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Eng. Proc., 2022, ECP 2022

The 1st International Electronic Conference on Processes: Processes System Innovation

Online | 17–31 May 2022

Volume Editors:
Andrey Yaroslavtsev, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Blaž Likozar, National Institute of Chemistry, Slovenia
Dariusz Dziki, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
Ioannis Spanopoulos, University of South Florida, USA
Antoni Sánchez, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain
Giancarlo Cravotto, University of Turin, Italy
Vicenç Puig, Technical University of Catalonia, Spain
Hoon Kim, Sunchon National University, Republic of Korea
Maela Manzoli, University of Turin, Italy

Number of Papers: 46
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Cover Story (view full-size image): The 1st International Electronic Conference on Processes: Processes System Innovation (ECP2022), organized by the MDPI open access journal Processes, was hosted online from 17 to 31 May 2022. This [...] Read more.
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Research

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2 pages, 178 KiB  
Abstract
Hybrid Membrane Materials Based on Polybenzimidazole and Silica with Grafted Phosphonic Groups for Fuel Cell Applications
by Anna Lysova and Igor Ponomarev
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12628 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 780
Abstract
Owing to high thermal and chemical stability and good mechanical properties, polybenzimidazole (PBI) doped with phosphoric acid is a very promising material to be used as an electrolyte in medium-temperature fuel cells. However, PBI use at temperatures below ~160 °C is impeded by [...] Read more.
Owing to high thermal and chemical stability and good mechanical properties, polybenzimidazole (PBI) doped with phosphoric acid is a very promising material to be used as an electrolyte in medium-temperature fuel cells. However, PBI use at temperatures below ~160 °C is impeded by the leaching of free H3PO4 from the membrane. In order to overcome this problem, one of the possible approaches is the incorporation of inorganic particles capable of stabilizing H3PO4 in the PBI matrix. Surface-modified particles are more efficient for this purpose. In this work, we study the properties of proton-conducting membranes based on PBI and silica particles surface-modified with propylphosphonic groups. Composite membranes are obtained by the casting of polymer solution containing tetraethoxysilane and modified silane ((2-diethylphosphatoethyl)triethoxysilane) with hydrolysis by HCl. The mass concentration of the dopant is 5 or 10 wt %, and the mole fraction of functional groups on the oxide surface is varied in the range of 0–100 mol % by changing the composition of the precursor mixture. All films are treated by 75% H3PO4. The resulting membranes are characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy, and impedance spectroscopy. The grafting of functional –PO3H2 groups onto the silica surface leads to a significant increase in the uptake of phosphoric acid by hybrid membranes, the content of which determines the conductivity of these materials. An increase in the number of –PO3H2 groups leads to both an increase in the degree of acid doping and ionic conductivity. The conductivity of the best samples obtained reaches 0.081 S/cm at 160 °C. The introduction of acid groups on the dopant surface is a promising approach from the point of view of reducing the amount of phosphoric acid required to maintain a high proton transport rate. Full article
2 pages, 181 KiB  
Abstract
Li1+yTi2-x-yGexAly(PO4)3 NASICON-Type Electrolytes with Enhanced Conductivity for Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Ekaterina Kurzina and Irina Stenina
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12627 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 647
Abstract
The use of lithium-ion batteries allows for a reliable and efficient storage of electricity. Commercial batteries use flammable liquid organic electrolytes, which have a low thermal and electrochemical stability. Replacing liquid electrolytes with solid ones would solve these problems. NASICON-structured electrolytes, in particular [...] Read more.
The use of lithium-ion batteries allows for a reliable and efficient storage of electricity. Commercial batteries use flammable liquid organic electrolytes, which have a low thermal and electrochemical stability. Replacing liquid electrolytes with solid ones would solve these problems. NASICON-structured electrolytes, in particular LATP (Li1+yTi2-yAly(PO4)3) and LAGP (Li1+yGe2-3yAly(PO4)3), are among the most promising electrolytes for all-solid-state batteries. The partial replacement of titanium ions with germanium ions can lead to materials that combine the high lithium-ion conductivity of LATP with the high chemical stability of LAGP. The aim of this work was to synthesize and study the ionic mobility of Li1+yTi2-x-yGexAly(PO4)3 (x = 0–2, y = 0–0.3) with the NASICON structure. Li1+yTi2-x-yGexAly(PO4)3 (x = 0–2, y = 0–0.3) electrolytes were synthesized with the solid-state method and investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy. The processes occurring during the solid-state synthesis of Li1+yTi2-x-yGexAly(PO4)3 were studied. An increase in conductivity from 10−7 S/cm to 4.6·10−6 S/cm at 25 °C was found when 10% of titanium ions were replaced with germanium. The additional introduction of aluminum resulted in an increase in lithium conductivity of up to 1.4·10−4 S/cm (25 °C). Since grain boundaries were of decisive importance for the overall ionic conductivity of the NASICON-structured phosphates, the influence of the precursor mechanical treatment on the microstructure and ionic conductivity of the prepared materials was studied. The use of the mechanical treatment led to a significant increase in grain size (reducing the grain boundaries and their resistance) and an increase in ionic conductivity (up to 6.4·10−4 S/cm at 25 °C). The obtained materials could be considered promising solid electrolytes for all-solid-state lithium batteries with high safety and stability. Full article
2 pages, 185 KiB  
Abstract
Model-Based Design and Optimization of Electrochemical Processes for Sustainable Aviation Fuels
by Fenila Francis-Xavier and René Schenkendorf
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12613 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 631
Abstract
Aviation accounts for around 12% of all CO2 emissions from the transport sector, necessitating the use of sustainable aviation fuels [...] Full article
2 pages, 172 KiB  
Abstract
Laminar Burning Velocities of Stoichiometric Inert-Diluted Methane-N2O Flames
by Maria Mitu, Codina Movileanu, Venera Giurcan, Adina Magdalena Musuc and Domnina Razus
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12626 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 585
Abstract
Combustion and explosion of combustible mixtures are a major hazard that can occur anywhere from industry to energy use in households and, therefore, protective measures must be taken to limit these undesirable events. This study pays attention to the laminar burning velocity, an [...] Read more.
