for the quantification of these dyes are required. A [...] Read more.
Synthetic colorants, in particular tartrazine and brilliant blue FCF, are widely used in food chemistry and technology although they can give negative health effects of various severities. Therefore, sensitive, selective, simple, and reliable methods for the quantification of these dyes are required. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with manganese dioxide nanorods (MnO2 NR) dispersed in cetylpyridinium bromide gives a sensitive response to tartrazine and brilliant blue FCF in mixtures. Electrode modification provides a 7.9-fold increase in the electroactive surface area and a 72-fold decrease in electron transfer resistance. Simultaneous voltammetric quantification of colorants was performed in phosphate buffer pH 7.0 in differential pulse mode. The linear dynamic ranges of 0.10–2.5 and 2.5–15 µM of tartrazine and 0.25–2.5 and 2.5–15 µM of brilliant blue FCF were obtained with the limits of detection of 43 and 41 nM, respectively. The advantage of the sensor developed is the high selectivity of response in the presence of typical interferences (inorganic ions, saccharides, ascorbic and sorbic acids) and other food colorants (riboflavin, indigo carmine, and sunset yellow). The practical applicability of the approach is shown in soft and isotonic sports drinks and is validated by comparison to chromatography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 1813 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Use of H2O2 for the Morphology Control of Silver Nanostructures
by Max T. A. Lima, Nayally R. S. Marques, Giovannia A. L. Pereira and Goreti Pereira
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13802 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 678
Abstract
Nanotechnology is a field that has advanced significantly in the last decades. Nanomaterials, as a result of their nanometric dimensions, exhibit unique properties that enhance their technological and biomedical applications. Metallic nanoparticles, like silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), have stood out due to their intrinsic [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology is a field that has advanced significantly in the last decades. Nanomaterials, as a result of their nanometric dimensions, exhibit unique properties that enhance their technological and biomedical applications. Metallic nanoparticles, like silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), have stood out due to their intrinsic properties, such as the localized surface plasmon resonance, which can be controlled by their size and shape. Thus, in this work, we have developed a practical synthetic procedure to obtain AgNPs with controlled morphology. AgNPs were prepared in water by the chemical reduction methodology, using different stabilizers under room temperature or with heating, and sodium borohydride as the reducing agent. The results obtained showed that the AgNPs were successfully prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the stabilizing agents. The AgNPs’ shape could be controlled by the absence or presence of H2O2, forming nanospheres or nanoprisms, respectively. The nanomaterials prepared exhibited colloidal stability with a negative surface charge, and TEM images confirmed their spherical and prismatic morphology. Furthermore, the results showed that the two synthesis conditions, room temperature and heating, afforded AgNPs in spherical and prismatic shapes; however, with temperature, the size distribution was lower. Thus, this methodology has the potential to be expanded to other stabilizing agents as a simple and practical method to prepare silver nanostructures with controlled morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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7 pages, 2019 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Air Quality and Influence of Etesians on Pollution Levels in the City of Rhodes: The Case of July 2022
by Ioannis Logothetis, Christina Antonopoulou, Georgios Zisopoulos, Adamantios Mitsotakis and Panagiotis Grammelis
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13782 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 752
Abstract
In July 2022, strong and high-frequency northern sector winds blew over the Aegean Sea. The low tropospheric circulation in combination with air quality and human comfort is of great importance for the climate and human health. This study investigates the variation in pollutants’ [...] Read more.
In July 2022, strong and high-frequency northern sector winds blew over the Aegean Sea. The low tropospheric circulation in combination with air quality and human comfort is of great importance for the climate and human health. This study investigates the variation in pollutants’ concentrations (PM10, NO2, O3 and SO2), meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction) and the discomfort index in the city of Rhodes during July 2022. Additionally, the impact of Etesians on pollution levels is studied. The strength of the Etesian flow is quantified by calculating a statistical index that takes the July pressure gradient (ΔP) over the Aegean Sea into consideration. For the analysis, pollutants’ concentration recordings from a mobile air-quality-monitoring system during July 2022 and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) data from ERA5 reanalysis during July for the period from 1980 to 2022 are analyzed. The results indicate that traffic affects the pollution level although the pollution limits, according to the European directive for air quality (2008/50/EC), are not exceeded. The findings also reveal an increase in ΔP, about 1.8 hPa, during 2022 compared to the period from 1980 to 2022 and the dipole of high (over Balkans) and low (over eastern Mediterranean) pressure centers also strengthens, leading to stronger winds over the Aegean Sea. The ΔP is strongly correlated (0.8) to the first principal component of MSLP over the eastern Mediterranean. Finally, this study shows that the Etesian flow tends to reduce the concentration of PM10, NO2 and O3, and improving the air quality in the city of Rhodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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7 pages, 2409 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Simulating the Surface Solar Irradiance of Africa Using a Regional Climate Model: Influence of Vegetation-Runoff Coupled System
by Samy A. Anwar
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13814 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 675
Abstract
Surface solar irradiance (SSI) is influenced by important factors such as total cloud cover and aerosols. However, the influence of vegetation-runoff coupled system on SSI has not been investigated yet. The present study aims to study this issue in tropical Africa within the [...] Read more.
Surface solar irradiance (SSI) is influenced by important factors such as total cloud cover and aerosols. However, the influence of vegetation-runoff coupled system on SSI has not been investigated yet. The present study aims to study this issue in tropical Africa within the framework of the regional climate model (RegCM4) using two runoff schemes: (TOPMODEL; TOP and Variable Infiltration Capacity; VIC). For the vegetation-runoff systems to be coupled, the Carbon-Nitrogen (CN) module was enabled. The two simulations were designated as: CN-TOP and CN-VIC. Furthermore, the RegCM4 was downscaled by NCEP/NCAR2 reanalysis for a duration of 13 years and evaluated with respect to a reliable reanalysis product. The results showed that the CN-VIC outperforms the CN-TOP in all seasons particularly during the summer season. For instance, the CN-VIC underestimates the SSI over the Northern Savannah region by 15 W m−2; while the CN-TOP underestimates the SSI by 30–50 W·m−2. Over different sub-regions, the CN-VIC performs better than the CN-TOP over Northern Savanna during the summer season and over the Congo basin during the winter season. Moreover, the four parameters of the VIC surface dataset need to be recalibrated with respect in-situ observation of tropical Africa, and additional sensitivity experiments are needed to ensure a better performance of the CN-VIC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 234 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Artificial Intelligence Implications in Engineering and Production
by Seemant Tiwari
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13823 - 07 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1219
Abstract
Humans have undergone technological innovation in their daily personal lives as a result of the invention of the computer, but, afterward, the web, as well as we, carry on living in a technologically advanced world. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a term that we [...] Read more.
Humans have undergone technological innovation in their daily personal lives as a result of the invention of the computer, but, afterward, the web, as well as we, carry on living in a technologically advanced world. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a term that we always keep hearing among computer scientists because we are all aware that it is a fast-expanding discipline in a multitude of areas. Numerous problems, including dynamic, unpredictable behaviors, and intricacy, are present in the architecture of research and production tools and procedures. Several research and engineering experts’ working methods have recently changed as a result of the development of larger datasets, fast processing speed, cloud technology, and artificial intelligence procedures. For researchers and producers, such techniques provide exhilarating, cutting-edge solutions to difficult problems. In contrast, artificial intelligence (AI) is a broad field. The availability of a wide range of concepts, strategies, and techniques makes it difficult to select the best AI approach for the correct technical or production industry and settings. Our examination of the works on numerous Automatic industrial claims and production through using suggested classification provided valuable understanding. Additionally, we identified plans for potential AI application investigation in the fields of engineering besides production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
6 pages, 990 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Reasons for High Adsorption Efficiencies in Lead Removal from Aquatic Solution
by Hakan Çelebi, Tolga Bahadir, İsmail Şimşek and Şevket Tulun
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13812 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 704
Abstract
Heavy metals are of great concern worldwide in terms of environmental pollution due to their effects, such as persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation, and toxicity for organisms. These pollutants in a non-biodegradable inorganic form are released into water, soil, and air from different [...] Read more.
Heavy metals are of great concern worldwide in terms of environmental pollution due to their effects, such as persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation, and toxicity for organisms. These pollutants in a non-biodegradable inorganic form are released into water, soil, and air from different industrial sectors Lead ions are also a toxic heavy metal in terms of human health and this pollutant is permanent in the ecosystem. Among the many treatment methods, adsorption is an inexpensive, eco-friendly, and efficient process for removing Pb ions from water contaminated with lead ions. The most important detail that draws attention both in our research of the literature and in our own studies is that very high removal efficiencies of lead ions can be obtained with many different inorganic and organic adsorbents. Such high removal efficiencies cannot be obtained for other heavy metals and metalloids. Therefore, this study aimed to reveal the difference in the adsorption process of lead. The physicochemical and biological properties of lead ions and the effects of specific properties, such as amphoteric structure, free electron, post-transition metal, and the low melting temperature, were investigated accordingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 437 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Olfactory Interfaces: Recent Trends and Challenges of E-Noses in Human–Computer Interaction
by Miguel A. Garcia-Ruiz, Pedro C. Santana-Mancilla and Laura S. Gaytan-Lugo
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13820 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1300
Abstract
An electronic nose (e-nose) is an electronic device composed of one or more odor sensors, a microcontroller, electronic components, and software that acquire and analyze a gas or volatile organic compound (VOC) present in an environment. E-noses attempt to identify the gas or [...] Read more.
An electronic nose (e-nose) is an electronic device composed of one or more odor sensors, a microcontroller, electronic components, and software that acquire and analyze a gas or volatile organic compound (VOC) present in an environment. E-noses attempt to identify the gas or VOC based on their chemical composition, sending electronic data about the detected odor signature to a computer, akin to an animal nose identifying odors and sending electrochemical signals to an animal brain. Then, the computer attempts to identify the perceived odor. E-noses have been used in human–computer interaction in specialized computing applications containing a user interface (UI) with a purpose: supporting its user to identify an odor and its properties and communicating information about the odor on the UI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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4 pages, 797 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Study of the Stabilizing Agent Influence in the Catalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Silver Nanoparticles
by Max T. A. Lima, Danilo M. M. Figueiredo, Nayally R. S. Marques, Giovannia A. L. Pereira and Goreti Pereira
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13854 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Inadequate treatment of industrial waste causes the contamination of rivers and seas, impacting human health and aquatic biodiversity. Among the pollutants are industrial dyes, such as methylene blue (MB), which is toxic in high doses and prevents solar radiation from penetrating the water’s [...] Read more.
