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Uro, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 8 articles

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10 pages, 503 KiB  
Review
The Management of Urinary Tract Infections during the COVID-19 Pandemic: What Do We Need to Know?
Uro 2022, 2(1), 55-64; https://doi.org/10.3390/uro2010008 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 10923
Abstract
The landscape of management of urinary tract infections (UTI) is changing rapidly. The COVID-19 pandemic draws our attention to the SARS-CoV-2 management with a subsequent reduced attention on bacterial infections. The COVID-19 diffusion containing procedures, such as use of facemasks and handwashing, have [...] Read more.
The landscape of management of urinary tract infections (UTI) is changing rapidly. The COVID-19 pandemic draws our attention to the SARS-CoV-2 management with a subsequent reduced attention on bacterial infections. The COVID-19 diffusion containing procedures, such as use of facemasks and handwashing, have reduced spreading of bacteria and bacterial lung infections. However, a brief analysis of UTI management during the COVID-19 pandemic reveals that the pandemic has changed our management of UTI in a way that violates the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. We therefore remind all urologists and other physicians who manage patients affected by UTI about the importance of continued adherence to antimicrobial stewardship principles during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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6 pages, 203 KiB  
Article
Safety and Efficacy of Simultaneous Bilateral Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy
Uro 2022, 2(1), 49-54; https://doi.org/10.3390/uro2010007 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
A retrospective review was conducted to evaluate intraoperative and patient outcomes following simultaneous bilateral percutaneous nephrolithotomy (SB-PCNL). Target stone characteristics, operative time, hospitalization length, post-operative complications, blood loss, opioid use, pain, and stone-free rates were evaluated. In total, 42 patients with large renal [...] Read more.
A retrospective review was conducted to evaluate intraoperative and patient outcomes following simultaneous bilateral percutaneous nephrolithotomy (SB-PCNL). Target stone characteristics, operative time, hospitalization length, post-operative complications, blood loss, opioid use, pain, and stone-free rates were evaluated. In total, 42 patients with large renal stones (>20 mm2) were identified for this study, and 38% of them achieved stone-free status with no residual fragments apparent on post-operative day one CT imaging. The maximum mean residual fragment size was 3.67 mm2 and average number of residual fragments following the procedures was 1.63. The rates of blood loss, post-operative complications, opioid use, and pain from the study cohort were similar to the reported outcomes of studies conducted by others. The potential benefits of a single procedure and anesthesia to treat bilateral stone burdens, lower total pain medication prescribed, and lower hospital costs render SB-PCNL as an attractive option in the treatment of bilateral kidney stones. Full article
9 pages, 536 KiB  
Article
Soybean Extracts (Glycine Max) with Curcuma, Boswellia, Pinus and Urtica Are Able to Improve Quality of Life in Patients Affected by CP/CPPS: Is the Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine IL-8 Level Decreasing the Physiopathological Link?
Uro 2022, 2(1), 40-48; https://doi.org/10.3390/uro2010006 - 13 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
The present study evaluates the efficacy of a combination of soyabean extracts associated with Curcuma Longa, Boswellia, Pinus pinaster and Urtica dioica (PROSTAFLOG®) in patients affected by CP/CPPS, through the evaluation of interleukin-8 (IL-8) plasma seminal levels. All patients diagnosed with [...] Read more.
