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Obesities, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 10 articles

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12 pages, 2802 KiB  
Article
Weight-Biased Language across 30 Years of Australian News Reporting on Obesity: Associations with Public Health Policy
by Sharon Grant, Arezou Soltani Panah and Anthony McCosker
Obesities 2022, 2(1), 103-114; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities2010010 - 01 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3109
Abstract
(1) Background: This study tracked the reporting of obesity in the Australian news media over three decades and how changing representations over time were linked to obesity-related public health policy developments. (2) Methods: Machine learning and computational language analysis techniques (word embedding, dichotomous [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study tracked the reporting of obesity in the Australian news media over three decades and how changing representations over time were linked to obesity-related public health policy developments. (2) Methods: Machine learning and computational language analysis techniques (word embedding, dichotomous bias mapping) were used to identify language biases associated with obesity in 157,237 relevant articles drawn from the Australian Dow Jones digital database of print news media articles from 1990 to 2019. (3) Results: Obesity-related terms were stigmatised on four key dimensions (gender, health, socioeconomic status, stereotypes), with language biased towards femininity and lower socioeconomic status in particular. Biases remained relatively steady from 2005 to 2019, despite recent policy initiatives directly seeking to address obesity stigma. To some degree, for each of the four dimensions, cosine values moved toward 0 over time (i.e., no association with one dimension poll or the other), but remained around 0.20. There was a strong relationship between news media and public health policy discourse over the 30-year study period. (4) Conclusions: With increasing recognition of the health consequences of weight stigma, policymakers and the media must work together to ensure public weight management narratives avoid discourse that may stigmatise heavier individuals, particularly women, and/or reinforce negative obesity stereotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weight Stigma: Experiences, Consequences, Causes and Remedies)
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9 pages, 487 KiB  
Article
Acute Effects of Muay Thai on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Adolescents with Overweight/Obesity
by Bruna Thamyres Ciccotti Saraiva, Wagner Luiz do Prado, Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei, Vinícius Flávio Milanez, Tatiana Machado de Mattos Damato, Amanda Barbosa dos Santos, William Rodrigues Tebar and Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro
Obesities 2022, 2(1), 94-102; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities2010009 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3031
Abstract
Background: To analyze the effects of a single session of Muay Thai (MT) on blood pressure and heart rate in adolescents with overweight/obesity. Methods: A total of 27 adolescents with overweight/obesity (12.85 ± 2.08 years), 13 girls and 14 boys, performed 60 min [...] Read more.
Background: To analyze the effects of a single session of Muay Thai (MT) on blood pressure and heart rate in adolescents with overweight/obesity. Methods: A total of 27 adolescents with overweight/obesity (12.85 ± 2.08 years), 13 girls and 14 boys, performed 60 min of MT composed of general and modality-specific exercises, as well as combat at the end. Anthropometric measurements were taken and body fat (BF) was measured using DEXA. Excess weight was attested via the body mass index (BMI) and BF. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by an oscillometric device before, immediately after MT, and 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. Results: SBP decreased in boys after 20 min (d = −0.73) and 30 min (d = −0.78) of recovery, and in girls after 20 min (d = −0.56). DBP decreased in girls immediately after the session (d = −0.90) and after 10 min (d = −1.00); for the total sample, when analyzed across sex, DBP decreased immediately after the session (d = −0.70) and after 10 min (d = −0.52). No effect of MT on HR recovery was observed. Conclusions: A single MT session induces positive changes in blood pressure, with a greater impact on SBP in girls. Full article
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18 pages, 322 KiB  
Article
Weight-Normative versus Weight-Inclusive Narratives in Weight-Related Public Health Campaigns: Effects on Anti-Fat Attitudes, Stigma, Motivation, and Self-Efficacy
by Suzy McGregor, Stephanie Roberts, Sharon L. Grant and Elyse O’Loghlen
Obesities 2022, 2(1), 76-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities2010008 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4792
Abstract
Research has shown that weight-related public health campaigns can inadvertently stigmatise individuals with obesity. We compared the effects of weight-normative (personal responsibility and public health crisis) versus weight-inclusive (Health at Every Size [HAES] and fat acceptance) campaign narratives on anti-fat attitudes and reactions [...] Read more.