Inadequate treatment of industrial waste causes the contamination of rivers and seas, impacting human health and aquatic biodiversity. Among the pollutants are industrial dyes, such as methylene blue (MB), which is toxic in high doses and prevents solar radiation from penetrating the water’s surface. To reduce water pollution, the organic dyes could be degraded, generating less harmful and colorless substances. The use of nanoparticles as catalysts has been gaining attention since they have excellent catalytic activity due to their high surface-to-volume ratio. Thus, this work aims to study the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to degrade MB. AgNPs were prepared in water using the chemical reduction strategy and four different organic stabilizers: sodium citrate, ascorbic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and poly(vinyl alcohol). The MB degradation in the presence of the AgNPs was monitored by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The results showed the formation of AgNPs with a spherical shape for all the stabilizers used. All the AgNPs prepared were efficient in the degradation of MB, having degraded more than 90%. However, the AgNPs stabilized with sodium citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone presented the best catalytic performance. Nevertheless, the four AgNPs prepared are potential catalysts for the degradation of organic dyes of wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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7 pages, 521 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Salt-Induced Recovery of Volatile Organic Acids Using Non-Ionic Surfactants
by Kristel M. Gatdula and Emmanuel D. Revellame
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13817 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 974
Abstract
Non-ionic surfactants are one of the most useful surfactants as they are the second largest group, produced by volume at about 35%. Due to their low toxicity, the demand for them is escalating due to an extensive use of these amphiphilic materials for [...] Read more.
Non-ionic surfactants are one of the most useful surfactants as they are the second largest group, produced by volume at about 35%. Due to their low toxicity, the demand for them is escalating due to an extensive use of these amphiphilic materials for an efficient, non-energy-requiring recovery of volatile organic acids (VOAs) from aqueous mixtures. This separation process is mainly due to the cloud point property of surfactants, which is referred to as the temperature of the system at which two phases are formed. One of the phases is micellar-rich and the other is micellar-poor. In these micelles, the surfactant molecules are oriented in such a way that the hydrophilic heads shield the hydrophobic tails from the other water molecules in the system. This assembly partitions the organic compounds within the interior of the micelles, which act as the pseudo-organic phase. This work elucidates how salting-out affects the cloud point of ethoxylated non-ionic surfactants, resulting in VOA separation. Studies suggest the sensitivity of the cloud point to the presence of electrolytes and its dependence on the parameters’ hydrophile–lipophile balance (HLB) and on the number of ethylene oxide (EON) units in the surfactant molecule. Electrolyte addition, in the form of salt, causes the dehydration of micelles as salt is a water-structure maker. The salt changes the solvent structure through aggregation and formation of larger micelles. This translates into a lipophilic shift, which reduces the cloud point and the surfactant’s HLB. As the HLB decreases, the more hydrophobic the surfactant becomes, resulting in better separation. The type of salt influences the characteristics of the interphase that separates the phases formed. Typically, polyvalent cations such as Al3+ and Ca2+ are more effective in decreasing the HLB than the monovalent cations (e.g., Na+ and K+) because of their higher surface charge densities. Since the surfactant’s HLB is dictated by its ethylene oxide component (i.e., HLB decreases with EON), it follows that non-ionic surfactants with a lower EON could achieve better separation in the presence of salt. Although the actual separation of VOAs could possibly be affected by other parameters (e.g., amount of added surfactant and salts and mass transfer rates), the response of surfactant’s properties (i.e., cloud point, HLB, and EON) to salt addition could be utilized to establish an enhanced VOAs extraction from aqueous systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 761 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Influence of the Characterization Methodology on the Repair Performance of Self-Healing Materials
by Javier Gómez Sánchez, Alberto Jiménez Suárez, Xoan Xosé Fernández Sánchez-Romate and Silvia González Prolongo
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13799 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 717
Abstract
The repair performance of the so-called self-healing polymer systems has been extensively studied in recent works. However, the characterization methodology carried out to analyze the repair performance of these materials has not been widely discussed. Herein, a study of the influence of the [...] Read more.
The repair performance of the so-called self-healing polymer systems has been extensively studied in recent works. However, the characterization methodology carried out to analyze the repair performance of these materials has not been widely discussed. Herein, a study of the influence of the characterization parameters on the self-healing capabilities of a 2-Aminophenyl disulfide (AFD)/epoxy system via convective heating is carried out. Results show a decrease in the self-healing efficiency proportional to the damage depth. Finally, increasing the healing temperature and time does not significantly affect the repair performance, obtaining similar self-healing efficiency values (>>95%) in all cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 1702 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
MIP-Based Screen-Printed Electrode for Irbesartan Sensing
by Riccardo Rovida, Camilla Zanoni, Giancarla Alberti, Lisa Rita Magnaghi and Raffaela Biesuz
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13836 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 769
Abstract
In this study, the development of an MIP-based electrode for voltammetric detection of irbesartan is presented. Irbesartan is a drug prescribed to treat hypertension and high blood pressure. Recent studies associated sartans with several forms of cancer, making removing this class of substances [...] Read more.
In this study, the development of an MIP-based electrode for voltammetric detection of irbesartan is presented. Irbesartan is a drug prescribed to treat hypertension and high blood pressure. Recent studies associated sartans with several forms of cancer, making removing this class of substances from the environment a high priority, and the EU has categorized it as an emerging pollutant. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have already been used to remove pollutants from complex matrixes; hence, they were also chosen for this work. In particular, a polymer based on polyacrylate moiety was used to functionalize the graphite working electrode of screen-printed cells (SPCs), aiming to develop a voltammetric method for Irbesartan sensing. The prepolymeric mixture was drop-coated on the working electrode. The electrochemical technique used to quantify irbesartan is the square wave voltammetry (SWV); the experiments were carried out in acetate buffer at pH 5.5. A detection limit of 19 μg/L was obtained, and the linearity ranged from 31 μg/L to 432 μg/L. The procedure was replicated with different SPCs obtaining similar results, highlighting good reproducibility. The electrodes were also applied to determine irbesartan in fortified tap water samples, obtaining high recovery percentages. Considering the good results, the electrochemical methods based on MIP-functionalized screen-printed electrodes are promising for quantifying irbesartan at a trace level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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4 pages, 2932 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Directional Hemispherical Reflectance as a Quick Method for Analysis of Degradation Processes in Commercial Effervescent Tablets
by Beata Sarecka-Hujar, Michał Meisner, Beata Szulc-Musioł and Piotr Duda
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13768 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 599
Abstract
In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the total directional hemispherical reflectance (THR) in expired and unexpired effervescent tablets. Expired tablets were stored in ambient conditions. The THR was measured using a SOC-410 Directional Hemispherical Reflectometer (Surface Optics Corporation, San Diego, CA, [...] Read more.
In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the total directional hemispherical reflectance (THR) in expired and unexpired effervescent tablets. Expired tablets were stored in ambient conditions. The THR was measured using a SOC-410 Directional Hemispherical Reflectometer (Surface Optics Corporation, San Diego, CA, USA) in seven wavelength bands from ultraviolet, through visible, to near-infrared light. Significantly higher values of THR for the ranges of 700–1100 nm and 1700–2500 nm were observed for expired tablets than for unexpired tablets (p < 0.001). The measurement of THR may be a rapid method to detect adverse physicochemical changes in effervescent tablets and can be used for a further detailed evaluation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and related degradation products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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5 pages, 731 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Electrospun Poly(Lactic Acid)-Chitosan Nanofibers for Wound Healing Application
by Katarina Virijević, Bojana Marković, Jelena Grujić, Milena Jovanović, Nikolina Kastratović, Marko Živanović, Dalibor Nikolić and Nenad Filipović
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13785 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 763
Abstract
Electrospun polymer-based nanofibers are of increasing interest in contemporary applied biomedicine. The challenge regarding modern surgery and tissue engineering is to discover a variety of manufactured scaffolds with improved properties that can replace and regenerate damaged skin and organs. The unique properties of [...] Read more.
Electrospun polymer-based nanofibers are of increasing interest in contemporary applied biomedicine. The challenge regarding modern surgery and tissue engineering is to discover a variety of manufactured scaffolds with improved properties that can replace and regenerate damaged skin and organs. The unique properties of polymer nanofibers, such as submicron and nanoscale diameters, large surface area, flexibility, etc., make them attractive objects for a wide range of applications. In this study, a combination of chitosan as a natural polymer and poly(lactic) acid as a synthetic polymer is studied with the aim of improving and accelerating the healing of skin wounds. Chitosan (Chi) is one of the most promising polymers for scaffold design, due to its high biodegradability, non-toxic, and antibacterial properties. On the other hand, poly(lactic) acid (PLA) possesses enhanced electrospinability potential and desirable mechanical strength. Therefore, the combination of Chi and PLA enhances the mutually superior properties of both. After optimizing the process parameters, imaging, and determining the diameter of the nanofibers, the scaffold potential for wound healing was investigated by in vitro scratch test on a healthy fibroblast cell line. The study concludes that ultrafine Chi:PLA nanofiber scaffolds have significant potential to regenerate and restore damaged tissue under in vitro conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 433 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Valorization of Food Waste Leachates through Anaerobic Digestion
by Ioannis Kontodimos, Chrysovalantis Ketikidis and Panagiotis Grammelis
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13831 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 914
Abstract
According to the European Union data, on average 173 kg per person of total food waste (organic waste) is produced annually, of which 92 kg per person comes from households (organic waste). Food waste is defined as the waste from households, restaurants, canteens, [...] Read more.
According to the European Union data, on average 173 kg per person of total food waste (organic waste) is produced annually, of which 92 kg per person comes from households (organic waste). Food waste is defined as the waste from households, restaurants, canteens, and food industries, as well as markets. The importance of food waste stretches from the environmental pressures to the economic and social impacts. An environmental technology for the biodegradation of food waste is anaerobic digestion. It is a very attractive technique and combines waste treatment and renewable energy recovery. This study investigates the characteristics of food waste leachates from composting buckets and their valorization as a substrate for the anaerobic digestion process. A complete characterization of different food waste leachates was conducted (pH, COD, VFAs, heavy metals, etc.). The food waste leachates proved to be an ideal feedstock for anaerobic digestion. In this direction, batch tests were performed to evaluate the methane yield of the food waste leachates under different operating conditions. Three different SIR ratios were tested (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5). An SIR equal to 0.5 proved to be the best as the higher methane yield was achieved. The removal of the COD under all the operating conditions was higher than 70%, with the higher removal (85.18%) for an SIR equal to 1.5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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5 pages, 2802 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Nanoscopic Roughness Characterization of Chitosan with Buried Graphene Oxide for Fuel Cell Application
by Ahmed Kreta, Egon Pavlica, Mojca Božič and Gvido Bratina
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13819 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 684
Abstract
The combination of ecologically acceptable polysaccharide (chitosan) and graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles was used to produce the cell membrane for a direct alkaline ethanol fuel cell (DAEFC). Due to its great power efficiency and minimal influence on the environment, this kind of fuel [...] Read more.