The present study evaluates the efficacy of a combination of soyabean extracts associated with Curcuma Longa, Boswellia, Pinus pinaster and Urtica dioica (PROSTAFLOG®) in patients affected by CP/CPPS, through the evaluation of interleukin-8 (IL-8) plasma seminal levels. All patients diagnosed with CP/CPPS, attending the same urologic center, were enrolled in this randomized, controlled phase III study. Participants were randomized to receive oral capsules of PROSTAFLOG® (two capsules at bedtime every 24 h) or Ibuprofen 600 mg (1 tablet daily), lasting for a period of four weeks. NIH-CPSI and SF-36 questionnaires, as urological evaluations with a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), the Meares–Stamey test, and IL-8 dosage in seminal plasma were performed at baseline and at 3 months follow-up. A total of 77 patients (mean age of 34.5 ± 6.1) were enrolled (PROSTAFLOG® (n = 39); ibuprofen (n = 38)) in the study. At 3 months, in the PROSTAFLOG® series, 69.2% of patients showed a significant reduction in the NIH-CPSI score, compared with 34.2% in the ibuprofen group (p < 0001). The mean IL-8 levels were significantly lower in the PROSTAFLOG® cohort compared with the ibuprofen series (p < 0.0001), while a significant reduction in the IL-8 level between the enrolment and last follow-up evaluation was also observed in this group (p < 0.0001). Additionally, a significant reduction in the volume of the seminal vesicles assessed by TRUS was also found in the PROSTAFLOG® series during the observational timeframe (18.3 ± 7.1 mL vs. 11.2 ± 2.4 mL (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, PROSTAFLOG® significantly improves the QoL in patients affected by CP/CPPS and it provides a significant reduction in IL-8 seminal levels as the overall seminal vesicles volume. Full article
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10 pages, 282 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Role of Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer: A Review of Safety
Uro 2022, 2(1), 30-39; https://doi.org/10.3390/uro2010005 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7460
Abstract
Increased risk of prostate diseases triggered by testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) remains a worldwide concern. That said, we reviewed the safety of TRT in the spheres of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa), exploring clinical findings in this regard. Compelling evidence [...] Read more.
Increased risk of prostate diseases triggered by testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) remains a worldwide concern. That said, we reviewed the safety of TRT in the spheres of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa), exploring clinical findings in this regard. Compelling evidence based on meta-analyses of randomized and observational studies indicates safety for TRT in patients suffering from prostate disorders such as BPH and PCa, at the same time improving lower tract urinary symptoms. Thus, the harmful relationship geared toward androgens and BPH seems to be overestimated as TRT has sufficient safety and, if properly prescribed, may counteract several metabolic problems. Even after PCa treatment, the benefits of TRT could outweigh the risk of recurrence, but further long-term randomized clinical trials are needed to elucidate unresolved questions. Full article
9 pages, 1428 KiB  
Article
Diagnosis and Localization of Prostate Cancer via Automated Multiparametric MRI Equipped with Artificial Intelligence
Uro 2022, 2(1), 21-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/uro2010004 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2496
Abstract
Prostate MRI scans for pre-biopsied patients are important. However, fewer radiologists are available for MRI diagnoses, which requires multi-sequential interpretations of multi-slice images. To reduce such a burden, artificial intelligence (AI)-based, computer-aided diagnosis is expected to be a critical technology. We present an [...] Read more.
Prostate MRI scans for pre-biopsied patients are important. However, fewer radiologists are available for MRI diagnoses, which requires multi-sequential interpretations of multi-slice images. To reduce such a burden, artificial intelligence (AI)-based, computer-aided diagnosis is expected to be a critical technology. We present an AI-based method for pinpointing prostate cancer location and determining tumor morphology using multiparametric MRI. The study enrolled 15 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy between April 2008 and August 2017 at our institution. We labeled the cancer area on the peripheral zone on MR images, comparing MRI with histopathological mapping of radical prostatectomy specimens. Likelihood maps were drawn, and tumors were divided into morphologically distinct regions using the superpixel method. Likelihood maps consisted of pixels, which utilize the cancer likelihood value computed from the T2-weighted, apparent diffusion coefficient, and diffusion-weighted MRI-based texture features. Cancer location was determined based on the likelihood maps. We evaluated the diagnostic performance by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve according to the Chi-square test. The area under the ROC curve was 0.985. Sensitivity and specificity for our approach were 0.875 and 0.961 (p < 0.01), respectively. Our AI-based procedures were successfully applied to automated prostate cancer localization and shape estimation using multiparametric MRI. Full article
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8 pages, 1280 KiB  
Article
Endoscopic Treatment of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: Challenging the Definition of the Maximal Lesion Size for Safe Ablation
Uro 2022, 2(1), 13-20; https://doi.org/10.3390/uro2010003 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2528
Abstract
Introduction: With advances in endoscopic treatment of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) lesions, the recommended upper limit of lesion size amenable to laser ablation was set to 2 cm. However, this limit is based on expert opinion only, and debate still exists regarding [...] Read more.