Combustion and explosion of combustible mixtures are a major hazard that can occur anywhere from industry to energy use in households and, therefore, protective measures must be taken to limit these undesirable events. This study pays attention to the laminar burning velocity, an important parameter involved in the combustion process. The experimental laminar burning velocities of stoichiometric methane-nitrous oxide mixtures in the presence of diluents (50 vol% inerts: argon, helium, and carbon dioxide) were calculated from pressure-time records obtained in a spherical vessel with central ignition, using a correlation based on the cubic law of pressure rise during the early stage of explosion. The nitrous oxide (N2O)-based mixtures are frequently used as propellants in propulsion systems and supersonic wind tunnels, due to the nontoxicity, high saturation pressure, and the exothermic property during decomposition. However, N2O is an oxidizer that can cause safety concerns in technical applications where it is involved. The experimental data were compared with data from the literature on stoichiometric methane-nitrous oxide mixtures diluted with nitrogen and with the calculated laminar burning velocities obtained by numerical modelling of their premixed flames. The modelling was performed with Cosilab package, using GRI 3.0 mechanism, based on 53 chemical species and 325 elementary reactions. The influence of initial pressure (0.5 bar–1.75 bar) of stoichiometric inert-diluted methane-nitrous oxide mixtures on laminar burning velocities, maximum flame temperature, heat release rate, and peak concentrations of main reaction intermediates was investigated and discussed. Using the correlations of the laminar burning velocities with the initial pressure, the pressure exponent and overall reaction order of methane oxidation with nitrous oxide were determined. Obtaining a clear perspective on the laminar burning velocities of these flammable mixtures is of great importance for both assessing fire and explosion risks and guaranteeing safety in chemical and process industries. Full article
2 pages, 183 KiB  
Abstract
New HPLC Method for Surfactants Detection in Wastewaters Samples
by Iuliana Paun, Laura Florentina Chiriac, Florinela Pirvu, Vasile Ion Iancu and Cristina Ileana Covaliu-Mierla
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12622 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 723
Abstract
Over the last decade, biocides have received increasing attention due to their widespread use, their transfer to aquatic ecosystems, and their negative effects on aquatic organisms. Alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides are applied as bactericides and disinfectants in sanitary products and used as [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, biocides have received increasing attention due to their widespread use, their transfer to aquatic ecosystems, and their negative effects on aquatic organisms. Alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides are applied as bactericides and disinfectants in sanitary products and used as antistatic agents in the formula of laundry conditioners. The aim of this study was to provide a sensitive and robust HPLC-DAD method for the detection of three biocides (dodecyl- (C12-), tetradecyl- (C14-), and hexadecyl- (C16-) benzyl dimethylammonium chloride) in wastewater samples. The analytes separation was achieved using an Acclaim Surfactant Plus (3 µm, 150 mm × 3 mm) chromatographic column, maintained at 30 °C. The isocratic mode elution using a binary phase of ammonium acetate 0.2 M (A): acetonitrile (B) as mobile phase (50:50, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, and allowed a run time of only 5 minutes. The linearity, accuracy, and intermediate precision were validated. The HPLC-DAD method provides good linearity, with correlation coefficients from 0.9992 to 0.9997 in the concentration range from 1 to 100 mg/L. Very good precision values were obtained, with RSD% ranged from 1.37–2.27% for intra-day measurements and between 6.14 and 6.65% for inter-day measurements. The target biocides were isolated from wastewater samples through the Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) procedure, using polymeric Strata-X Cartridges and acetonitrile and acetic acid (90%/10%) as elution solvent mixture. Recoveries (up to 86%) made possible the quantification biocides at very low levels, the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the ranged between 4.5 and 7.6 µg/L. The method was successfully applied to wastewater samples, obtaining concentration values varying from a few µg/L to a few mg/L. Full article

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Jump to: Research

7 pages, 1548 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
TLBO Tuned a Novel Robust Fuzzy Control Structure for LFC of a Hybrid Power System with Photovoltaic Source
by Mokhtar Shouran and Fatih Anayi
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12684 - 07 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 973
Abstract
This study proposes a new fuzzy logic control (FLC) design-based I controller plus a Fuzzy Cascade FOPI-FOPD (I + F C FOPI-FOPD) for load frequency control (LFC) in power systems. The structure of this design offers a satisfactory level of reliability as well [...] Read more.
This study proposes a new fuzzy logic control (FLC) design-based I controller plus a Fuzzy Cascade FOPI-FOPD (I + F C FOPI-FOPD) for load frequency control (LFC) in power systems. The structure of this design offers a satisfactory level of reliability as well as excellent robustness performance. The proposed fuzzy design is employed in a hybrid dual area power system based on a photovoltaic renewable energy plant in area one and a thermal generation unit in area two. In order to achieve the best possible dynamic performance of the proposed structure, the teaching learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm is suggested to optimally tune the scaling factor gains of the proposed fuzzy configuration. The superiority of the suggested fuzzy control design is investigated by conducting a comparative study between this design and a previously applied PI-based firefly algorithm. Simulation results revealed that the fuzzy logic controller introduced in this study is reliable and superior, and appropriately handled the problem of frequency variation. Full article
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6 pages, 552 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design of On-Grid Photovoltaic System Considering Optimized Sizing of Photovoltaic Modules for Enhancing Output Energy
by Muhammad Tamoor, Abdul Rauf Bhatti, Muhammad Farhan and Sajjad Miran
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12671 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) systems are utilized all over the world for clean energy production. Photovoltaic simulation software is used to predict the energy produced by photovoltaic array structures. Due to Pakistan’s geographical location in the equatorial region, the prospect of harnessing photovoltaic energy is [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic (PV) systems are utilized all over the world for clean energy production. Photovoltaic simulation software is used to predict the energy produced by photovoltaic array structures. Due to Pakistan’s geographical location in the equatorial region, the prospect of harnessing photovoltaic energy is too high. In the context of this fact, this work conducted extensive research to optimize the photovoltaic energy output by using different PV module sizes. For fixed areas where photovoltaic modules are installed, the output energy would remain more or less the same for any size of PV module with insignificant differences in PV module efficiency or quality. Moreover, in this research, it is found that by using different PV module sizes (i.e., 340 watts to 540 watts) at a time, while keeping all other parameters and conditions constant, a large variation in the output energy of the system can be observed. This difference in output energy with the change of PV module sizes raises fundamental concerns about how to choose the right PV modules size to generate maximum output energy at any given location. This study intends to emphasize the fact that when designing an On-Grid photovoltaic system, relatively little consideration is given to selecting the appropriate type and size of PV modules, which can result in a significant energy loss of the system. In this research, different PV modules of various sizes and power ratings with nearly identical efficiencies were analyzed in two selected locations. HelioScope simulation software is used to simulate all PV systems having a PV modules power rating to analyze their monthly and annual energy generation and system losses. The simulation results show that the appropriate PV modules size must be determined in order to generate the maximum output energy from the proposed PV system. Full article
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5 pages, 1330 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design of Composites Based on Lithium Titanate and Carbon Nanomaterials for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Irina Stenina, Andrey Desyatov and Tatiana Kulova
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12663 - 30 May 2022
Viewed by 780
Abstract
The composite nanomaterials based on hydrothermally or sol-gel synthesized Li4Ti5O12 and both nitrogen-doped and undoped carbons were prepared and investigated by XRD, SEM, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, dc-measurements, charge-discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Carbon nanotube introduction [...] Read more.
The composite nanomaterials based on hydrothermally or sol-gel synthesized Li4Ti5O12 and both nitrogen-doped and undoped carbons were prepared and investigated by XRD, SEM, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, dc-measurements, charge-discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Carbon nanotube introduction provides the formation of a highly conductive 3D network resulting in increase in electronic conductivity, lithium diffusion, and thus improvement of rate-capability and cycling stability of the composites. Full article
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6 pages, 1360 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Molecule: Patent Analysis Based on Chemical Compounds Search
by Ahmed Fatimi
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12656 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Sodium tetradecyl sulfate is the most common and widely utilized type of synthetic surfactant used in medicine. It is an organic compound prepared by the aldol condensation followed by sulfonation of the alcohol. This work of patent analysis summarizes the current state of [...] Read more.
Sodium tetradecyl sulfate is the most common and widely utilized type of synthetic surfactant used in medicine. It is an organic compound prepared by the aldol condensation followed by sulfonation of the alcohol. This work of patent analysis summarizes the current state of the art by describing what has been invented and patented concerning sodium tetradecyl sulfate. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of patents has been provided using the Patentscope database’s “Chemical Compounds Search” feature in terms of publication years, jurisdictions, inventors, applicants, and patent classifications. Full article
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5 pages, 688 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Non-Invasive Estimation of Acetates Using Off-Gas Information for Fed-Batch E. coli Bioprocess
by Mindaugas Matukaitis, Deividas Masaitis, Renaldas Urniežius, Lukas Zlatkus and Vygandas Vaitkus
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12668 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 899
Abstract
Pharmaceutical industries widely use Escherichia coli cell strain to synthesize various target products. The main goal is to reach the highest possible product yield. However, the formation of by-products is inevitable throughout the cell growth stage. Metabolic compounds such as acetates cause inhibition, [...] Read more.
Pharmaceutical industries widely use Escherichia coli cell strain to synthesize various target products. The main goal is to reach the highest possible product yield. However, the formation of by-products is inevitable throughout the cell growth stage. Metabolic compounds such as acetates cause inhibition, particularly in later bioprocess stages. Therefore, the acetate accumulation model is necessary for planning bioprocesses to maximize cell biomass growth. The decision tree method was in possession to replicate the approach. Specific biomass growth at induction, broth weight, oxygen uptake rate, and consumed substrate weight were the inputs of model training. Broth and consumed substrate weight had additional aging-related information incorporated as separate inputs to introduce the cumulative regularization. Full article
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6 pages, 1594 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design of a DC to DC Converter for a Residential Grid Connected Solar Energy System
by Mohamed Elgbaily, Fatih Anayi and Elmazeg Elgamli
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12620 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1131
Abstract
This article presents an investigation of a PV solar system based on Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) using one of the artificial intelligence control techniques. To avoid the problems of the traditional P&O method, the optimization tool of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is [...] Read more.