The combination of ecologically acceptable polysaccharide (chitosan) and graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles was used to produce the cell membrane for a direct alkaline ethanol fuel cell (DAEFC). Due to its great power efficiency and minimal influence on the environment, this kind of fuel cell has a lot of potential uses. Recently, the performance of polymer-based DAEFC was significantly improved by the use of graphene. Since the roughness plays an important role in the charge transfer, herein we present our study of the change in the roughness of GO-blended chitosan using different preparation methods and different concentrations of GO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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5 pages, 2091 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An In Situ AFM Study of Electrochemical Bismuth Film Deposition on a Glassy Carbon Substrate Electrode Using a Low Concentration of Bismuth Ions
by Ahmed Kreta and Samo B. Hočevar
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13818 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
The bismuth film electrode (BiFE), which was first introduced in 2000 for electrochemical stripping analysis, is now widely used in electroanalytical laboratories worldwide. Numerous scientists have been inspired to conduct more research and broaden the understanding of the BiFE’s favourable electroanalytical performance, which [...] Read more.
The bismuth film electrode (BiFE), which was first introduced in 2000 for electrochemical stripping analysis, is now widely used in electroanalytical laboratories worldwide. Numerous scientists have been inspired to conduct more research and broaden the understanding of the BiFE’s favourable electroanalytical performance, which is comparable to, or in some cases even exceeds, that of its mercury counterparts for the detection of heavy metal ions and selected organic compounds. Various types of bismuth-based paste electrodes, as well as in-situ and ex-situ prepared BiFE, have been presented in combination with potentiometric and voltammetric (stripping) protocols. Whereas the ex situ prepared electrodes must be moved from the modification solution to the measuring cell device and often need to display improved stability for several measurements, the ex-situ-prepared bismuth films require acceptable physical and chemical stability. In this study, we provided insight into the commencement of the formation of the bismuth film on a glassy carbon substrate electrode (GCE) when using a very low concentration of bismuth ions. We used our home-constructed AFM cell to fit in commercial working GCE, a platinum wire as the counter electrode, and an Ag/AgCl/NaCl (3 M) as the reference electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 595 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Multicriteria Model for Organizational Green Information Technology Maturity Assessment and Benchmarking: Defining a Class Structure
by Victor Diogho Heuer de Carvalho, Thiago Poleto, Salvatore Verde and Thyago Celso Cavalcante Nepomuceno
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13841 - 09 Nov 2022
Viewed by 758
Abstract
Assessing Green Information Technology (IT) maturity in organizations is a relevant process to measure the progress of sustainable IT initiatives and to support new actions to improve them. Knowledge about the organizational maturity level in Green IT and comparing this level with those [...] Read more.
Assessing Green Information Technology (IT) maturity in organizations is a relevant process to measure the progress of sustainable IT initiatives and to support new actions to improve them. Knowledge about the organizational maturity level in Green IT and comparing this level with those of other companies are necessary for self-assessment to strengthen organizations’ general sustainability strategy. The main objective of this paper is to communicate a Green IT maturity assessment model with its class structure. This model can also provide benchmarking regarding organizations’ maturity since its fundamental premise is a pairwise comparison between companies to obtain their classification. Based on a literature search to identify the existing maturity models, the CMMI model was selected since it is the most recurrent in the literature on managing organizational Green IT actions. The classification process using CMMI maturity levels as classes is based on the ELECTRE IV multicriteria decision support method, which was developed to work specifically with classification problems. The results include the companies’ allocation into the most appropriate classes, considering well-defined criteria set with their weights, the class boundaries according to numerical parameters such as lower and upper limits for each of them, and data collected on companies under consideration for the assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 2338 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Electronic Structures and Photovoltaic Properties of Copper-, Sodium- and Ethylammonium-Added CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Compound
by Riku Okumura, Takeo Oku, Atsushi Suzuki, Masanobu Okita, Sakiko Fukunishi, Tomoharu Tachikawa and Tomoya Hasegawa
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13778 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Copper, alkali metals, and organic cations were added to perovskite precursor solutions to enhance the photovoltaic conversion properties and durability of perovskite solar cells. Device properties were improved by the co-addition of copper and sodium. The enhancement of open-circuit voltage by bromine substitution [...] Read more.
Copper, alkali metals, and organic cations were added to perovskite precursor solutions to enhance the photovoltaic conversion properties and durability of perovskite solar cells. Device properties were improved by the co-addition of copper and sodium. The enhancement of open-circuit voltage by bromine substitution also contributed to the improvement of conversion efficiency. First-principles calculations indicated that the energy levels derived from the Cu d orbital would function as an acceptor level. While the conversion efficiency of the device increased, the durability of the device decreased. Considering the results of the first-principles calculation, the decrease in device durability was attributed to the instability of the crystal structure due to the Cu and sodium substitutions. To enhance the crystal stability, ethylammonium was introduced as a stable organic cation, and the addition of ethylammonium to the perovskite precursor solution significantly enhanced the device’s durability while maintaining conversion efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 536 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of Methanotroph Populations from Various Sources for Production of High-Value Products
by Lisa Stephanie H. Dizon, Robert S. Bertrand, William E. Holmes, Rafael A. Hernandez, Dhan Lord B. Fortela, Andre Chistoserdov, Mark E. Zappi and Emmanuel D. Revellame
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13953 - 05 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1219
Abstract
Methanotrophs are bacteria that can consume methane as their sole carbon and energy source to produce a wide variety of high-value products such as lipids, biopolymers, ectoine, and single cell proteins (SCPs). Collected samples from various sources were subjected to DNA extraction followed [...] Read more.
Methanotrophs are bacteria that can consume methane as their sole carbon and energy source to produce a wide variety of high-value products such as lipids, biopolymers, ectoine, and single cell proteins (SCPs). Collected samples from various sources were subjected to DNA extraction followed by 16S rRNA analysis to determine the identity and relative abundance of their microbial population. Several taxa of methanotrophs were detected in the samples including Type I (Methylobacter), Type X (Methylocaldum), Type II (Methylocystis, Methylosinus, and Beijerinckia), and Type III (Verrucomicrobium). This paper expounds the effects of environmental/cultivation conditions on the growth and population of different types of methanotrophs. The results could be used to systematically identify source(s) of natural consortia that can be enriched and developed to produce specific target product(s) under a given cultivation conditions/limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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5 pages, 754 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of the Addition of Copper Chloride and Potassium Iodide to Methylammonium-Based Perovskite Solar Cells
by Ayu Enomoto, Atsushi Suzuki, Takeo Oku, Masanobu Okita, Sakiko Fukunishi, Tomoharu Tachikawa and Tomoya Hasegawa
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13885 - 21 Dec 2022
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells have the advantage of being able to implement a high conversion efficiency, easy fabrication process and low cost to commercial products of photovoltaic devices. The perovskite solar cells have a photovoltaic performance with reduced durability due to the [...] Read more.
Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells have the advantage of being able to implement a high conversion efficiency, easy fabrication process and low cost to commercial products of photovoltaic devices. The perovskite solar cells have a photovoltaic performance with reduced durability due to the volatility of organic cations and toxic lead in the perovskite crystal as an active layer. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of additives such as cupper chloride and potassium iodide in the perovskite crystal on the photovoltaic properties and electronic structure. The distribution of 3d orbital of cupper ion conjugated with 5p orbital of iodine ion at the valence band, and 6p orbital of lead ion at the conduction band, influences the charge generation and transfer, as well as the carrier mobility with a narrowing band gap. The addition of potassium iodide delocalizes the charge distribution near the cupper, iodide, and lead ions, which promotes the charge generation and carrier diffusion, yielding an increase in the short circuit current density relating to the conversion efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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7 pages, 2979 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of Cesium/Formamidinium Co-Addition to Perovskite Solar Cells
by Ren Nonomura, Takeo Oku, Iori Ono, Atsushi Suzuki, Masanobu Okita, Sakiko Fukunishi, Tomoharu Tachikawa and Tomoya Hasegawa
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13789 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 827
Abstract
In this study, the stabilities and conversion efficiencies of perovskite solar cells including cesium (Cs) or formamidinium (FA) at the CH₃NH₃ site were investigated. The additive effects on the photovoltaic properties and crystalline structures were investigated via current–voltage measurements, X-ray diffraction, and scanning [...] Read more.
In this study, the stabilities and conversion efficiencies of perovskite solar cells including cesium (Cs) or formamidinium (FA) at the CH₃NH₃ site were investigated. The additive effects on the photovoltaic properties and crystalline structures were investigated via current–voltage measurements, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The simultaneous co-addition of Cs and FA to the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite crystal improved the photovoltaic properties, which may be due to the suppression of the decomposition of the perovskite crystals and the promotion of crystal growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 1438 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Composite Materials Based on Calcium Polyphosphate, PVA and Mg2+ for Bone Applications
by Joalen P. Monte, Beate S. Santos, Giovannia A. L. Pereira and Goreti Pereira
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13761 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Polyphosphate (PP) is an inorganic polymer formed by the condensation of orthophosphate groups and represented by the formula [PO3−]n. Due to its properties, such as biocompatibility and low toxicity, polyphosphate presents itself as a biomimetic compound of hydroxyapatite, the [...] Read more.
Polyphosphate (PP) is an inorganic polymer formed by the condensation of orthophosphate groups and represented by the formula [PO3−]n. Due to its properties, such as biocompatibility and low toxicity, polyphosphate presents itself as a biomimetic compound of hydroxyapatite, the main constituent of bone tissue. PP can be applied for bone tissue applications as a ceramic material in the form of calcium polyphosphate (CPP), due to its chemical similarity with hydroxyapatite. Thus, CPP has been used to develop scaffolds for bone tissue repair. However, CPP does not have adequate mechanical properties for application in bone, requiring the use of substances that add other properties to the material, such as resistance to compression and tension. For this, polymers, ions, and nanoparticles have been used as additives. In this context, this work presents the development of composite materials based on CPP, PVA, and Mg2+ as candidates for bone applications. The production of materials was based on the precipitation of CPP in an aqueous medium containing a pre-solubilized polymer, followed by the addition of Mg2+. The materials were characterized by TGA, SEM, EDS, and Raman. The results confirmed the formation of the composites, presenting a porous structure and containing a Ca/P ratio of 0.90. Thus, these composites have the potential to be applied in bone regeneration applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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5 pages, 1509 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Spectral Properties of Tunable Privacy Window Films Made of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystals
by Lucas Roosli, Adrian Parnell, Sergio Guevara, Colin Caruth and Yuriy Garbovskiy
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13776 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 988
Abstract
Modern applications of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC) made of liquid crystal droplets dispersed in polymer matrices continue to grow in popularity. They include privacy and smart windows, flexible diffusers, advanced displays, energy storage, and energy harvesting devices, to name a few. An electrically [...] Read more.