Research has shown that weight-related public health campaigns can inadvertently stigmatise individuals with obesity. We compared the effects of weight-normative (personal responsibility and public health crisis) versus weight-inclusive (Health at Every Size [HAES] and fat acceptance) campaign narratives on anti-fat attitudes and reactions to campaigns in two studies. In study 1, participants (n = 283) from a range of Body Mass Index (BMI) categories viewed one of four mock campaigns before rating their anti-fat-attitudes (dislike, fear of fat, willpower, social distance), and reactions to the campaign (motivation, stigma). In study 2, participants (n = 175) in overweight or obese BMI categories viewed one of four mock campaigns before rating their reactions to the campaign (motivation, stigma, self-efficacy). Study 1 results showed that weight-normative campaigns were perceived as significantly more stigmatising than weight-inclusive ones. However, weight-inclusive campaigns did not decrease anti-fat attitudes or increase motivation for health behaviour change in this sample. Similarly, study 2 results showed that the personal responsibility campaign was rated as significantly more stigmatising than other campaigns among women with overweight or obesity. Fat acceptance was rated as the least stigmatising campaign in this sample, but weight-inclusive narratives did not increase motivation or self-efficacy for health behaviour change. Future research should focus on developing campaign narratives that are non-stigmatising, motivating, and efficacious by addressing health behavior benefits irrespective of sex or weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weight Stigma: Experiences, Consequences, Causes and Remedies)
12 pages, 3048 KiB  
Perspective
Obesity and Cancer: Potential Mediation by Dysregulated Dietary Phosphate
by Ronald B. Brown
Obesities 2022, 2(1), 64-75; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities2010007 - 02 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4170
Abstract
Next to smoking, obesity is the second leading preventable risk factor for cancer, but increasing rates of obesity and overweight are estimated to overtake smoking as the leading preventable cancer risk factor. Few research studies have investigated the dysregulated endocrine metabolism of dietary [...] Read more.
Next to smoking, obesity is the second leading preventable risk factor for cancer, but increasing rates of obesity and overweight are estimated to overtake smoking as the leading preventable cancer risk factor. Few research studies have investigated the dysregulated endocrine metabolism of dietary phosphate as a potential mediating factor in the association of obesity with cancer. Phosphate toxicity, the accumulation of excess phosphate in the body from dysregulated phosphate metabolism, is associated with tumorigenesis. High levels of hormones that regulate phosphate metabolism, such as parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor 23, are also associated with obesity, providing a potential link between obesity and phosphate toxicity. Increased dietary intake of inorganic phosphate is linked to excessive consumption of foods processed with phosphate additives, and consumption of ultra-processed foods is associated with an increase in the incidence of obesity. Sugar-sweetened beverages provide the single largest source of sugar and energy intake in the U.S. population, and colas containing phosphoric acid are associated with tumorigenesis, suggesting another potential connection between obesity and cancer. Furthermore, dietary phosphate is positively correlated with increases in obesity, central obesity, and metabolic syndrome. The present perspective article proposes that dysregulated dietary phosphate potentially mediates the association of obesity with cancer. Full article
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12 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Relationship of Obesity with Lifestyle and Comorbidities in Public School Teachers—A Cross-Sectional Study
by William R. Tebar, Fernanda C. S. Gil, Leandro D. Delfino, Jefferson M. Souza, Jorge Mota and Diego G. D. Christofaro
Obesities 2022, 2(1), 52-63; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities2010006 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2798
Abstract
Obesity is one of the major public health burdens, and is a global pandemic that has been associated with lifestyle habits and comorbidities in the general population. Teachers comprise a wide category of workers with unestablished factors associated with obesity. This cross-sectional epidemiological [...] Read more.