This article presents an investigation of a PV solar system based on Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) using one of the artificial intelligence control techniques. To avoid the problems of the traditional P&O method, the optimization tool of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed to be employed with a Perturbation & Observation (P&O) technique with added a Proportional Integral (PI) controller (PSO + PI + P&O). This proposed method achieved the optimal operating variables of a photovoltaic (PV) module in terms to mitigating the issue of partial shading weather conditions. A DC–DC boost converter is designed to be switched to obtain the desired MPP based on the corresponding duty cycle according to the parameters provided by the IV characteristics. It is observed from the results that the proposed PSO + PI + P&O showed excellent improvement. Moreover, better performance was achieved in terms of extracting the maximum unique power point between both variables of current and voltage generated from the PV. The proposed MPPT control method was implemented in MATLAB/Simulink. The testbed of the suggested method was thorough and highlighted its high efficiency compared to the conventional P&O as well as the PI controller based on P&O methods. Full article
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7 pages, 2368 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Treatment of Municipal Activated Sludge by Ultrasound-Fenton Process
by Carolina Santos, Nuno Jorge, Ana R. Teixeira, José A. Peres and Marco S. Lucas
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12666 - 30 May 2022
Viewed by 1141
Abstract
In this work, the efficiency of ultrasound, Fenton, and ultrasound-Fenton (US-Fenton) processes were evaluated separately for the treatment of municipal activated sludge (MAS). Additionally, the effects of operational parameters such as pH, hydrogen peroxide and ferrous iron concentrations, and cavitation time were studied. [...] Read more.
In this work, the efficiency of ultrasound, Fenton, and ultrasound-Fenton (US-Fenton) processes were evaluated separately for the treatment of municipal activated sludge (MAS). Additionally, the effects of operational parameters such as pH, hydrogen peroxide and ferrous iron concentrations, and cavitation time were studied. During the experiments, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and the volatile solids (VS)/total solids (TS) ratio were evaluated. Under the best operational conditions, ultrasound and Fenton processes achieved 17.3 and 25.9% COD removal, respectively, while the combined US-Fenton process was more efficient with a 94.8% COD reduction. Regarding the VS/TS ratio, the process that showed better results was US-Fenton, reducing the original value of 0.59 to 0.16. The ultrasound and Fenton processes showed a lower VS/TS ratio reduction to 0.26 and 0.22, respectively. In conclusion, the combination of US-Fenton achieves high COD removal and a significant VS/TS ratio reduction of the municipal activated sludge, showing better efficiencies than both processes separately. Full article
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5 pages, 205 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Green Biomonitoring Systems for Air Pollution
by Andreea Cozea and Gheorghita Tanase
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12654 - 30 May 2022
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Human activities have led to environmental pollution, while industrial growth and the gradual transition to urbanization are the main causes of the growth of different types of environmental pollutants; the continuation of studies on air quality biomonitoring in the context of “green revolution” [...] Read more.
Human activities have led to environmental pollution, while industrial growth and the gradual transition to urbanization are the main causes of the growth of different types of environmental pollutants; the continuation of studies on air quality biomonitoring in the context of “green revolution” have renewed the way to use “green tools” using higher plants with specific capabilities as biomonitors. Full article
5 pages, 887 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Methanol Steam Reforming in the Traditional and Membrane Reactors over Pt-Rh/TiO2-In2O3 Catalyst Using Surface-Treated Pd-Cu Foil Membranes
by Elena Mironova, Alexey Dontsov, Valentin Ievlev and Andrey Yaroslavtsev
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12660 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 939
Abstract
The study of methanol steam reforming (MSR) over a Pt-Rh/TiO2-In2O3 catalyst was carried out in traditional and membrane reactors using Pd-Cu foil treated by various methods. This catalyst showed the highest catalytic activity in a conventional reactor. The [...] Read more.
The study of methanol steam reforming (MSR) over a Pt-Rh/TiO2-In2O3 catalyst was carried out in traditional and membrane reactors using Pd-Cu foil treated by various methods. This catalyst showed the highest catalytic activity in a conventional reactor. The best results (hydrogen yield) are achieved in a membrane reactor with the use of the Pt-Rh/TiO2-In2O3 catalyst and Pd-Cu membrane after hard rolling. At the same time, the hydrogen recovery degree on the permeate zone on this membrane reached 60%. Full article
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6 pages, 1479 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fluorescent Based Tracers for Oil and Gas Downhole Applications: Between Conventional and Innovative Approaches
by Vladimir Khmelnitskiy, Nouf AlJabri and Vera Solovyeva
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12670 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Tracers are specific materials widely used in the modern oil and gas industry for reservoir characterization via single-well or inter-well tracer tests. We engineered new tracers and extended tracer test applications for on-site real-time well-drilling monitoring. Robust and cost-efficient fluorophores embedded into carrier [...] Read more.
Tracers are specific materials widely used in the modern oil and gas industry for reservoir characterization via single-well or inter-well tracer tests. We engineered new tracers and extended tracer test applications for on-site real-time well-drilling monitoring. Robust and cost-efficient fluorophores embedded into carrier matrices were developed to label drill cuttings as they were made at the drill bit face to improve drill-cutting depth correlation. These novel tracers allow for automated detection at concentrations up to the ppt level. Thus, the innovated tracers open the horizon to detect in real-time the drilling depth to enhance well placement and hydrocarbon recovery. Full article
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5 pages, 689 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Scale-Up Approach for Gas Dispersion in Non-Newtonian Fluids with a Coaxial Mixer: Analysis of Mass Transfer
by Ali Rahimzadeh, Farhad Ein-Mozaffari and Ali Lohi
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12657 - 30 May 2022
Viewed by 876
Abstract
Coaxial mixers have shown a uniform energy dissipation rate throughout the mixing tank and a high mass transfer rate. However, to the best of our knowledge no investigation has been conducted on the scale-up of aerated coaxial mixers. In this study, the gas [...] Read more.
Coaxial mixers have shown a uniform energy dissipation rate throughout the mixing tank and a high mass transfer rate. However, to the best of our knowledge no investigation has been conducted on the scale-up of aerated coaxial mixers. In this study, the gas hold-up profile, energy dissipation rate profile, power consumption, and mixing hydrodynamics were explored to keep the mass transfer of the large-scale mixer the same as its small-scale counterpart. The effects of the impeller type, impeller speed, pumping direction, and aeration rate on the reliability of the proposed scale-up technique were explored through electrical resistance tomography, a simplified dynamic pressure method, and computational fluid dynamics. Full article
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5 pages, 703 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Prediction of Gas Holdup in an Aerated Coaxial Mixer Containing Yield Stress Fluids for Mixing Process System Development
by Paloma L. Barros, Farhad Ein-Mozaffari and Ali Lohi
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12649 - 30 May 2022
Viewed by 699
Abstract
The development of effective gas-liquid mixing systems in mechanically agitated vessels is typically evaluated in terms of the degree of bubbles dispersion. For instance, adequate gas distribution reduces the formation of oxygen-deficient regions and ensures suitable metabolic pathways in bioreactors. In this regard, [...] Read more.
The development of effective gas-liquid mixing systems in mechanically agitated vessels is typically evaluated in terms of the degree of bubbles dispersion. For instance, adequate gas distribution reduces the formation of oxygen-deficient regions and ensures suitable metabolic pathways in bioreactors. In this regard, the gas holdup is a direct measurement of the process performance because the bubbles’ characteristics determines the gas volume fraction inside the vessel. The accurate estimation of this parameter using empirical correlations provides a better insight and a rapid prediction of the mixing process characteristics, which is crucial for designing stirred tanks. However, a challenge in obtaining empirical correlations is related to the experimental ranges of geometrical and process system conditions. In fact, the existing gas holdup correlations have not considered gas dispersion in yield pseudoplastic fluids using a coaxial mixer that comprises concentric shafts rotating independently. As an opportunity in mixing process system design, this study aims to develop empirical gas holdup correlations for an aerated anchor-PBT coaxial mixing system containing a xanthan gum solution, which behaves as a yield stress fluid. The electrical resistance tomography technique was employed to measure the gas holdup based on the conductivity variation throughout the vessel. A central composite design of experiments was conducted to account for the effect of central impeller speed, anchor speed, and gas flow rate on the mixing performance. The results demonstrated a non-monotonic effect of the central impeller speed on the gas holdup, which indicates a variation in the flow regime. Furthermore, the results showed that the gas holdup was increased by decreasing the anchor speed or increasing the aeration rate applied to the system. The developed correlations were statistically assessed and a good agreement with the experimental data was verified, which enabled us to accurately estimate the gas holdup within the range of operating variables investigated. Full article
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5 pages, 3605 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synthesis and Ionic Conductivity of Lithium Titanium Phosphate with NASICON-Type Structure Doping with Zirconium and Aluminum
by Anastasia Bocharova and Irina Stenina
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12617 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 825
Abstract
In this work, new solid electrolytes Li1+yTi2−x−yZrxAly(PO4)3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2, 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.2) were prepared by the sol-gel and solid-state methods (sintering temperatures: 800–1000 °C). The prepared materials [...] Read more.