Modern applications of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC) made of liquid crystal droplets dispersed in polymer matrices continue to grow in popularity. They include privacy and smart windows, flexible diffusers, advanced displays, energy storage, and energy harvesting devices, to name a few. An electrically controlled switching between opaque and transparent states of PDLC films enables their numerous applications. An applied electric field reorients an average director of a liquid crystal droplet resulting in a gradual transition from an opaque to a transparent state. A fully transparent state is observed if the refractive index matching is achieved. As a rule, electro-optical characterization of polymer dispersed liquid crystals is performed using a laser. As a result, basic physical parameters such as switching times, contrast ratio, and transmittance are obtained for a single wavelength of light. Even though the spectral dependence of electro-optical properties of PDLC films was mentioned in several papers, systematic studies reporting the dependence of contrast ratio, transmittance, and switching curves of PDLC films on the wavelength of light are still missing. In this paper, electrically controlled spectral properties of PDLC films are reported. The obtained dependence of the contrast ratio and transmittance on the wavelength of light can be used for the optimization of electro-optical performance of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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5 pages, 1015 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of Guanidinium and Cesium Addition to CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Photovoltaic Devices
by Takeo Oku, Iori Ono, Shoma Uchiya, Atsushi Suzuki, Masanobu Okita, Sakiko Fukunishi, Tomoharu Tachikawa and Tomoya Hasegawa
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13769 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 743
Abstract
CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite compounds are unstable in air due to the migration of CH3NH3. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the effects of addition of guanidinium C(NH2)3 (GA) and [...] Read more.
CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite compounds are unstable in air due to the migration of CH3NH3. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the effects of addition of guanidinium C(NH2)3 (GA) and cesium (Cs) on CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. The addition of GA/Cs and the insertion of decaphenylpentasilane between the perovskite and hole transport layer improved the external quantum efficiency and short-circuit current density, and the conversion efficiencies were stable. First-principles calculations on the density of states and band structures showed reduction in the total energy by the GA addition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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8 pages, 1447 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Weatherability of Bio-Based versus Fossil-Based Polyurethane Coatings
by Pieter Samyn, Joey Bosmans and Patrick Cosemans
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13797 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1207
Abstract
The use of bio-based feedstock for the formulation of protective coatings has been implemented in the increased industrial supply of building blocks synthesized from biomass. The alternation of traditional polyurethane coatings by bio-based polyurethanes has focused on the replacement of the polyisocyanate component [...] Read more.
The use of bio-based feedstock for the formulation of protective coatings has been implemented in the increased industrial supply of building blocks synthesized from biomass. The alternation of traditional polyurethane coatings by bio-based polyurethanes has focused on the replacement of the polyisocyanate component in combination with polyester or polyacrylate polyols. In this research, the performance of an aliphatic isocyanate synthesized from crude oil (i.e., HDI, or hexamethylenediisocyanate) has been compared to an alternative hardener synthesized through fermentation of biomass (i.e., PDI, or pentamethylenediisocyante). As the chemical structure of the bio-based PDI is slightly different, with an aliphatic chain of five compared to six carbon atoms, an almost similar or better performance as a protective coating is demonstrated. The application of bio-based PU coatings resulted in lower drying times and higher hardness with similar gloss, chemical resistance and mechanical resistance. In particular, the resistance of bio-based coatings after QUV accelerated weathering testing was improved owing to the better hydrophobicity of the bio-based PDI hardener. There was a gradual trend in evolution of the performance with stepwise replacement of fossil-based with bio-based content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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7 pages, 1265 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Review on the Recent Developments in Passive Plasma Separators and Lab-on-Chip Microfluidic Devices
by Shamima Khatoon and Gufran Ahmad
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13796 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
To ensure the country’s sustainable health recovery, viruses like COVID-19 need faster detection and sampling than the rate at which they spread. Blood plasma has proven to be an important and better clinical sample for the detection and diagnosis of various medical conditions [...] Read more.
To ensure the country’s sustainable health recovery, viruses like COVID-19 need faster detection and sampling than the rate at which they spread. Blood plasma has proven to be an important and better clinical sample for the detection and diagnosis of various medical conditions as compared to whole blood. For in situ and in vivo health monitoring, plasma can be easily processed through microfluidic Lab-on-Chip (LOC) devices without the clotting that shortens the turnaround time and using minimum amounts of sample and reagents. The present review discusses the key properties of blood plasma as a perfect sample for the microfluidic LOC devices and the importance of passive plasma separators within any kind of LOC device as an embedded unit. The passive LOC plasma separators offer rapid extraction without external forces in the form of a miniaturized automated unit. This article compares various plasma separators on the basis of plasma extraction efficiency, fabrication techniques, and separation science utilized for hemolysis-free extraction. Recent developments in the area of passive bioseparators based on microfiltration and self-driven hydrodynamic and flow-cytometric approaches are discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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7 pages, 2855 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
In Vitro Response of Dental Stem Cells on Decellularized Extracellular Matrix-Derived Hydrogels
by Alexandra B. dos Santos, Cláudia L. da Silva and Marta S. Carvalho
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13832 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 643
Abstract
Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that damages the tissues supporting the tooth. Hydrogels are suitable candidates for periodontal regeneration due to their capacity to interact with soft and hard tissues and to conform to the 3D defect through minimal invasion procedures. Cell-derived [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that damages the tissues supporting the tooth. Hydrogels are suitable candidates for periodontal regeneration due to their capacity to interact with soft and hard tissues and to conform to the 3D defect through minimal invasion procedures. Cell-derived decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) can recreate cellular niches and model cellular function. In this work, collagen hydrogels were developed by incorporating lyophilized cell-derived dECM and their effects on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of dental stem cells were evaluated. Overall, our results confirmed the beneficial effect of dECM-derived hydrogels in proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of dental stem cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 1163 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
CO2 Absorption Using Potassium Carbonate as Solvent
by Dimitra Karali, Konstantina Peloriadi, Nikolaos Margaritis and Panagiotis Grammelis
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13824 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 3658
Abstract
One of the main sources of global warming is greenhouse gasses; the most important of which is carbon dioxide. Reducing CO2 emissions, and its utilization or storage, is a global challenge to tackle climate change. In this work, the operating conditions of [...] Read more.
One of the main sources of global warming is greenhouse gasses; the most important of which is carbon dioxide. Reducing CO2 emissions, and its utilization or storage, is a global challenge to tackle climate change. In this work, the operating conditions of the pilot CO2 capture unit are studied using the ASPEN PLUS® software. This study describes the methodology of the simulations and the main results. The unit consists of one scrubber and one stripper. For carbon dioxide absorption from gas streams, the aqueous solvent K2CO3 is used. The effect on the absorption of CO2, and regeneration of carbon dioxide and potassium carbonate were studied by varying parameters of pressure, temperature, and concentration of solvent. For each parameter, three values were evaluated with the following ranges: pressure 0.3–1 bar; temperature 80–100 °C; and concentration of potassium carbonate 15–25 wt%. The optimum operating conditions of the pilot unit are pressure of 0.3 bar, stripper temperature of 100 °C, and solvent concentration of 15 wt%. Under these conditions, 99.91% CO2 capture and 85.46% CO2 regeneration were achieved. The present research aims to find the optimal operating parameters of the pilot plant to validate the model with the experimental data. In this way, the model parameterization can be used to design large-scale CO2 capture units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 3738 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Influence of Printing Parameters on the Dimensional Accuracy of Concave/Convex Objects in FDM Printing
by Burhan Ekinci and Andrea Ehrmann
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13811 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
Three-dimensional printing belongs to the emerging technologies of our time. An important aspect regarding the potential applications of 3D-printed objects is their dimensional accuracy. Especially in the case of the most often used fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique, dimensional differences between the digital [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional printing belongs to the emerging technologies of our time. An important aspect regarding the potential applications of 3D-printed objects is their dimensional accuracy. Especially in the case of the most often used fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique, dimensional differences between the digital model and the printed object are common and depend not only on the printer’s accuracy, but also on the printing parameters as well as the chosen material. Here, we report on the dimensional accuracy of FDM-printed objects with sharp inner or outer corners, dependent on the printing parameters. We show that different adhesion assistants lead to a variation in the dimensional accuracy and that this can be used to optimize this parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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7 pages, 2068 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effective Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in an Acidic Environment Using an Aqueous Extract of Macadamia Nut Green Peel Biowaste
by Alinanuswe J. Mwakalesi and Magori Nyangi
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13804 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1208
Abstract
Improving the corrosion resistance of mild steel in an acidic aqueous environment is an important industrial consideration due to the use of acids for descaling and cleaning. The application of corrosion inhibitors is one of the most effective and economical means of protecting [...] Read more.
Improving the corrosion resistance of mild steel in an acidic aqueous environment is an important industrial consideration due to the use of acids for descaling and cleaning. The application of corrosion inhibitors is one of the most effective and economical means of protecting metals against corrosion. Plant-derived compounds have recently gained attention due to their low cost, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly properties. Biowastes are recognized as a potential cheap source of green corrosion inhibitors, and their use can help to lower the costs associated with corrosion inhibitors. Green peel biowaste (GPBW) generated from macadamia nut processing is typically dumped into the environment, posing a disposal concern. The use of the waste as a potential source of organic compounds with green chemistry attributes for mild steel corrosion inhibition in an acidic solution was proposed in this study. The gasometric and optical methods were used to carry out the investigations. Results showed that mild steel corrosion rates decreased as extract concentrations increased. As a result, mild steel corrosion inhibition increased with increasing inhibitor concentration and reached a peak value of 81% at 0.5 g/L extract concentration. The optical images showed that the inhibitor molecules adsorbed on the metal surface to form a protective film that isolated the mild steel from the corrosive solution. The adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the mild steel surface followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, indicating the formation of a monolayer film with a homogeneous distribution of adsorbed molecules. A Gibbs free energy (G°ads) of 24 kJ/mol indicated the inhibition process was mainly characterized by physical adsorption. The results of this study suggest that aqueous GPBW extract could serve as an inexpensive, non-toxic, and renewable corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in acidic solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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7 pages, 1625 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Polymer/Activated Charcoal-Coated Magnetite for the Adsorptive Removal of Emerging Contaminants: Stepwise Synthesis via Two Sequential Routes
by Hebatullah H. Farghal, Marianne Nebsen and Mayyada M. H. El-Sayed
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13858 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 729
Abstract
Emerging contaminants pose great health risks to humans and living organisms, even when released at minute concentrations over prolonged exposure times. In this work, we fabricate nanocomposites based on activated charcoal-coated magnetite by incorporating the biopolymers of xylan or pectin into their structure. [...] Read more.