Introduction: With advances in endoscopic treatment of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) lesions, the recommended upper limit of lesion size amenable to laser ablation was set to 2 cm. However, this limit is based on expert opinion only, and debate still exists regarding this definition. Objective: To determine the maximal size of the tissue, for which total endoscopic ablation with laser energy is achievable, from a laser performance perspective. Materials and Methods: Simulating endoscopic surgery conditions, renal tissue blocks from pork kidneys in growing size from 1 cm3 to 3 cm3 were totally ablated with Ho:YAG laser (1 J, 10 Hz). The time to ablation was recorded for each tissue mass. Following the ablation, each sample was inspected microscopically by an expert pathologist to determine the extent to which the tissue was destroyed. Results: Time to ablation ranged from 16.4 min for a 1 cm3 mass, to 69.7 min for a 3 cm3 mass. Histologic evaluation after laser ablation showed that ablation was achieved in all tissue masses, and no “unaffected” tissue was present, even for lesions with a size of 3 cm3. Conclusions: This study showed that laser ablation can be achieved for tumor lesions up to a size of 3 cm3. The results of this study can contribute to the debate regarding the limits of endoscopic management of UTUC lesions and strengthen the recommended upper limit of 2 cm3 for endoscopic treatment of tumor lesions. Full article
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7 pages, 2089 KiB  
Case Report
Concomitant Radical Cystectomy and Infrarenal Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Cryopreserved Aortic Allograft: A Case Report
Uro 2022, 2(1), 6-12; https://doi.org/10.3390/uro2010002 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1800
Abstract
In localized muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), the gold standard treatment is radical cystectomy (RC) with bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND), associated with cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, whereas first-line treatment for metastatic patients is cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In men with an abdominal aortic aneurysm [...] Read more.
In localized muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), the gold standard treatment is radical cystectomy (RC) with bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND), associated with cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, whereas first-line treatment for metastatic patients is cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In men with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), elective repair is recommended when its diameter is >5.5 cm, while cryopreserved arterial allografts (CAA) offer resistance to infection. A patient with simultaneous metastatic MIBC, associated with left hydronephrosis, and infrarenal AAA of 49 mm diameter was evaluated in an interdisciplinary study. Concomitant surgery was opted for; first, the AAA repair with CAA implantation was practiced, followed by retroperitoneal and common iliac lymphadenectomy. Thereafter, RC and PLND were conducted, and a Wallace-1 ileal conduit and a stoma were constructed. Chest and abdomen contrast-enhanced CT at 2 months showed the onset of two osteolytic lesions on the left ilium. At oncological re-evaluation the patient was deemed cisplatin-fit. Full article
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5 pages, 234 KiB  
Commentary
To What Extent Does Frailty Influence the Risk of Developing Urolithiasis?
Uro 2022, 2(1), 1-5; https://doi.org/10.3390/uro2010001 - 08 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1951
Abstract
Urolithiasis has become more prevalent in recent years, given the rapid rise of the global geriatric population. Although factors such as ethnicity, dietary and fluid intake, co-morbidity status and age have been associated with increased incidence of urolithiasis, the links between frailty status [...] Read more.
Urolithiasis has become more prevalent in recent years, given the rapid rise of the global geriatric population. Although factors such as ethnicity, dietary and fluid intake, co-morbidity status and age have been associated with increased incidence of urolithiasis, the links between frailty status and risks of developing urolithiasis are not yet known. In this commentary, we will explore the scale and significance of this relationship based on emerging evidence. We will review the plausible factors on how a more severe frailty status may be significantly associated with greater risks of developing urolithiasis. We will also discuss the strategies that may help to lower the incidence of urolithiasis in older and frail individuals. We hope our article will bring greater awareness on this issue and motivate further research initiatives evaluating the relationship between frailty and urolithiasis, as well as holistic prevention strategies to lower the risks of developing urolithiasis within this vulnerable population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urinary Stones Management)
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