In this work, new solid electrolytes Li1+yTi2−x−yZrxAly(PO4)3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2, 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.2) were prepared by the sol-gel and solid-state methods (sintering temperatures: 800–1000 °C). The prepared materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Their conductivity was investigated by impedance spectroscopy in the temperature range of 25–200 °C. The activation energies of Li+ transfer were calculated. The Li1.2Ti1.7Zr0.1Al0.2(PO4)3 material prepared by solid-state reaction exhibits the highest conductivity at 25 °C (6.2 × 10−4 S/cm). Full article
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5 pages, 2809 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A New Cost-Effective and Eco-Friendly Way to Recover Sulfuric Acid Waste Using Bleaching Soil
by Hamidreza Fanimoghadam, Faranak Kalantari and Ehsan Shoaie
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12619 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 1469
Abstract
Sulfuric acid is one of the acidic wastes produced in the edible oil refining industry during testing to determine the oxidation stability of the oil. Sulfuric acid is required as a rinsing solvent to clean Rancimat glass tubes. This acid cannot be discharged [...] Read more.
Sulfuric acid is one of the acidic wastes produced in the edible oil refining industry during testing to determine the oxidation stability of the oil. Sulfuric acid is required as a rinsing solvent to clean Rancimat glass tubes. This acid cannot be discharged directly into the environment. Use processing and acid consumption must be performed to comply with environmental quality standards. The aim of this study was to purify and recover acid waste. In this new method, first water and other solvents are removed under a vacuum system at 80 °C, then bleaching soil is added to sulfuric acid and placed at 80 °C for half an hour, and then white soil is added. The solvent is separated by centrifugation. Recovery was about 90%. An identical sample of oil with oxidation stability was tested with a Rancimat device and the results showed no change with fresh sulfuric acid. This study developed an innovative, effective, and simple method for the recycling of acid waste that can successfully resolve this significant problem in the industry. This method both reduces carbon emissions and recycles valuable resources, which is of important environmental and economic significance. Full article
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4 pages, 1083 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Low-Temperature Synthesis of a Nanostructured Palladium-Based Catalyst with Defined Shape and Its Catalytic Characteristics in Methanol Oxidation
by Iliya Petriev, Polina Pushankina, Yuliya Glazkova, Timofey Malkov, Georgy Andreev and Mikhail Baryshev
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12662 - 30 May 2022
Viewed by 967
Abstract
A novel approach for the synthesis of nanostructured catalysts on the surface of Pd23Ag films with high activity is proposed in order to intensify low-temperature (up to 100 °C) hydrogen transport through hydrogen-selective palladium-containing membranes. The developed nanostructured catalyst demonstrates a great increase [...] Read more.
A novel approach for the synthesis of nanostructured catalysts on the surface of Pd23Ag films with high activity is proposed in order to intensify low-temperature (up to 100 °C) hydrogen transport through hydrogen-selective palladium-containing membranes. The developed nanostructured catalyst demonstrates a great increase in catalytic activity of alkaline CH3OH oxidation reaction, in comparison with palladium black. This is most likely due to an increase in the number of active sites in the material, compared with classical synthesis methods, which enhances the material activity with respect to reactions with H2. Evaluation of resistance to carbon monoxide poisoning demonstrated the nanocatalyst’s high efficiency. A chronoamperometry confirms the presented catalyst’s continuing stability and activity as well as the applicability as catalysts and membranes. Full article
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5 pages, 848 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Combination of Coagulation-Flocculation-Decantation with Sulfate Radicals for Agro-Industrial Wastewater Treatment
by Nuno Jorge, Carlos Amor, Ana R. Teixeira, Leonilde Marchão, Marco S. Lucas and José A. Peres
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12610 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 922
Abstract
In this work, the effect of the combined coagulation–flocculation–decantation (CFD) with the sulfate radical oxidation process on the treatment of two winery wastewaters (WW1 and WW2) was investigated. The oxidation process was optimized by the application of a Box–Behnken design of the Response [...] Read more.
In this work, the effect of the combined coagulation–flocculation–decantation (CFD) with the sulfate radical oxidation process on the treatment of two winery wastewaters (WW1 and WW2) was investigated. The oxidation process was optimized by the application of a Box–Behnken design of the Response Surface Methodology. Under the best CFD conditions: [potassium caseinate] = 0.4 g/L, [bentonite] = [PVPP] = 0.1 g/L, pH = 3.0, rapid mix (rpm/min) = 150/3, slow mix (rpm/min) = 20/20, sedimentation time = 12 h, and oxidation conditions: [sodium persulfate (SPS)] = 51.9 mM, [Fe2+] = 0.90 mM, pH = 3.0, radiation UV-A (365 nm), time = 300 min, a total organic carbon (TOC) and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 38.9 and 45.3%, respectively, were achieved for WW 1, and 51.2 and 73.3%, respectively, for WW2. The combined process shows a good potential for WW treatment. Full article
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6 pages, 1734 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Environmental and Green Process for Pb2+ Pollution: An Experimental Research from the Perspective of Adsorption
by Hakan Çelebi, Tolga Bahadır, İsmail Şimşek and Şevket Tulun
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12658 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
Today, the increase in the need for quality and potable water resources is one of the most crucial issues that all countries of the world are focused on. Particularly, large amounts of highly polluted wastewater are formed together with water consumption that need [...] Read more.
Today, the increase in the need for quality and potable water resources is one of the most crucial issues that all countries of the world are focused on. Particularly, large amounts of highly polluted wastewater are formed together with water consumption that need to be treated in every sector. The toxic and harmful effects of pollutants such as lead still pose a challenge in terms of both environmental and human health in wastewater. Pb2+ ion is an amphoteric, toxic and bio accumulative type of primary pollutant commonly found in industrial wastewater. The adsorption process for Pb2+ treatment is a basic method, and in recent years, adsorption studies have been carried out with various waste adsorbents from the aquatic system. Adsorption is considered the most widely used environmental and green process to remove heavy metal ions among the different processes. So, waste-based adsorbents that do not induce pollution have been evaluated. Therefore, unmodified tea waste, banana, almond and egg shells were studied for the removal of Pb2+ ions from the aqueous matrix. With the current process, Pb2+ removal capacities were investigated by utilizing tea waste, banana, almond and egg shells in the aqueous solution. The effects of adsorbent concentrations (0.5–10 g), contact time (5–120 min), pH (2–12), and temperature (283.15–308.15 K) on the removal efficiency of Pb2+ were evaluated by batch mode adsorption experiments. The maximum removal efficiencies of Pb2+ were obtained as 89%, 93%, 98% and 99% for the four adsorbents under optimum operating conditions, respectively. Experimental results showed that the selected adsorbents are environmentally friendly, economical and easily obtainable for Pb2+ removal compared to other adsorbent types. Full article
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6 pages, 1811 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
PEM Electrolyser Digital Twin Embedded within MATLAB-Based Graphical User Interface
by Francisco Javier Folgado, Isaías González and Antonio José Calderón
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12676 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1448
Abstract
In recent years, the use of hydrogen for various applications, such as energy storage in microgrids, vehicle fuel or other industrial processes, has led to the proliferation of PEM electrolysers based on water electrolysis (PEM WE) as hydrogen generators. On the other hand, [...] Read more.