Emerging contaminants pose great health risks to humans and living organisms, even when released at minute concentrations over prolonged exposure times. In this work, we fabricate nanocomposites based on activated charcoal-coated magnetite by incorporating the biopolymers of xylan or pectin into their structure. Two synthesis routes which differ in their sequential steps were investigated. It was demonstrated that the synthesis route affects the morphology, textural properties, and chemical structure of the nanocomposites, as confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, and Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) measurements, respectively. Hence, in turn, it influences the performance of the nanocomposites in their adsorptive removal for the emerging contaminants of Fluoxetine and Famotidine, whose presence in wastewater have been confirmed in several studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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7 pages, 2598 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Influence of Agricultural Activity on the Surface Climate of New Delta of Egypt Using the RegCM4
by Amani H. Ali, Zeinab Salah, Samy Ashraf Anwar and Ashraf Saber Zakey
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13763 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 743
Abstract
Land-use changes (e.g., transition from desert to crop) can induce considerable influence on the surface climate and terrestrial water cycle (represented by potential evapotranspiration; PET). Additionally, regional climate models (e.g., RegCM4) can be useful tools for exploring regional changes associated with land-use. In [...] Read more.
Land-use changes (e.g., transition from desert to crop) can induce considerable influence on the surface climate and terrestrial water cycle (represented by potential evapotranspiration; PET). Additionally, regional climate models (e.g., RegCM4) can be useful tools for exploring regional changes associated with land-use. In the present, the influence of a cropped area (of the New Delta of Egypt) on the temperature extremes (Tmax and Tmin), and potential evapotranspiration (PET) was examined using a regional climate model (RegCM4). The MPI-ESM-MR was used as atmospheric forcing to drive the RegCM4 over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) with 50 km grid spacing and then nested over Egypt with 20 km grid spacing. To consider the effect of the cropped area, two experiments were conducted: the first one is occupied with desert (CTRL) and the other one considers the cropped area (EXP). The two experiments were integrated from 1980 to 2100 considering the moderate future scenario representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP45). The results showed that the cropped area induces a reduction in both Tmax and Tmin (by 0.5–2 °C) as well as a reduction in PET (by 5 mm month−1). In summary, RegCM4 can be considered a useful tool to examine the possible effects associated with cropped areas. Additionally, considering other atmospheric forcing is important in order to account for the uncertainty associated with the lateral boundary condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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7 pages, 505 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
iFogSim Simulations on IoT Computational Alternatives
by Romolo Paesani, Gaetanino Paolone, Paolino Di Felice, Danilo Iachetti and Martina Marinelli
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13857 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 824
Abstract
This study proposes the adoption of the IoT technology for the home monitoring of the health status of frail patients. Such a solution is thought to be part of the forthcoming Italian COT; the latter is an organizational model which is devoted to [...] Read more.
This study proposes the adoption of the IoT technology for the home monitoring of the health status of frail patients. Such a solution is thought to be part of the forthcoming Italian COT; the latter is an organizational model which is devoted to integrate the current national healthcare network. The prevalent deployment model of IoT systems is the Cloud, which offers powerful services and unlimited storage/computing capacity on-demand; unfortunately, connecting smart devices to the Cloud poses severe issues. First of all, connected devices create large volumes of data, which will drive inevitably to performance and network congestion challenges. Secondly, there are security, bandwidth, and reliability concerns that make the Cloud-only solution not suitable for all the potential real-world applications. The Fog computing paradigm has been introduced to bridge the gap between the Cloud and IoT devices. This paper gives a twofold contribution: (a) a Cloud–Fog architecture is proposed using a three-tiers solution where the Fog computing layer constitutes the middle tier; (b) simulations have been carried out in order to compare Cloud–Fog computing as an alternative to the Cloud-only solution. The experimental results demonstrate a remarkable degradation of the latency in the first solution with respect to the second one. The measured benefit indicates that the best way to implement the COTs consists in placing inside them the fog layer mentioned above. The iFogSim open-source toolkit has been used to carry out the experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 2072 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Precursor as an Innovative Herpes Simplex Virus Vector for Melanoma Therapy
by Fangqin Fu, Wenhao Wang, Yukun Gu, Zhengwei Huang, Ying Huang, Xin Pan and Chuanbin Wu
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13754 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 806
Abstract
To overcome the low-efficiency toxic side effects and high recurrence of traditional therapy for malignant melanoma, an in situ gel system, HSV-LLCP, was developed as a local treatment for malignant melanoma in this study. This system was based on a lyotropic liquid crystal [...] Read more.
To overcome the low-efficiency toxic side effects and high recurrence of traditional therapy for malignant melanoma, an in situ gel system, HSV-LLCP, was developed as a local treatment for malignant melanoma in this study. This system was based on a lyotropic liquid crystal precursor (LLCP) loading with oncolytic virus herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). With the unique lattice structure, HSV-LLCP, which could enhance the stability of HSV-1 and arrest HSV-1 at the injection site. The performance of LLCP as a virus vector was evaluated comprehensively. The HSV-LLCP showed a rapid gelling property (within 2 s) and the shear viscosity ranged from 5 to 9 mPa·s. The result also revealed the outstanding stability of HSV-LLCP. The release behavior showed a triphasic sustained-release pattern during the experiment period. In addition, HSV-LLCP exhibited a superior oncolytic activity compared to the HSV-1 solution in murine melanoma B16 cells. This study showed that HSV-LLCP would become an alternative and promising HSV-1 vector with high safety and stability for melanoma treatment in the clinic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 988 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis of Doped Sol-Gel Glasses as Adsorbents for Water Treatment
by Hayam F. Mohamed, Shahinaz Emam, Mayyada M. H. El-Sayed and Boshra M. Awad
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13838 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Doped sol-gel glasses of thiourea (THU), urea (U), n-propoylamine (PA), iso-propylamine (IPA), and 2-methoxyaniline (AN) were prepared and treated by two methods, thermal and microwave (MW) irradiation. The optical properties and particle sizes of the as-synthesized doped sol-gels and plain sol-gel (P) were [...] Read more.
Doped sol-gel glasses of thiourea (THU), urea (U), n-propoylamine (PA), iso-propylamine (IPA), and 2-methoxyaniline (AN) were prepared and treated by two methods, thermal and microwave (MW) irradiation. The optical properties and particle sizes of the as-synthesized doped sol-gels and plain sol-gel (P) were measured. The sol-gels were then tested for their capacity to adsorb methylene blue dye (MB) and remove it from aqueous solutions. The highest removal efficiencies were exhibited by PA, IPA, and THU which were prepared by either the thermal or MW method. Amongst all the tested adsorbents, the thermally-prepared PA yielded the highest removal of over 95% for 12.5 mg/L of MB, and about 75% for 6.5 mg/L of MB. The MW-prepared PA showed the second highest removal efficiencies, while IPA, prepared thermally or by MW, showed comparable results to its PA counterpart. This behavior could be attributed to the higher basicity of aliphatic amines relative to aromatic amines, which resulted in increased interaction between the lone pair of electrons on amino nitrogen and MB. On the other hand, the interaction between U or THU and MB is suggested to have possibly occurred via electrostatic attraction or redox reaction between them. The characteristic Fourier Infrared (FTIR) spectra of PA and IPA before and after adsorption suggest that the C=O, N-H, and Si-OH groups, among others, could be involved in adsorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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10 pages, 6692 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Stimulating the Impact of Hydrocarbon Micro-Seepage on Vegetation in Ugwueme, from 1996 to 2030, Based on the Leaf Area Index and Markov Chain Model
by Mfoniso Asuquo Enoh, Chukwubueze Onwuzuligbo and Needam Yiinu Narinua
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13830 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
The Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important algorithm for studying the health status of vegetation. In this study, the impact of hydrocarbon micro-seepage on vegetation in Ugwueme was investigated using the LAI image classification approach. Landsat TM 1996, ETM+ 2006, and OLI [...] Read more.
The Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important algorithm for studying the health status of vegetation. In this study, the impact of hydrocarbon micro-seepage on vegetation in Ugwueme was investigated using the LAI image classification approach. Landsat TM 1996, ETM+ 2006, and OLI 2016 satellite images that were acquired from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) portal were used to classify various LAI maps as low, moderate, and high classes. The spatial–temporal analysis revealed that the low, moderate, and high LAI density classification changed, respectively, from 41.24 km2 (50.43%), 33.98 km2 (41.54%), and 6.56 km2 (8.02%) in 1996 to 23.70 km2 (28.98%), 29.48 km2 (36.04%), and 28.60 km2 (34.97%) in 2006, and to 38.23 km2 (46.74%), 27.54 km2 (33.68%), and 16.01 km2 (19.58%) in 2016. The stimulation analysis shows that by 2030 (the 14-year planning period), the low, moderate, and high LAI density classifications will be 8.86 km2 (10.82%), 24.28 km2 (29.70%), and 48.63 km2 (59.46%), respectively. The study shows that LAI is an important algorithm that can be effectively used to study the health status of vegetation in an ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 1326 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Motion Planning of a Triple-Link Robotic System
by Bdereddin Abdul Samad, Mahmoud Mohamed and Fatih Anayi
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13774 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 750
Abstract
The Robogymnast is a complex system formed from a triple-inverted pendulum and mimics the action of a gymnast as they hang by their hands from a high bar and perform progressive upswings to eventually rotate completely around the bar. The three links of [...] Read more.
The Robogymnast is a complex system formed from a triple-inverted pendulum and mimics the action of a gymnast as they hang by their hands from a high bar and perform progressive upswings to eventually rotate completely around the bar. The three links of the Robogymnast can be compared to the lower limbs, the torso, and the upper limbs of a gymnast, with a single passive joint and two further stepper-motor powered joints. There is sensor equipment attached to the different links to gather data and control signals. While this system has been physically constructed, the current paper describes the approach to automating the 3-link pendulum and describes the system, its parts and setup. Following this, STM32 is applied for programming, system operation and presentation of results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 1020 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Colloidal Aqueous Synthesis of Cobalt-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles with MSA as Stabilizing Agent
by Ítalo Macêdo Gonçalves, Giovannia Araujo de Lima Pereira and Maria Goreti Carvalho Pereira
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13825 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an n-type II-VI semiconductor material that has gained prominence in recent decades due to the possibility of its applications in the most diverse scientific areas, such as photonics, optoelectronics, magnetism, and biological systems. In this context, the scientific community [...] Read more.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an n-type II-VI semiconductor material that has gained prominence in recent decades due to the possibility of its applications in the most diverse scientific areas, such as photonics, optoelectronics, magnetism, and biological systems. In this context, the scientific community seeks alternative synthetic methodologies to those already established in the literature, emphasizing the use of organic solvents, which are increasingly efficient, low-cost, and easy to reproduce. Thus, the present work proposed a method of colloidal aqueous synthesis, using different precursors of zinc and cobalt salts in a molar fraction according to the expression, Zn1−xCoxO (x = 0.05, 0.075, 0.10), and mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) as a stabilizing agent. The results confirmed the formation of cobalt-doped ZnO nanoparticles from X-ray diffractometry characterization. To evaluate their properties, studies of compositional analysis and size distribution of ZnO nanoparticles using characterization techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), are being carried out to obtain even more promising results in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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4 pages, 816 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Catalytic Degradation of Azo Dyes by Silver Nanoparticles
by Nayally Rayany S. Marques, Max Taylo A. Lima, Giovannia A. L. Pereira and Goreti Pereira
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13952 - 05 Jan 2023
Viewed by 850
Abstract
The high industrial demand generates an increased consumption and a high waste of materials that impacts the environment in different spheres. One of the most affected environments are aquatic systems. Moreover, one of the most common forms of water contamination is the improper [...] Read more.