Obesity is one of the major public health burdens, and is a global pandemic that has been associated with lifestyle habits and comorbidities in the general population. Teachers comprise a wide category of workers with unestablished factors associated with obesity. This cross-sectional epidemiological study analyzed the association of obesity, defined by body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m², with work-related factors (years in the profession, hours worked weekly), lifestyle (sports practice, active commuting, TV viewing, smoking, alcohol consumption), and comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia) in a sample of 246 public school teachers. An elevated prevalence of obesity was observed in the sample (30.1%), which was associated with ≥2 h/day of TV viewing (OR: 2.10, p = 0.025) and hypertension (OR: 2.62, p = 0.010), whereas it was inversely associated with frequent active commuting by walking or cycling (OR: 0.22, p = 0.007), even after multiple adjustments. No association was observed between obesity and work-related factors. Actions focused on promoting active commuting while limiting TV time could be important strategies for facing the elevated prevalence of obesity in public school teachers. However, the analysis of longitudinal data and investigation of obesogenic determinants are still needed. Full article
1 pages, 147 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Obesities in 2021
by Obesities Editorial Office
Obesities 2022, 2(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities2010005 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1505
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
16 pages, 761 KiB  
Article
Is Food Outlet Accessibility a Significant Factor of Fruit and Vegetable Intake? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Province-Wide Study in Quebec, Canada
by Alex-Ane Mathieu, Éric Robitaille and Marie-Claude Paquette
Obesities 2022, 2(1), 35-50; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities2010004 - 25 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2512
Abstract
Unhealthy eating habits can compromise one’s health and generate significant individual, social, and health services costs. The adoption of healthy eating habits depends on individual and environmental determinants related to the characteristics of the physical, economic, political, and socio-cultural environments. The objective of [...] Read more.
Unhealthy eating habits can compromise one’s health and generate significant individual, social, and health services costs. The adoption of healthy eating habits depends on individual and environmental determinants related to the characteristics of the physical, economic, political, and socio-cultural environments. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of the physical environment, more precisely the effect of food outlet accessibility, on diet. A subsample of the CARTaGENE survey, composed of 7783 adults aged 40 to 70 years old residing in four cities in Quebec (Canada), was used. Measures of proximity as well as absolute and relative measures of the density of retail food outlets, fast-food outlets, and convenience stores near participants’ residences were used to analyze fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake. Univariate logistic regression showed that the minimal recommended portions of F&V intake (5 or more portions) were significantly associated with all seven measures of the retail food environment (OR between 0.76 and 1.27). However, these relations were mostly non-significant when confounding variables were considered in the analysis except and counterintuitively for proximity to the nearest convenience store and density of convenience stores. Variables most significantly correlated to F&V intake were individual-level confounding variables of sex, income, and education. These results show that more research is needed to understand factors explaining F&V intake in this population. Full article
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14 pages, 888 KiB  
Article
The Relationship of Internalized Weight Bias to Weight Change in Treatment-Seeking Overweight Adults
by Rachel D. Marshall, Kerry S. O’Brien and Janet D. Latner
Obesities 2022, 2(1), 21-34; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities2010003 - 19 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2646
Abstract
The present study examined data from a randomized controlled trial exploring whether behavioral weight loss treatment was associated with changes in internalized weight bias. The relationship between internalized weight bias and psychological functioning was also assessed. Participants were 106 men and women with [...] Read more.