In recent years, the use of hydrogen for various applications, such as energy storage in microgrids, vehicle fuel or other industrial processes, has led to the proliferation of PEM electrolysers based on water electrolysis (PEM WE) as hydrogen generators. On the other hand, a digital twin (DT) serves as a replica of the physical device within a virtual environment, whose aim is to mimic the behaviour of the physical device. By means of this digital replica, it is possible to study the behaviour of the PEM WE within the intended system or application in a controlled and safe way, without involving the other components of the system. Typically, the monitoring and control processes of a physical system are supported by graphical user interfaces (GUI). These graphical tools serve as an interactive bridge between the user and the system, facilitating the monitoring of the system as well as the acquisition and presentation of information resulting from its operation. MATLAB is a programming and computing platform that provides users with a variety of applications and toolboxes with very specific functions. Among them is App Designer, an application focused on GUI design and development. This paper describes the design and implementation of a MATLAB-based application that embeds a digital replica of a PEM WE and a GUI dedicated to its control, all framed in the operation of a smart microgrid powered by photovoltaic energy and supported by hydrogen generation and storage. Full article
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6 pages, 2480 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Application of Combined Coagulation–Flocculation–Decantation/Photo-Fenton/Adsorption Process for Winery Wastewater Treatment
by Nuno Jorge, Ana R. Teixeira, Leonilde Marchão, Marco S. Lucas and José A. Peres
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12653 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 795
Abstract
In the present work, winery wastewater (WW) was treated by a combined coagulation–flocculation–decantation (CFD)/photo-Fenton/adsorption process. The aim of this work was to (1) optimize the CFD process with the application of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP); (2) optimize the photo-Fenton process; (3) evaluate the efficiency of [...] Read more.
In the present work, winery wastewater (WW) was treated by a combined coagulation–flocculation–decantation (CFD)/photo-Fenton/adsorption process. The aim of this work was to (1) optimize the CFD process with the application of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP); (2) optimize the photo-Fenton process; (3) evaluate the efficiency of combined CFD/photo-Fenton/adsorption process. Under the best conditions ([PVPP] = 0.5 g/L, pH = 6.0, rapid mix (rpm/min) = 150/3, slow mix (rpm/min) = 20/20, sedimentation 12 h), the CFD process achieved a total organic carbon (TOC) of 46.9 %. With the application of photo-Fenton ([Fe2+] = 2.5 mM/[H2O2] = 225 mM/ pH = 3.0), a TOC removal of 69.1 and 76.0%, respectively, for UV-A and UV-C radiation was achieved. Electric energy per order (EEO) achieved 641 and 170 kWh m−3 order−1, respectively. The application of adsorption ([Bentonite] = 1.5 g/L, pH = 6.0, agitation = 350 rpm, sedimentation = 2 h) achieved a TOC removal of 72.0 and 76.0%, respectively. In conclusion, the combined treatment is energy efficient for WW treatment. Full article
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5 pages, 1169 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigation of Mixing Non-Spherical Particles in a Double Paddle Blender via Experiments and GPU-Based DEM Modeling
by Behrooz Jadidi, Mohammadreza Ebrahimi, Farhad Ein-Mozaffari and Ali Lohi
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12661 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
In this study, we have investigated the mixing kinetics and flow patterns of non-spherical particles in a horizontal double paddle blender using both experiments and the discrete element method (DEM). The experimental data were obtained using image analysis from a rotary drum containing [...] Read more.
In this study, we have investigated the mixing kinetics and flow patterns of non-spherical particles in a horizontal double paddle blender using both experiments and the discrete element method (DEM). The experimental data were obtained using image analysis from a rotary drum containing cubical and cylindrical particles. Then, the experimental data were used in order to calibrate the DEM model. Using the calibrated DEM model, the effects of operating parameters such as vessel fill level, particle loading arrangement, and impeller rotational speed on the mixing performance were examined. The diffusivity coefficient was calculated to assess the mixing performance. Full article
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5 pages, 4093 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Treatment of Winery Wastewater by an EDDS-Photo-Fenton Process: Assessment of UV-C, UV-A and Solar Radiation
by Nuno Jorge, Carlos Amor, Ana R. Teixeira, Leonilde Marchão, Marco S. Lucas and José A. Peres
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12652 - 30 May 2022
Viewed by 747
Abstract
In this study, the treatment of a winery wastewater (WW) by a photo-Fenton process, employing a combination of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N’-disuccinic acid (EDDS) as a quelating agent and hydroxylamine (HA) to accelerate the Fe2+ recovery, was presented for the first time. The aim of [...] Read more.
In this study, the treatment of a winery wastewater (WW) by a photo-Fenton process, employing a combination of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N’-disuccinic acid (EDDS) as a quelating agent and hydroxylamine (HA) to accelerate the Fe2+ recovery, was presented for the first time. The aim of this study was to improve the photo-Fenton process under UV-C, UV-A and solar radiation. The results show that under the best operational conditions—pH = 6.0, [Fe2+] = 5.0 mM, [H2O2] = 175 mM, [EDDS] = 1.0 mM, [HA] = 1.0 mM, agitation 350 rpm, time 240 min, temperature 298 K—a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 93.2, 81.6 and 60.6% was achieved for UV-C, solar and UV-A radiation, respectively. EDDS-photo-Fenton is an excellent process for WW treatment. Full article
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7 pages, 2020 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Machine Learning Gaussian Process Regression based Robust H-Infinity Controller Design for Solar PV System to Achieve High Performance and Guarantee Stability
by Sureshraj Se Pa, Mohamed Badcha Yakoob, Priya Maruthai, Karthikeyan Singaravelu, Nalini Duraisamy, Rathi Devi Palaniappan and John Britto Pithai
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12631 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
The combined action of Machine Learning and the control system algorithm is proposed in this Renewable Energy System. The reason for proposing this Renewable Energy System is because it is a clean energy source from nature and it is free of cost. Here, [...] Read more.
The combined action of Machine Learning and the control system algorithm is proposed in this Renewable Energy System. The reason for proposing this Renewable Energy System is because it is a clean energy source from nature and it is free of cost. Here, the Renewable Energy system includes the Solar PV. This energy system has a higher scope of installation in most countries. For that, we propose a controller which achieves high performance and Guarantees Stability. In this proposed system, the disturbance and Uncertain parameters are considered both internal and external parameters. To overcome this problem, the Robust Control design is already implemented in the Control Engineering Field to attain System Stability. Conversely, this proposed method is a new approach to examine the System Stability by combining Machine Learning Gaussian Process Regression (MLGPR) with the Robust H-infinity Controller. The approach used in Machine Learning-GPR consists of gathering data of the initial system and gradually decreasing the Uncertainty, which results in an improvement of the performance. Finally, ML-GPR learns a model with Uncertainty bounds. We combined the model with a Control Framework (i.e., H-infinity Controller) that Guarantees Stability for this uncertain model. The design Environment used for the experimental verification is MATLAB/Simulink software. The Simulation Results confirmed the effectiveness of the newly proposed Control Strategy. Full article
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7 pages, 1058 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Parameter Identification Concept for Process Models Combining Systems Theory and Deep Learning
by Subiksha Selvarajan, Aike Aline Tappe, Caroline Heiduk, Stephan Scholl and René Schenkendorf
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12686 - 08 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
In recent years, dynamic process models have grown even more important in the context of Industry 4.0 and the use of digital twins. However, the accuracy of the corresponding model parameter estimates is determined by the quantity and quality of data and the [...] Read more.
In recent years, dynamic process models have grown even more important in the context of Industry 4.0 and the use of digital twins. However, the accuracy of the corresponding model parameter estimates is determined by the quantity and quality of data and the parameter identification solving methodologies used. Standard methods are based on the ordinary least squares framework. Still, other options are available that might be more sensitive to model parameter variations and ensure more precise parameter estimates. The paper presents a novel technique for parameter identification based on incorporating neural ordinary differential equations for surrogate modeling and differential flatness, i.e., a systems theory concept in control engineering. This approach may lead to improved parameter sensitivities, as demonstrated with a simulation study of a distributed-parameter identification problem assuming a diffusion-type parabolic partial differential equation. Full article
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5 pages, 1620 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
S/C Composites with Different Carbon Matrices as Cathode Materials for Metal–Sulfur Batteries
by Svetlana Novikova, Daria Voropaeva, Sergey Li and Andrey Yaroslavtsev
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12629 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
This work is devoted to a comparative study of the electrochemical properties of S/C composites with different carbon matrices, namely, carbon nanotubes, mesoporous carbon and N-doped carbon nanoflakes, as cathode materials for lithium–sulfur and sodium–sulfur batteries. The best among the investigated samples was [...] Read more.