The high industrial demand generates an increased consumption and a high waste of materials that impacts the environment in different spheres. One of the most affected environments are aquatic systems. Moreover, one of the most common forms of water contamination is the improper disposal of dyes by industries such as textiles, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. These dyes are organic substances that can give color to a substrate through chemical affinity. The most commonly used synthetic dyes are the ones containing the azo group, which have been reported as carcinogenic, mutagenic, and genotoxic, causing harm to the environment and living beings. Therefore, the study of methods that contribute to the degradation of these species will contribute to better treatment of polluted aquatic environments. Thus, the main objective of this work was to promote the catalytic degradation of organic dyes, such as Methyl Orange and Congo Red, through silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). For this, AgNPs were synthesized with spherical shapes using two stabilizers (polyvinylalcohol-PVA, and polyvinylpyrrolidone-PVP). Subsequently, the AgNPs were applied for the degradation of organic dyes, with the catalysis analyzed via UV-Vis absorption spectrometry in a maximum time of 40 min. Finally, it was observed that these nanocatalysts were successful in degrading the organic dyes. Thus, AgNPs have the potential to be used as catalysts for wastewater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 1679 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Spatially Resolved Temperature Measurement System for a Honeybee Colony Brood Box
by Adam McVeigh, Michael I. Newton, Costas Tsakonas and Martin Bencsik
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13755 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 639
Abstract
Honeybee colonies depend on suitable temperatures for successful development. We demonstrate the use of a spatially resolved temperature measurement system for a honeybee colony by producing ten custom frames which results into four hundred eighty sensors across the hive. A first prototype used [...] Read more.
Honeybee colonies depend on suitable temperatures for successful development. We demonstrate the use of a spatially resolved temperature measurement system for a honeybee colony by producing ten custom frames which results into four hundred eighty sensors across the hive. A first prototype used four layers of wax to embed the sensors, however, the honeybees rejected these and removed the wax before building new, irregular honeycomb. A second system using a single sheet of wax onto which the sensors were laid was accepted by the colony, and normal honeycomb was built. We showcase some of the data collected from this system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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5 pages, 2680 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Behavior of Gaussian Profile Filters for Plateau Surface Structure, and Optimum Parameters
by Ryo Saito and Ichiro Yoshida
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13793 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 627
Abstract
The inner surface of engine cylinder liners has a plateau structure because of being required to have excellent sliding properties. To improve the tribological properties, the plateau surface consists of a smooth plateau region and a valley region which serves as an oil [...] Read more.
The inner surface of engine cylinder liners has a plateau structure because of being required to have excellent sliding properties. To improve the tribological properties, the plateau surface consists of a smooth plateau region and a valley region which serves as an oil reservoir for improving lubrication. The roughness of the plateau surface is measured and evaluated for improving the fuel economy of engines in manufacturing job sites. For highly valid roughness evaluation of the plateau surface, the filtering method is important. Therefore, ISO 21920-1 has stipulated that the plateau surface should be processed with the Gaussian regression filter (GRF) of ISO 16610-31. In addition, in previous research, the fast M-estimation Gaussian filter (FMGF) was proposed as a filter that overcomes the shortcomings of GRF. The proposed the FMGF is expected to be a better filter than the GRF because of including the robustness and the characteristic becoming equal output of the Gaussian filter. On the other hand, since the parameters of the robust profile filter have different suitable values for the normal surface or the plateau surface, their settings require human judgement. Therefore, the robust profile filters are not practical in manufacturing job sites because the parameters of the robust profile filters need to be set to an optimum parameter manually, which takes time and effort. In this paper, we aim to improve the convenience of the robust profile filters in manufacturing job sites by establishing guidelines for the selection of optimum parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 6169 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Autonomous Movement of Wheelchair by Cameras and YOLOv7
by Md Abdul Baset Sarker, Ernesto Sola-Thomas, Collin Jamieson and Masudul H. Imtiaz
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13834 - 09 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1088
Abstract
A wheelchair can provide limited but crucial mobility to an injured or disabled individual. This paper presents the first stage of the development of a smart wheelchair which is the customization of a manually controlled wheelchair with a novel implementation of octascopic vision. [...] Read more.
A wheelchair can provide limited but crucial mobility to an injured or disabled individual. This paper presents the first stage of the development of a smart wheelchair which is the customization of a manually controlled wheelchair with a novel implementation of octascopic vision. This relatively inexpensive design of an autonomous wheelchair consists of two monochromic camera arrays (each having four cameras) placed around the frame of the wheelchair to achieve a view of 360 degrees. The initial research goal was to design a wheelchair controlled by the embedded processor, allowing the wheelchair to navigate autonomously around an indoor facility with and without human intervention. Additionally, it was intended to allow those previously denied access to the world of automatic wheelchairs because of a low personal income. Through the testing of wheelchair functionality, (a) a large dataset of octascopic images was captured from this wheelchair, and (b) a YOLOv7-based object detection model was developed to avoid obstacles and autonomously control the movement. This paper presents the camera placement and the obstacle detection model using octascopic images. All the project design files have been granted an open-source license and can be reproduced publicly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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7 pages, 959 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Assessment of Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Count in Dairy Wastewater in Savar Area, Bangladesh
by Fatema Rezwana, Hamida Akter, Mohammed Abdus Samad and Mohammad Majibur Rahman
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13855 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 744
Abstract
The dairy sector in Bangladesh releases huge amounts of wastewater in the open environment. Dairy wastewater is enriched with hazardous contaminants, which can cause various health complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the water quality of dairy wastewater by determining [...] Read more.
The dairy sector in Bangladesh releases huge amounts of wastewater in the open environment. Dairy wastewater is enriched with hazardous contaminants, which can cause various health complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the water quality of dairy wastewater by determining the physicochemical properties of tap water and wastewater from three farms from the Islamnagar zone, Savar, Dhaka, and also to assess the significant impacts of wastewater on the environment. The most important physicochemical properties investigated include pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), and microbial colony count. The results revealed that in tap water, the pH ranged from 7.11 to 7.20, and in wastewater, it ranged from 7.30 to 7.77. The TDS in tap water ranged from 109 to 116 mg/L, and in wastewater, it ranged from 451 to 2000 mg/L. The EC values were found in tap water from 0.22 to 0.23 mS/cm, whereas in wastewater, they ranged from 0.86 to 13.20 mS/cm. Additionally, for DO, the tap water ranged from 4.21 to 6.25 mg/L; in wastewater, it ranged from 0.98 to 1.86 mg/L. The pH and TDS stayed within the standard limits in the physical–chemical parameters assessed. However, the EC and DO are not within the DoE (Department of Environment, Bangladesh)-allowed limits. In addition, more microbial colonies have occurred in wastewater than in tap water. The study demonstrates that the discharge of dairy wastewater in the open field is detrimental to our ecosystem, and a proper treatment facility is essential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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7 pages, 1657 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Influence of Different Initial Conditions on the Soil Temperature Profile of Egypt Using a Regional Climate Model
by Samy A. Anwar and Somayah Hejabi
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13850 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
Soil temperature is an important indicator for monitoring the root environment of natural vegetation or crops. Also, regional Climate Models (RCMs) are valuable tools for simulating the soil temperature profile on a hierarchy of time scales ranging from daily to annual. Focusing on [...] Read more.
Soil temperature is an important indicator for monitoring the root environment of natural vegetation or crops. Also, regional Climate Models (RCMs) are valuable tools for simulating the soil temperature profile on a hierarchy of time scales ranging from daily to annual. Focusing on the daily time scale, two eight-year simulations (2011–2018) were conducted to examine the influence of different initial conditions on the simulated soil temperature profile of Egypt using a regional climate model (RegCM4). The two simulations were driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis, and the output (of each simulation) was compared to the in-situ observation. The first simulation was initialized with an arbitrary initial condition (i.e., from bare soil), and it was referred to as RegCM4-S1; the second one was initialized with a long-term spin-up file, and it was designated as RegCM4-S2. The results showed that the RegCM4-S2 performs better than the RegCM4-S1 in simulating the shallow soil temperature profile. Moreover, the RegCM4-S2 shows poor performance in simulating the soil temperature of deep depths but still outperforms the RegCM4-S1 with respect to the in-situ observation. Focusing on deep depths, the soil temperature parameterization needs to be revised and it is necessary to implement a numerical scheme to reduce the spin-up time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 805 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Kurdish Music Genre Recognition Using a CNN and DNN
by Aza Kamala and Hossein Hassani
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13803 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Music has different styles, and they are categorized into genres by musicologists. Nonetheless, non-musicologists categorize music differently, such as by finding similarities and patterns in instruments, harmony, and the style of the music. For instance, in addition to popular music genre categorization, such [...] Read more.
Music has different styles, and they are categorized into genres by musicologists. Nonetheless, non-musicologists categorize music differently, such as by finding similarities and patterns in instruments, harmony, and the style of the music. For instance, in addition to popular music genre categorization, such as classic, pop, and modern folkloric, Kurdish music is categorized by Kurdish music lovers according to the type of dance that could go with a particular piece of music. Due to technological advancements, technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) can help in music genre recognition. Using AI to recognize music genres has been a growing field lately. Computational musicology uses AI in various sectors of studying music. However, the literature shows no evidence of addressing any computational musicology research focusing on Kurdish music. In particular, we have not been able to find any work that indicates the usage of AI in the classification of Kurdish music genres. In this research, we compiled a dataset that comprises 880 samples of 8 Kurdish music genres. We used two machine learning models in our experiments: a convolutional neural network (CNN) and a deep neural network (DNN). According to the evaluations, the CNN model achieved 92% accuracy, while the DNN achieved 90% accuracy. Therefore, we developed an application that uses the CNN model to identify Kurdish music genres by uploading or listening to Kurdish music. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 1802 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Heterogeneous Photo-Fenton Oxidation of Methylene Blue Solution Using Fe(II)-Montmorillonite Calcinated Clay Catalyst
by Nuno Jorge, Ana R. Teixeira, Marco S. Lucas and José A. Peres
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13813 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 777
Abstract
Textile wastewaters are very problematic if released into the environment without proper treatment. Due to their recalcitrant nature, chemical treatments such as Advanced Oxidation Processes are often used. Among AOPs, Fenton-based processes presented promising results. However, considering the drawbacks associated with homogeneous Fenton, [...] Read more.