The present study examined data from a randomized controlled trial exploring whether behavioral weight loss treatment was associated with changes in internalized weight bias. The relationship between internalized weight bias and psychological functioning was also assessed. Participants were 106 men and women with overweight or obesity enrolled in a treatment outcome study using the Lifestyle Balance Program. Participants completed measures of internalized weight bias, anti-fat attitudes, self-esteem, body image concern, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress. Variables were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and six-month follow-up. Weight bias internalization significantly decreased over the course of treatment. Baseline and follow-up internalized weight bias scores predicted change in body weight. Participants reporting the lowest levels of internalized weight bias at baseline lost nearly twice as much weight as participants reporting the highest levels of internalized weight bias. Significant associations were found between internalized weight bias, body image concern, and self-esteem. Findings indicate a relationship between internalized weight bias and weight change during behavioral weight loss treatment, highlighting the importance of assessing baseline levels of internalized weight bias in weight loss treatment studies. Higher internalized weight bias predicted poorer weight loss outcomes, indicating a need for tailored treatment approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weight Stigma: Experiences, Consequences, Causes and Remedies)
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13 pages, 563 KiB  
Article
Real World Adherence to a Severely Energy Restricted Meal Replacement Diet in Participants with Class II and III Obesity
by Gabrielle Maston, Hamid Reza Kahlaee, Janet Franklin, Elisia Manson, Alice A. Gibson, Samantha Hocking, Amanda Sainsbury and Tania P. Markovic
Obesities 2022, 2(1), 8-20; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities2010002 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3029
Abstract
Severely energy-restricted diets (SERDs) are an effective treatment for obesity, however, adherence to such diets is often perceived as poor by healthcare professionals. This investigation evaluated adherence to a 12-week SERD in participants with class II and III obesity. Reported food consumption was [...] Read more.
Severely energy-restricted diets (SERDs) are an effective treatment for obesity, however, adherence to such diets is often perceived as poor by healthcare professionals. This investigation evaluated adherence to a 12-week SERD in participants with class II and III obesity. Reported food consumption was compared against individualised SERD prescriptions. Body weight measures were obtained at baseline, 12 and 52 weeks. The data were analysed in three groups (i) the entire cohort (n = 26), (ii) completers (n = 13) and (iii) non-completers (n = 13). SERD prescription elements included (i) the number of meal replacement products; (ii) total protein; (iii) total energy intake; (iv) level of dietary energy restriction; (v) vegetable serves; (vi) water serves, and (vii) how much physical activity was performed. A generalised repeated-measures mixed-effects model was used to investigate if adherence to the program elements individually, or collectively, influenced weight loss. Completers had an average (± SD) of 4549 ± 748 kJ energy intake per day, resulting in a mean energy restriction of 62% compared to the 69% prescribed, indicating a degree of non-adherence. The percent weight changes for completers and non-completers were −7.8 ± 4.7% and −1.6 ± 2.6% at 12 weeks, and −12.2 ± 12.1% and −1.8 ± 3.2% at 52 weeks, respectively. Complete dietary adherence to a SERD may not be necessary to achieve a clinically relevant weight loss of 12% at 52 weeks, if energy is restricted by at least 62% (~4600 kJ per day) relative to requirements. Full article
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7 pages, 247 KiB  
Review
Intermittent Fasting and Fat Mass: What Is the Clinical Magnitude?
by Heitor O. Santos
Obesities 2022, 2(1), 1-7; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities2010001 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 10136
Abstract
Clinical studies addressing the benefits of intermittent fasting (IF) diets have evoked interest in the treatment of obesity. Herein, the overall effects of IF regimens on fat-mass loss are explained in a brief review through a recent literature update. To date, human studies [...] Read more.
Clinical studies addressing the benefits of intermittent fasting (IF) diets have evoked interest in the treatment of obesity. Herein, the overall effects of IF regimens on fat-mass loss are explained in a brief review through a recent literature update. To date, human studies show a reduction in fat mass from 0.7 to 11.3 kg after IF regimens, in which the duration of interventions ranges from two weeks to one year. In light of this, IF regimens can be considered a reasonable approach to weight (fat mass) loss. However, the benefits of IF regimens occur thanks to energy restriction and cannot hence be considered the best dietary protocol compared to conventional diets. Full article
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