This work is devoted to a comparative study of the electrochemical properties of S/C composites with different carbon matrices, namely, carbon nanotubes, mesoporous carbon and N-doped carbon nanoflakes, as cathode materials for lithium–sulfur and sodium–sulfur batteries. The best among the investigated samples was the composite based on sulfur and mesoporous carbon (S/MC) due to the partial encapsulation of the sulfur into the pore of the mesoporous carbon. The first-cycle discharge capacities of S/MC in the Li-S and Na-S battery cells were 1247 and 323 mAh*g−1, respectively. The discharge capacities of S/MC in the Li-S and Na-S battery cells after 10 cycles were 270 and 235 mAh*g−1, respectively. Full article
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3 pages, 793 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Nafion Solvated by Ethylene Carbonate, Dimethyl Carbonate and Dimethylacetamide as Electrolyte for Lithium Metal Batteries
by Daria Voropaeva and Andrey Yaroslavtsev
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12667 - 30 May 2022
Viewed by 864
Abstract
Lithium metal batteries are a promising replacement for lithium-ion batteries due to their ability to achieve high energy densities. However, the unsafe operation of lithium batteries due to the formation and sprouting of dendrites through the separator limits their commercial application. We obtained [...] Read more.
Lithium metal batteries are a promising replacement for lithium-ion batteries due to their ability to achieve high energy densities. However, the unsafe operation of lithium batteries due to the formation and sprouting of dendrites through the separator limits their commercial application. We obtained a gel–polymer electrolyte based on a Nafion cation-exchange membrane solvated with a ternary mixture of ethylene carbonate–dimethyl carbonate–N,N-dimethylacetamide, which has an ionic conductivity of 1.8 mS/cm at 25 °C and an electrochemical stability window of 4.1 V. The symmetrical Li/Li cell was shown to cycle stably at a current density of 0.1 mA·cm2 for >350 h. Full article
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6 pages, 2479 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Is It Possible to Stably Manage Complexes of Unstable Aggregates?
by Vladimir Kodkin
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12674 - 31 May 2022
Viewed by 1004
Abstract
The transition to green energy is widely discussed by economists, journalists and politicians. As often happens, the engineers are almost inaudible. Meanwhile, there are problems. If green energy is based on wind turbines, as the most important and powerful power units, then the [...] Read more.
The transition to green energy is widely discussed by economists, journalists and politicians. As often happens, the engineers are almost inaudible. Meanwhile, there are problems. If green energy is based on wind turbines, as the most important and powerful power units, then the problem of sustaining such an energy system will be extremely acute, especially now that wind energy is being used as a substitute for the more stable nuclear and carbon energy. All criteria for the stability of complex multidimensional systems begin with the words “All elements of the system must be stable in autonomous modes of operation...”. The report proposes several provisions that analyze the conditions for the operation of wind power complexes from the point of view of ensuring their sustainability as multidimensional, complex, dynamic systems and proposes theoretical approaches to solving the problem. Full article
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7 pages, 915 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Application of Nature-Inspired Multi-Objective Optimization Algorithms to Improve the Bakery Production Efficiency
by Majharulislam Babor and Bernd Hitzmann
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12630 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
This contribution investigates the performance of nature-inspired multi-objective optimization algorithms to reduce the makespan and oven idle time of bakery manufacturing using a hybrid no-wait flow shop scheduling model. As an example, the production data from a bakery with 40 products is investigated. [...] Read more.
This contribution investigates the performance of nature-inspired multi-objective optimization algorithms to reduce the makespan and oven idle time of bakery manufacturing using a hybrid no-wait flow shop scheduling model. As an example, the production data from a bakery with 40 products is investigated. We use the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) to determine the tradeoffs between the two objectives. The computational results reveal that the nature-inspired optimization algorithms provide solutions with a significant 8.7% reduction in makespan. Nonetheless, the algorithms provide solutions with a longer oven idle time to achieve the single goal of makespan minimization. This consequently elevates energy waste and production expenditure. The current study shows that an alternative Pareto optimal solution significantly reduces oven idle time while losing a marginal amount of makespan. Furthermore, the Pareto solution reduces oven idle time by 93 min by expanding the makespan by only 8 min. The proposed approach has the potential to be an influential tool for small- and medium-sized bakeries seeking economic growth and, as a result, gain in market competition. Full article
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3 pages, 519 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Cobalt Nanocomposites as Catalysts for Carbon Dioxide Conversion to Methanol
by Javier Moral-Vico, Anna Carrasco García and Antoni Sánchez
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12614 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 824
Abstract
Carbon capture and utilisation (CCU), has arisen as an alternative to the reduction of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere by converting it into value-added products. CO2 conversion to methanol presents certain drawbacks, such as high pressure and temperature conditions and, to [...] Read more.
Carbon capture and utilisation (CCU), has arisen as an alternative to the reduction of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere by converting it into value-added products. CO2 conversion to methanol presents certain drawbacks, such as high pressure and temperature conditions and, to solve these issues, new materials are being investigated. Among them, cobalt stands out due to its abundance and low price compared to noble metals. Cobalt and its oxides exhibit interesting electronic and magnetic properties and are being used as catalysts in a wide range of reactions. In this work, we present a systematic comparison of different cobalt and cobalt oxide nanocomposites in terms of their efficiency as catalysts for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol, and how porous and non-porous supports can enhance their catalytic capacity. For this purpose, a fixed bed reactor operating with continuous flow is used, under mild temperature (160–260 °C) and pressure (10–15 bar) conditions. Several parameters are measured to evaluate the efficiency of the catalysis: CO2 conversion; space–time yield (STY), which indicates the methanol production yield per mass unit of catalyst and reaction time, and methanol selectivity, which evaluates the production of reaction side products such as carbon monoxide. How the adsorption capacity provided by the porous supports can enhance the catalytic capacity of cobalt and cobalt oxide is confirmed, as well as how porous supports such as zeolite and graphene clearly improve this capacity compared with a non-porous support such as silicon dioxide. Full article
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6 pages, 1123 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Treatment of Agro-Industrial Wastewaters by Coagulation-Flocculation-Decantation and Advanced Oxidation Processes—A literature Review
by Nuno Jorge, Carolina Santos, Ana R. Teixeira, Leonilde Marchão, Pedro B. Tavares, Marco S. Lucas and José A. Peres
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12665 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
The agro-industry has increased over the years as a necessity to supply the needs of the population in regard to food and drink. This increase has led to the significant production of agro-industrial wastewaters characterized by a high content of organic matter, polyphenols, [...] Read more.
The agro-industry has increased over the years as a necessity to supply the needs of the population in regard to food and drink. This increase has led to the significant production of agro-industrial wastewaters characterized by a high content of organic matter, polyphenols, suspended solids, and turbidity, making these wastewaters dangerous if released into the environment without proper treatment. In this work, recent findings concerning the feasibility of coagulation–flocculation–decantation (CFD) and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for the treatment of agro-industrial wastewaters were collected and reviewed. More specifically, the mechanisms, limitations, operational conditions, and relevance of the different treatment processes for wastewater treatment and reuse are discussed. As a result, it was concluded that CFD processes and AOPs could be performed either separately or combined to achieve high efficiency in agro-industrial wastewater treatment. Full article
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5 pages, 718 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Microcalorimetric Characterization of Polymer Composites Biodegradability
by Adina Magdalena Musuc, Mihaela Doni and Vlad Tudor Popa
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12664 - 30 May 2022
Viewed by 792
Abstract
Nowadays, one of the most significant environmental risks is the slow rate of plastic materials degradation or even the non-biodegradability of some organic compounds in real-life systems. Therefore, green additives and the adequate processing of the packaging materials are necessary to intensify plastic [...] Read more.