Textile wastewaters are very problematic if released into the environment without proper treatment. Due to their recalcitrant nature, chemical treatments such as Advanced Oxidation Processes are often used. Among AOPs, Fenton-based processes presented promising results. However, considering the drawbacks associated with homogeneous Fenton, the aim of this work was to develop a heterogeneous catalyst using montmorillonite clay as the base material. After the application of an impregnation method, the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction analysis showed the successful impregnation of iron into the montmorillonite clay. The catalyst Fe(II)-Mt was tested under different settings, and results showed that the best operational conditions (pH = 3.0, [Fe(II)-Mt 0.5M] = 1.0 g/L, [H2O2] = 4 mM, [MB] = 0.16 mM, radiation = UV-C (254 nm), time = 25 min) allowed to achieve 99.7% of Methylene blue (MB) removal. The catalyst showed great stability and was reused for three consecutive cycles. It can be concluded that Fe(II)-Mt catalyst is efficient for MB removal from aqueous solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 1349 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Decolorization of the azo dye Reactive Violet 5 by UV-A-Fenton and Ultrasound-Fenton Processes
by Nuno Jorge, Ana R. Teixeira, José R. Fernandes, Marco S. Lucas and José A. Peres
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13848 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 870
Abstract
The textile dye Reactive Violet 5 (RV5) is mutagenic and teratogenic as well as carcinogenic and must be degraded before the release of textile wastewater into the environment. The aim of this work was to assess UV-A LED and ultrasound (US) reactors in [...] Read more.
The textile dye Reactive Violet 5 (RV5) is mutagenic and teratogenic as well as carcinogenic and must be degraded before the release of textile wastewater into the environment. The aim of this work was to assess UV-A LED and ultrasound (US) reactors in RV5 degradation. Different AOPs were tested, Fenton and UV-A-Fenton processes showed the highest RV5 degradation with 86.6 and 95.5%, respectively. The UV-A-Fenton operational conditions were optimized varying initial pH (3.0–7.0), H2O2 (2.0–16.0 mM) and Fe2+ (0.05–0.20 mM) concentrations. The best deduced operational conditions (pH = 3.0, [RV5] = 0.28 mM, [H2O2] = 4.0 mM, [Fe2+] = 0.15 mM) were applied to the US-Fenton process, achieving a RV5 removal of 95.7%. The lowest values of electric energy per order (EEO) = 11 kWh m−3 order−1 and specific applied energy (ESAE) = 38 kWh mol−1 order−1 were obtained with the treatment of RV5 aqueous solution by the UV-A-Fenton process. This work shows that textile dyes can be degraded by UV-A-Fenton and US-Fenton processes and the UV-A LED reactor presented the lowest operational costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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7 pages, 1658 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Multilevel Phase Switch Generation in Alkali Vapors
by Abu Mohamed Alhasan and Salah Abdulrhmann
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13849 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 725
Abstract
We attempt to demonstrate optical phase switches in a typical light storage experiment. We computed propagation dynamics of light pulses in sodium-23, rubidium-87, and potassium-39 vapors. These vapors have the same tensorial sets of the density matrix with a nuclear spin I = [...] Read more.
We attempt to demonstrate optical phase switches in a typical light storage experiment. We computed propagation dynamics of light pulses in sodium-23, rubidium-87, and potassium-39 vapors. These vapors have the same tensorial sets of the density matrix with a nuclear spin I = 3/2. The energy scheme is known as the double-Λ system. We considered an excitation mechanism in which one of two Λ systems was excited by two-color pulses, probe, and drive, following the standard electromagnetically induced transparency configuration. The probe channel contains delayed two pulses after the first probe pulse. Gain is generated through the drive channel and is exposed during propagation. We further investigated the spatiotemporal phase variations in the pulses and found discrete phase distribution for different vapors. The spatiotemporal evolution of the irreducible tensorial sets defines structural differential equations. Additionally, it is particularly suitable for parallel processing. We hope our study finds an application in comparison to alkali vapor magnetometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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10 pages, 4273 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Bias-Correcting the Maximum and Minimum Air Temperatures of Egypt Using a High-Resolution Regional Climate Model (RegCM4)
by Sally Mahmoud Mostafa, Samy Ashraf Anwar, Ashraf Saber Zakey and Mohamed Magdy Abdel Wahab
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13852 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
The regional climate model (RegCM4) was used to project the maximum and minimum air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) of Egypt considering the worst-case scenario: Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5). To achieve this goal, the spatial pattern of the simulated T [...] Read more.
The regional climate model (RegCM4) was used to project the maximum and minimum air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) of Egypt considering the worst-case scenario: Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5). To achieve this goal, the spatial pattern of the simulated Tmax and Tmin was first examined. After that, the simulated Tmax and Tmin were bias-corrected in the historical period with respect to station observations using the Linear-Scaling (LS) technique. Finally, the LS was used to correct the two future scenarios. To downscale the RegCM4, the medium resolution of the Earth System Model of the Max Planck Institute (MPI-ESM-MR) was used to provide the lateral boundary condition and sea surface temperature. The results showed that both Tmax and Tmin exhibit the highest increase in the far-future period (2081–2100) particularly over Western Egypt, the Red Sea, and Upper Egypt (by 4–6 °C). Additionally, the RegCM4 performance is remarkably improved when the LS method is used. Such performance is indicated by a low mean bias in the validation period compared to the evaluation period over majority of stations. Further, the added value of the LS is noted in Tmin more than Tmax. Therefore, the RegCM4 can be used to project the Tmax and Tmin using the LS over the location of interest. In addition, using multiple General Circulation Models (GCMs) is necessary to account for uncertainty associated with the atmospheric forcing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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10 pages, 4616 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Preparation, Properties, and Characterization of ZnS Nanoparticles
by Amani H. Ali, Hassan Abd-elhamid Hashem and Ahmed Elfalaky
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13829 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2429
Abstract
In this paper, the structural, microstructural, thermal, electrical, and dielectric properties of synthesized ZnS nanoparticles are studied using the co-precipitation technique. The precipitate was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Characterization was confirmed via formation of a single-phase cubic nanocrystal line structure. The crystalline [...] Read more.
In this paper, the structural, microstructural, thermal, electrical, and dielectric properties of synthesized ZnS nanoparticles are studied using the co-precipitation technique. The precipitate was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Characterization was confirmed via formation of a single-phase cubic nanocrystal line structure. The crystalline size was obtained using three different models. Information regarding thermal transition such as melting, oxidation, and crystallization was revealed using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry (DTG/TG). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images were obtained to explore the stability, morphology, and other properties of the ZnS nanoparticles. Regarding the crystallite size of the prepared ZnS, different techniques were utilized to estimate the crystallite size, and the calculations confirmed the formation of the ZnS in nanocrystal form. The electrical properties of the synthesized nanocrystals were measured at different temperatures (293–373 K) over a wide range of frequencies from about (50 Hz up to 5 MHz). Regarding the frequency dependence of the A.C conductivity and the Activation energy (Ea) was found to decrease as the frequency increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 222 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Facilitating Digital Analysis and Exploration in Solar Energy Science and Technology through Free Computer Applications
by Osama A. Marzouk
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13920 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 787
Abstract
A number of free computer applications exist for designing solar power systems and predicting their performance. Among the various tools, three reputable ones were used while assessing different solar energy technologies; these were either the concentrated solar power (CSP) type or the photovoltaic [...] Read more.
A number of free computer applications exist for designing solar power systems and predicting their performance. Among the various tools, three reputable ones were used while assessing different solar energy technologies; these were either the concentrated solar power (CSP) type or the photovoltaic (PV) type. Various types of digital data, including computer modeling files, tabulated values, and illustrative views for simulations conducted by the desktop software program Energy3D (by the Concord Consortium) for analyzing solar systems are described and made publicly accessible by the author. Thus, the interested reader can reproduce or customize simulations. The modeled solar power systems include solar farms with a fixed or moving array of panels, linear Fresnel reflectors, parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes, and solar towers. Supporting benchmarking data are also included, which are prediction reports for three PV systems using the cloud-based application PVGIS (Photovoltaic Geographical Information System), developed by the European Commission Joint Research Center (JRC). These PV systems are related to three systems modeled via Energy3D, and thus help in validation. Another set of benchmarking data comes from another cloud-based application for PV systems, which is PVWatts, provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of the United States Department of Energy (DoE). This paper describes data used in the analysis as guiding examples, giving an opportunity for gaining knowledge and skills in the research areas of solar energy science and technology. It also briefly discusses a fourth free solar energy tool, ‘Aladdin’ (by the Institute for Future Intelligence), which possesses artificial intelligence capabilities. The data consist of a total of 59 digital files, divided into in 7 computer folders. Each folder contains a number of binary and/or text files, ranging from 2 to 18. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
6 pages, 3689 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Wear Amount Measuring Method Using Red Lead Paint to Innovate Sensory Inspection for Female Taper Socket of Machine Tools
by Kaito Fujiyoshi, Mikihiko Mawatari and Ichiro Yoshida
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13968 - 03 Feb 2023
Viewed by 665
Abstract
Machine tools are machines that manufacture different machines and parts. Therefore, the machine tools that support all types of manufacturing are known as “mother machines”. When machining using a machine tool, a cutting tool is mounted into a female taper socket. Wear on [...] Read more.
Machine tools are machines that manufacture different machines and parts. Therefore, the machine tools that support all types of manufacturing are known as “mother machines”. When machining using a machine tool, a cutting tool is mounted into a female taper socket. Wear on the inner surface of the female taper which occurs when changing tools or during heavy cutting has an influence on the lifespan of a tool. Therefore, female tapers require periodic maintenance. In the maintenance on the female tapers of machine tools, sensory inspection has been standardized in JIS and ISO standards. However, this inspection is impossible to evaluate quantitatively and requires a great deal of time. Additionally, this sensory method produces varying accuracies depending on the operators. Therefore, a new method of wear amount measurement was proposed in a previous study to solve these problems. The proposed method is a quantitative measurement method independent of the skill level of the operators. This paper therefore reports an improved method to reduce the error of measurement results using the proposed method. If this proposed method is established, it will contribute to improving production efficiency at the production site. In this method, red lead paint is mixed with red lead powder and oil is used to estimate the amount of wear based on the luminance value of the red lead paint. The red lead concentration has a significant influence on the results. In this study, we investigate the influence of red lead concentration through experiments and report the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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9 pages, 575 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis and Anti-Tuberculosis Activity of Substituted 3,4-(dicoumarin-3-yl)-2,5-diphenyl Furans and Pyrroles
by Bhagwat Jadhav, Ramesh Yamgar and Suraj N. Mali
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13851 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
Increasing rates of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extremely-drug resistant (XDR) cases of tuberculosis (TB) strains are alarming, and eventually hampered an effective control of the pathogenic disease. In the present study, nine derivatives of 2,3-bis(2-oxochromen-3-yl)-1,4-diphenyl-butane-1,4-dione (11a–c) and 3,4-(dicoumarin-3-yl)-2,5-diphenyl furans and pyrroles [...] Read more.