Nowadays, one of the most significant environmental risks is the slow rate of plastic materials degradation or even the non-biodegradability of some organic compounds in real-life systems. Therefore, green additives and the adequate processing of the packaging materials are necessary to intensify plastic biodegradation under natural conditions. In this study, commercial grade low-density polyethylene (LDPE) with 1% rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract was used for the preparation of composite films. Biodegradability studies were carried out by incubating unmodified and modified composites with Aspergillus Niger. Based on microcalorimetric results, it can be concluded that rosemary extract can be used to increase the biodegradability of polyethylene films by reducing their degree of crystallinity. Full article
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6 pages, 2565 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Home Composting: A Review of Scientific Advances
by Raquel Barrena and Antoni Sánchez
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12625 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
Composting has been demonstrated to be a sustainable technology for treating organic wastes. The process is based on the microbial decomposition of organic matter under aerobic conditions to obtain compost: An organic amendment that can be safely used in agriculture and other applications. [...] Read more.
Composting has been demonstrated to be a sustainable technology for treating organic wastes. The process is based on the microbial decomposition of organic matter under aerobic conditions to obtain compost: An organic amendment that can be safely used in agriculture and other applications. Among the composted wastes, the organic fraction of municipal waste is commonly used. In this sense, the interest in composting at home or community scale is exponentially growing in recent years, as it permits the self-management of waste and obtaining a product that can be used by the own producer. However, some questions about the quality of the obtained compost or the environmental impact of home composting are in an early stage of this development. In this review, the main points related to home composting are analyzed in detail according to the current scientific knowledge. Among them: (i) The performance of the process, especially in the temperature reached and the fact that if home compost is sanitized, (ii) the quality of home composting, especially in terms of maturity and stability, (iii) the main environmental impacts of home composting, that is, gaseous emissions and (iv) the main trends related to community composting, a step forward from home composting, to make this alternative attractive for municipal organic waste management. The main advantages and possible drawbacks of home composting are also highlighted. Full article
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5 pages, 956 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Processes Supervision System for Green Hydrogen Production: Experimental Characterization and Data Acquisition of PEM Electrolyzer
by Francisco Javier Folgado, Diego Orellana, Isaías González and Antonio José Calderón
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12651 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Green hydrogen is the term used to reflect the fact that hydrogen is generated from renewable energies. This process is commonly performed by means of water electrolysis, decomposing water molecules into oxygen and hydrogen in a zero emissions process. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) [...] Read more.
Green hydrogen is the term used to reflect the fact that hydrogen is generated from renewable energies. This process is commonly performed by means of water electrolysis, decomposing water molecules into oxygen and hydrogen in a zero emissions process. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers are applied for such a purpose. These devices are complex systems with non-linear behavior which impose the measurement and control of several magnitudes for an effective and safe operation. In this context, the modern paradigm of Digital Twin (DT) is applied to represent and even predict the electrolyzer behavior under different operating conditions. To build this cyber replica, a paramount previous stage consists of characterizing the device by means of the curves that relate current, voltage, and hydrogen flow. To this aim, this paper presents a processes supervision system focused on the characterization of a experimental PEM electrolyzer. This device is integrated in a microgrid for production of green hydrogen using photovoltaic energy. Three main functions must be performed by the supervision system: measurement of the process magnitudes, data acquisition and storage, and real-time visualization. To accomplish these tasks, firstly, a set of sensors measure the process variables. In second place, a programmable logic controller is responsible of acquiring the signals provided by the sensors. Finally, LabVIEW implements the user interface as well as data storage functions. The process evolution is observed in real-time through the user interface composed by graphical charts and numeric indicators. The deployed process supervision system is reported together with experimental results to prove its suitability. Full article
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6 pages, 803 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of Fermented Teff-Based Probiotic Beverage and Its Process Monitoring Using Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectroscopy
by Sendeku Takele Alemneh, Shimelis Admassu Emire, Mario Jekle, Olivier Paquet-Durand and Bernd Hitzmann
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12650 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate a teff-based substrate (hereinafter substrate) for its suitability to carry probiotics Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LCGG) and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum A6 (LPA6). In addition, two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence spectroscopy was applied to monitor the fermentation process by analyzing its spectral data [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate a teff-based substrate (hereinafter substrate) for its suitability to carry probiotics Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LCGG) and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum A6 (LPA6). In addition, two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence spectroscopy was applied to monitor the fermentation process by analyzing its spectral data using partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and an artificial neural network (ANN). The fermentation process parameters time and inoculum were optimized to 15 h and 6 log cfu/mL, respectively. During a fermentation run using the optimized parameters, cell counts of LPA6 and LCGG were increased from 6 to 8.42 and 8.11 log cfu/mL, respectively. Values of pH, titratable acidity (TA), lactic acid, and acetic acid were measured in the ranges of 6.13–3.92, 0.37–1.5 g/L, 0–1.7 g/L, and 0.04–0.23 g/L, respectively. Glucose was progressively consumed throughout the fermentation process. For the prediction of cell counts of LPA6 and LCGG, relative root mean square error of predictions (pRMSEP) were measured between 0.25 and 0.37%. In addition, for lactic acid prediction, pRMSEP values of 7.6 and 7.7% were obtained. The findings of this research showed that cell counts of LPA6 and LCGG and content of lactic acid could be predicted accurately by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with PLSR and ANN. Moreover, whole teff flour alone could serve as a substrate to develop a probiotic-rich beverage. Full article
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6 pages, 3821 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by Application of Plant-Based Coagulants
by Nuno Jorge, Ana R. Teixeira, Leonilde Marchão, Pedro B. Tavares, Marco S. Lucas and José A. Peres
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12659 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
Five different plant-based coagulants were used with the objective of removing methylene blue (MB) color aqueous solution. The plant-based coagulants were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) which showed that these materials had high porosity [...] Read more.
Five different plant-based coagulants were used with the objective of removing methylene blue (MB) color aqueous solution. The plant-based coagulants were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) which showed that these materials had high porosity and could adsorb the contaminant MB from the aqueous solution. To increase the efficiency of the plant-based coagulants, bentonite was applied as a flocculant. Results showed MB removal of 90.9%, 91.9%, 91.4%, 86.9% and 88.9%, respectively, for seeds of Chelidonium majus L., Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca ampla Hack., Tanacetum vulgare L. and rachises of Vitis vinifera L. In conclusion, plant-based coagulants mixed with bentonite are a biologic, sustainable and cheap alternative for MB removal. Full article
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4 pages, 471 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Directional Hemispherical Reflectance in the Analysis of Expired and Unexpired Tablets Containing Nifuroxazide—The Results of a Pilot Study
by Beata Sarecka-Hujar and Beata Szulc-Musioł
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12616 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 893
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the possible usage of total directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR) in terms of the stability of tablets during storage. Expired and unexpired coating tablets containing nifuroxazide were analyzed. Reflectance was determined in seven wavelength bands using an SOC-410 Directional [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the possible usage of total directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR) in terms of the stability of tablets during storage. Expired and unexpired coating tablets containing nifuroxazide were analyzed. Reflectance was determined in seven wavelength bands using an SOC-410 Directional Hemispherical Reflectometer (Surface Optics Corporation, USA). Significantly lower (p < 0.001) mean total DHR was observed for expired tablets in comparison to unexpired tablets for all the spectral bands, apart from one in the infrared range (i.e., 1000–1700 nm). The results indicated that total reflectance lowered during the storage in all spectral bands, except infrared. Full article
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6 pages, 1211 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Online State Prediction of S. cerevisiae Cultivation Purely Based on Ethanol Gas Sensors and an Observer
by Olivier Paquet-Durand, Abdolrahim Yousefi-Darani and Bernd Hitzmann
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12678 - 01 Jun 2022
Viewed by 737
Abstract
To control a bioprocess, the determination of the current state is necessary. Most state variables require substantial effort and time to measure or sometimes are not measurable at all, and a direct measurement is not always an option. Instead, an indirect chemometric approach [...] Read more.
To control a bioprocess, the determination of the current state is necessary. Most state variables require substantial effort and time to measure or sometimes are not measurable at all, and a direct measurement is not always an option. Instead, an indirect chemometric approach based on some other easier-to-measure variable such as spectroscopy is commonly used to estimate the state of a bioprocess. In this contribution, we present another much cheaper solution for S. cerevisiae cultivations, where the only direct measurements were ethanol measurements in the headspace of the bioreactor based on metal oxide gas sensors. For the current state prediction, a process model and an unscented Kalman filter as the observer were used. The basic idea is to apply the model to predict the process state and, then, to use the ethanol measurements to correct and change the model prediction online. The main advantage of this approach is that metal oxide gas sensors are dead cheap, and in contrast to spectroscopic approaches, no expensive calibration is required. The knowledge required is the process model and a rough estimation of the kinetic parameter values. Full article
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7 pages, 2350 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of Hole Transport Layers in Inorganic Lead-Free B-γ-CsSnI3 Perovskite Solar Cells: A Numerical Analysis
by Adnan Hosen, Sabrina Rahman, Maroua Brella and Sheikh Rashel Al Ahmed
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12611 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
Tin-based halide perovskite compounds have attracted enormous interest as effective replacements for the conventional lead halide perovskite solar cells (PCSs). However, achieving high efficiency for tin-based perovskite solar cells is still challenging. Herein, we introduced copper sulfide (CuS) as a hole transport material [...] Read more.
Tin-based halide perovskite compounds have attracted enormous interest as effective replacements for the conventional lead halide perovskite solar cells (PCSs). However, achieving high efficiency for tin-based perovskite solar cells is still challenging. Herein, we introduced copper sulfide (CuS) as a hole transport material (HTM) in lead free tin-based B-γ-CsSnI3 PSCs to enhance the photovoltaic (PV) performances. The lead free tin-based CsSnI3 perovskite solar cell structure consisting of CuS/CsSnI3/TiO2/ITO was modeled and the output characteristics were investigated by using the one dimensional solar cell capacitance simulator (SCAPS-1D). The CuS hole transport layer (HTL) with proper band arrangement may notably minimize the recombination of the charge carrier at the back side of the perovskite absorber. Density functional theory (DFT)-extracted physical parameters including the band gap and absorption spectrum of CuS were used in the SCAPS-1D program to analyze the characteristics of the proposed PV device. The PV performance parameters of the proposed device were numerically evaluated by varying the absorber thickness and doping concentration. In this work, the variation of the functional temperature on the cell outputs was also studied. Furthermore, different HTMs were employed to investigate the PV characteristics of the proposed CsSnI3 PSC. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ~29% was achieved with open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.99 V, a fill factor of ~87%, and short circuit current density (Jsc) of 33.5 mA/cm2 for the optimized device. This work addressed guidelines and introduced a convenient approach to design and fabricate highly efficient, inexpensive, and stable lead free tin-based perovskite solar cells. Full article
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7 pages, 370 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
DigiFoodTwin: Digital Biophysical Twins Combined with Machine Learning for Optimizing Food Processing
by Christian Krupitzer and Tanja Noack
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12623 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1055
Abstract
Production processes must allow high flexibility and adaptivity to ensure food supply. This includes reacting to disruptions in the supply of ingredients, as well as the varying quality of ingredients, e.g., seasonal fluctuations of raw material quality. Digital twins are known from Industry [...] Read more.
Production processes must allow high flexibility and adaptivity to ensure food supply. This includes reacting to disruptions in the supply of ingredients, as well as the varying quality of ingredients, e.g., seasonal fluctuations of raw material quality. Digital twins are known from Industry 4.0 as a method to model, simulate, and optimize processes. In this vision paper, we describe the concept of a digital food twin. Due to the variability of these raw materials, such a digital twin has to take into account not only the processing steps, but also the chemical, physical, or microbiological properties that change the food independent of the processing. We propose a model-based learning and reasoning loop, which is known from self-aware computing (SeAC) systems in the so-called learn–reason–action loop (LRA-M loop), for modeling the input for the LRA-M loop of food production, not as a pure knowledge database, but data that are generated by simulations of the bio-chemical and physical properties of food. This work presents a conceptual framework on how to include data provided by a digital food twin in a self-aware food processing system to respond to fluctuating raw material quality and to secure food supply and discusses the applicability of the concept. Full article
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6 pages, 983 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fortification of Traditional Fermented Milk “Lben” with Date Powder: Physicochemical and Sensory Attributes
by Wafa Mkadem, Khaoula Belguith, Malek Ben Zid and Nourhene Boudhrioua
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12618 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1363
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of date powder supplementation on the main quality attributes of “Lben” a traditional fermented milk. Physicochemical and sensory analyses of fortified Lben showed that supplementation with date powder (6%; w/v [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of date powder supplementation on the main quality attributes of “Lben” a traditional fermented milk. Physicochemical and sensory analyses of fortified Lben showed that supplementation with date powder (6%; w/v) conducted to a decrease in acidity and an increase in pH, with a slight decrease in the final lactic bacteria count. Lben fortification with date powder improved its overall acceptability, induced an increase in color and odor intensities, and enhanced the balance of the sweet/sour tastes. Additionally, fortification resulted in the development of fruity and sweet tastes in Lben. Full article
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8 pages, 2267 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Influence of Vibroacoustic Phenomena from FFF Process on Surface Characteristics of Printed Parts
by Thiago Glissoi Lopes, Isabela Müller Martins Rocha, Paulo Roberto Aguiar and Thiago Valle França
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12615 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 1105
Abstract
The fused filament fabrication (FFF) process deals with the manufacturing of parts by adding fused plastic filaments in successive layers, following certain fill patterns. For fabrication to be successful, different filling parameters must be defined. Given the sequential nature of the FFF process, [...] Read more.
The fused filament fabrication (FFF) process deals with the manufacturing of parts by adding fused plastic filaments in successive layers, following certain fill patterns. For fabrication to be successful, different filling parameters must be defined. Given the sequential nature of the FFF process, the fabrication of the first layer is considered one of the most critical points for fault detection. The FFF process takes place in a 3D printer, where the filling patterns are achieved by moving the extruder and/or printing table along the X, Y and Z axes. Different models of 3D printers move the axes in different ways. The optical profilometry method showed good results when analyzing different topographic characteristics, such as roughness and others related to the peaks and valleys of a printed surface, when moving only the extruder. However, given that the filament deposition occurs on the printing table, the most susceptible place for vibroacoustic phenomena during the process, the present work aims to evaluate, by means of optical profilometry, the surface characteristics of a region of a certain part manufactured by moving only the printing table. The results obtained demonstrate that the surface characteristics evaluated by optical profilometry are greatly influenced by the vibroacoustic phenomena, varying significantly from the values observed when only the extruder moves. Full article
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6 pages, 1659 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fe-Modified TiO2 Nanotube Layer as a Photochemically Versatile Material for the Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water
by Sridhar Gowrisankaran, Guru Karthikeyan Thrinavukkarasu, Muhammad Bilal Hanif, Viktoriia Liapun, Tomas Roch, Leonid Satrapinskyy, Gustav Plesch, Martin Motola and Olivier Monfort
Eng. Proc. 2022, 19(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECP2022-12669 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
TiO2 nanotube layers (TNT) are prepared by electrochemical anodization of Ti foil in an electrolyte composed of ethylene glycol, ammonium fluoride, and water. The surface of TNT is modified by iron using spin-coating of Fe(NO3)3/IPA (isopropyl alcohol) solution [...] Read more.
TiO2 nanotube layers (TNT) are prepared by electrochemical anodization of Ti foil in an electrolyte composed of ethylene glycol, ammonium fluoride, and water. The surface of TNT is modified by iron using spin-coating of Fe(NO3)3/IPA (isopropyl alcohol) solution of different concentrations (10 µM−100 mM). The as-prepared materials are annealed at 450 °C for 2 h to form crystalline Fe-TNT. The phase identification and surface morphology of the materials are investigated by XRD and SEM/EDX, respectively. The novelty of this work is based on the investigation of different photochemical processes that could occur simultaneously, and it includes mainly photocatalysis and Fenton-based processes since iron is a Fenton-active element and TiO2 is a photocatalyst. To this end, the degradation of caffeine, an organic pollutant, is performed under solar-like radiation at pH = 3 using different systems that are: (i) Fe-TNT material alone; (ii) a radical precursor alone (H2O2 = 1 mM); and (iii) Fe-TNT combined with H2O2. It is worth noting the degradation mechanism of the organic pollutants occurs via advanced oxidation processes where hydroxyl radicals have been identified as the main reactive oxygen species. One of the main goals of this work is to determine the contribution of the different involved photochemical processes (photocatalysis, photo-Fenton, and photolysis) along with the potential synergy between all these processes. To resume, this work provides new insights into the concept of photochemical versatility (using Fe-TNT), which is scarcely described in the literature. Full article
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