Increasing rates of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extremely-drug resistant (XDR) cases of tuberculosis (TB) strains are alarming, and eventually hampered an effective control of the pathogenic disease. In the present study, nine derivatives of 2,3-bis(2-oxochromen-3-yl)-1,4-diphenyl-butane-1,4-dione (11a–c) and 3,4-(dicoumarin-3-yl)-2,5-diphenyl furans and pyrroles (12a–f) have been synthesized successfully. The experimental data for the anti-tuberculosis activity (using MABA assay) of 2,3-bis(2-oxochromen-3-yl)-1,4-diphenyl-butane-1,4-dione (11a–c) revealed that, in this series, compound 11a showed a better minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.6 μg/mL against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37 RV strain) ATCC No-27294, which was better than the MIC value of Pyrazinamide-3.125 μg/mL, Streptomycin-6.25 μg/mL and Ciprofloxacin-3.125 μg/mL. Our synthesis and in-vitro studies thus pointed out the moderate to good anti-TB profiles of substituted furans and pyrroles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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5 pages, 1037 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Study on Affect by Calculation Algorithm for Material Probability Curve to Roughness Parameters of Plateau Surface
by Sho Nagai, Ryo Sakakibara and Ichiro Yoshida
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13795 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 472
Abstract
The automotive industry requires effective evaluation methods for the quality control of automobile parts and bearings. The ISO standard defines the calculation of roughness parameters from the material ratio curve (“MRC”) and material ratio curve on normal probability paper (“MPC”) as effective methods [...] Read more.
The automotive industry requires effective evaluation methods for the quality control of automobile parts and bearings. The ISO standard defines the calculation of roughness parameters from the material ratio curve (“MRC”) and material ratio curve on normal probability paper (“MPC”) as effective methods for evaluating surfaces with excellent lubrication and frictional characteristics. ISO 4287 specifies the slice method as a calculation method for the MRC. The analysis time of the slice method is long due to the large amount of calculation required. Therefore, ISO 21920-2 specifies the use of the sort method. The sort method reduces the analysis time significantly due to the small amount of calculation required. A previous study revealed that errors occur in the MRC using the sort method compared to the slice method. However, the previous study concluded that the errors were acceptable compared to the time cost. In addition, the plateau surface is a surface with excellent sliding properties. The roughness parameters of the plateau surface have to be calculated from the MPC. However, in the case of expression on normal probability paper, the difference between MRCs calculated by the sort and slice methods increases as both ends approach. Therefore, the results of roughness parameters calculated by each MPC are expected to be different. This study reports the results of an investigation into the effect that increasing differences have on the roughness parameters. We aim to contribute to the establishment of a highly effective evaluation method by verifying the validity of using the sort method in the calculation of the MPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 1446 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mechanical Properties Study of Borosilicate Glass Loaded with Vanadium and Cobalt by Nanoindentation Technique
by Asmaa S. El-Deeb, Eman O. Taha, Marwa M. Abdel Kader, Hamdy M. Naguib and Mohamed Y. Hassaan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13816 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 653
Abstract
The nanoindentation test was used to investigate the mechanical properties of borosilicate glass with a composition (mol%) of 40 Na2B4O7-40 SiO2-(20-x) V2O5-x Co2O3, with x = 0, [...] Read more.
The nanoindentation test was used to investigate the mechanical properties of borosilicate glass with a composition (mol%) of 40 Na2B4O7-40 SiO2-(20-x) V2O5-x Co2O3, with x = 0, 1, 3, and 5 mol% for samples A, B, C, and D, respectively. Samples were prepared using the melt quenching technique at 1100 °C. A load–displacement curve was plotted and used to extract select mechanical properties of the glass samples. The creep deformation behavior of the glass composition was studied. The maximum creep rate was observed for the sample that contained the highest vanadium oxide content, and the creep rate decreased with a decrease in the vanadium oxide content in the glass samples. The hardness and reduced modulus of elasticity were obtained. The Maxwell–Voigt model was applied to investigate the relaxation kinetics and deformation of the bulk glass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 2124 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Impact of the Core’s Material on the Absorption of a Quantum Dot–Metal Nanoshell Hybrid System
by Alexandros Kontakos, Emmanuel Paspalakis and Spyridon G. Kosionis
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13805 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 539
Abstract
In this study, we investigate the linear optical response in a hybrid nanostructure composed of a semiconductor quantum dot and a metal shell nanoparticle. We analyze a case wherein the nanostructure interacts with an incident electromagnetic field with polarization parallel to the symmetry [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigate the linear optical response in a hybrid nanostructure composed of a semiconductor quantum dot and a metal shell nanoparticle. We analyze a case wherein the nanostructure interacts with an incident electromagnetic field with polarization parallel to the symmetry axis of the nanosystem. We derive nonlinear density matrix equations in the rotating wave approximation under the quasistatic response of the system, and use a series expansion method to obtain analytical functions for linear susceptibility with respect to both components of the nanostructure. The imaginary part of these expressions is related to the absorption coefficient. We investigate the way in which the modification of the core’s material affects the characteristics of the spectral resonance. For low values of the dielectric constant, the system exhibits amplified gain without population inversion and quenched absorption resonance, while for high values of the dielectric constant, we observe suppression of the gain dip and enhancement of the absorption resonance. In the first regime, the exciton lifetime is suppressed, and in the second case, its value is importantly increased, especially in the case of small interparticle distances where the semiconductor quantum dot and metal shell nanoparticle interact strongly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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2 pages, 178 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis of Target-Directed Nanogel Carriers with Glycopolymers and Their Application to Immunotherapy
by Yuki Okuda, Shigehito Osawa and Hidenori Otsuka
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13764 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 572
Abstract
This study describes the preparation of a core-shell nanogel system for active-targeted delivery of antigenic proteins to dendritic cells (DC cells), which play a critical role in inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) for effective immune response against cancer and infectious diseases. Mannose-type glycan [...] Read more.
This study describes the preparation of a core-shell nanogel system for active-targeted delivery of antigenic proteins to dendritic cells (DC cells), which play a critical role in inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) for effective immune response against cancer and infectious diseases. Mannose-type glycan block copolymers were synthesized and modified onto hydrophilic silica nanoparticles to create mannose-presenting nanoparticles (SiNP-Man), which were shown to selectively bind to lectin and inhibit aggregation in the presence of free mannose. This nanogel system has potential as an effective and stable antigen delivery method for CTL induction. Thus, the newly designed mannose block copolymer would have promising property to install nature of active-targeting towards mannose specific c type lectin on DC cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
11 pages, 2046 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Generative Adversarial Networks for the Synthesis of Chest X-ray Images
by Mai Feng Ng and Carol Anne Hargreaves
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13954 - 05 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1973
Abstract
One way to diagnose COVID-19 is to use the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test. However, this test is rather invasive. An alternative would be to use chest images of the patients to diagnose if the patient has COVID-19. These chest X-ray images have [...] Read more.
One way to diagnose COVID-19 is to use the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test. However, this test is rather invasive. An alternative would be to use chest images of the patients to diagnose if the patient has COVID-19. These chest X-ray images have to be manually annotated by a medical professional such as a radiologist, and due to privacy concerns, getting access to readily available and annotated COVID-19 chest X-ray images is difficult. In order to train a deep learning model to perform image classification tasks, it is prudent to train the deep-learning model on a large enough dataset to avoid the problem of overfitting. In this paper, we explore using Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) as a form of data augmentation technique to enlarge the training data for deep learning models. We first explored how the synthetic data generated by GANs are affected by the training size. Following which, we compared the performance of the two different GAN architectures, namely the Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Networks (DCGAN) and the Wasserstein Generative Adversarial Networks with Gradient Penalty (WGAN-GP). We successfully used GANs to generate synthetic COVID-19 chest X-ray images with a Fréchet Inception Distance (FID) score that was below 2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 2305 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Risk Assessment of Possible Hazards of El Dabaa Nuclear Power Plant Using FLEXPART Model
by Nourhan ElShafeey, Mohamed Mohamed Eid, Amgad Saber Mahmoud and Ashraf Saber Zakey
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13964 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
New Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which is under construction in El Dabaa, Egypt, is expected to start working within few years. Such project should be associated with several scientific research works. The suitability of the NPP location as well as the assessment of [...] Read more.
New Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which is under construction in El Dabaa, Egypt, is expected to start working within few years. Such project should be associated with several scientific research works. The suitability of the NPP location as well as the assessment of the impact of its routine work and accidental failure is among the points that should be addressed. In this work, the contamination risks due to uniform accidental leakage of the radioactive aerosol C137s that continues for eight hours is studied. FLEXPART version 10.4 at high resolution (55 km) is applied using six-hour NCEP FNL (1° × 1°) gridded data to simulate the dispersion and deposition of C137s for the subsequent five days. This process is repeated each day for the period of 2008 to 2018. It is shown that high concentration and total deposition are observed particularly during the summer season. In addition, the consideration of different emission scenarios indicates that Egypt is expected to be strongly affected. Moreover, dispersion and concentration of the radioactive materials is notably influenced by near-surface winds. In conclusion, FLEXPART is considered as a promising tool to explore the possible nuclear hazards under a variety of meteorological conditions. Further, a future study will consider the influence of the horizontal grid spacing and lateral boundary condition using the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-FLEXPART system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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4 pages, 467 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Hate Speech Detection: Performance Based upon a Novel Feature Detection
by Saugata Bose
Eng. Proc. 2023, 31(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2022-13788 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Hate speech is abusive or stereotyping speech against a group of people, based on characteristics such as race, religion, sexual orientation, and gender. Internet and social media have made it possible to spread hatred easily, fast, and anonymously. The large scale of data [...] Read more.
Hate speech is abusive or stereotyping speech against a group of people, based on characteristics such as race, religion, sexual orientation, and gender. Internet and social media have made it possible to spread hatred easily, fast, and anonymously. The large scale of data produced through social media platforms requires the development of effective automatic methods to detect such content. Hate speech detection in short text on social media has become an active research topic in recent years, as it differs from the traditional information retrieval for documents. My research is to develop a method to effectively detect hate speech based on deep learning techniques. I have proposed a novel feature based on the lexicon of short text. Experiments have shown that proposed deep-neural-network-based models improve the performance when a novel feature combines with CNN and SVM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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