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Hydrogen, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 10 articles

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38 pages, 4560 KiB  
Article
Blocking Hydrogen Diffusion in Palladium Cathode i—Analyzed by Electrochemistry; ii—Analyzed by Chaos
Hydrogen 2022, 3(1), 123-160; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen3010010 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 12239
Abstract
Electrochemical chaos is caused when, during diffusion, hydrogen and, at worst, tritium is trapped in palladium after the formation of adsorbates. The mechanism leads to cracking corrosion, as seen by scanning electron microscopy. The instabilities were apprehended from voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy [...] Read more.
Electrochemical chaos is caused when, during diffusion, hydrogen and, at worst, tritium is trapped in palladium after the formation of adsorbates. The mechanism leads to cracking corrosion, as seen by scanning electron microscopy. The instabilities were apprehended from voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the active potential where the cathodic hydrogen is charged from two models of transients. Tests performed using an electrochemical chaos analyzer simplify the expertise of the palladium cathode in focusing on the blocking diffusion of hydrogen. A complex electrical circuit of chaos is considered for adsorption and the blocking diffusion. Depending on the active potential, distinct behavior such as the transformation of transients and limited diffusion can occur. Phase-space spectra are obtained, and synchronization has been developed to clarify the chaos leading to the cracking of palladium. By applying these different analytical tests for the restricted diffusion, it is possible to interpret the processes from the power spectra, autocorrelation function, or the divergence coefficient in the region of active potentials. Analyzers can detect flaws in this hydrogen diffusion process and suggest corrective measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hydrogen)
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11 pages, 4826 KiB  
Article
Mechanochemical Synthesis and Hydrogen Sorption Properties of a V-Ni Alloy
Hydrogen 2022, 3(1), 112-122; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen3010009 - 02 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2193
Abstract
Vanadium can store large quantities of hydrogen (about 4 mass%). However, only half of it can be reversibly absorbed. To avoid this issue, various partial substitutions were previously proposed, such as Ni. In this work, we explore the synthesis of a V85 [...] Read more.
Vanadium can store large quantities of hydrogen (about 4 mass%). However, only half of it can be reversibly absorbed. To avoid this issue, various partial substitutions were previously proposed, such as Ni. In this work, we explore the synthesis of a V85Ni15 alloy by means of ball milling, a simpler and more scalable method compared to arc or induction melting usually applied for metal alloys. After ball milling the powders of the pure metals for 15 h in argon, SEM–EDX measurements confirmed the stoichiometry of the synthesized material, which has a typical particle dimension of the order of a few microns and is composed from the coalescence of nanometric primary particles. XRD indicated a BCC crystalline structure with a typical grain size of ≈3 nm. Hydrogen can be absorbed without activation procedures at high temperatures. Up to H/M ≈ 0.08, one can observe the occurrence of a solid solution of hydrogen in the alloy, while at a higher hydrogen content, the formation of a hydride is likely to occur. The maximum hydrogen content is H/M ≈ 0.4 at the maximum investigated pressure in this study of p ≈ 45 bar. Both the hydrogenation enthalpy and entropy decrease as the hydrogen content increases, and the shape of the sorption isotherms is different from that of V85Ni15 produced by induction melting, possibly because of the nanometric dimensions of the particles produced by ball milling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hydrogen)
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28 pages, 1166 KiB  
Article
The Renewable Hydrogen–Methane (RHYME) Transportation Fuel: A Practical First Step in the Realization of the Hydrogen Economy
Hydrogen 2022, 3(1), 84-111; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen3010008 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 13560
Abstract
The permanent introduction of green hydrogen into the energy economy would require that a discriminating selection be made of its use in the sectors where its value is optimal in terms of relative cost and life cycle reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. Consequently, [...] Read more.
The permanent introduction of green hydrogen into the energy economy would require that a discriminating selection be made of its use in the sectors where its value is optimal in terms of relative cost and life cycle reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. Consequently, hydrogen can be used as an energy storage medium when intermittent wind and solar power exceed certain penetration in the grid, likely above 40%, and in road transportation right away, to begin displacing gasoline and diesel fuels. To this end, the proposed approach is to utilize current technologies represented by PHEV in light-duty and HEV in heavy-duty vehicles, where a high-performance internal combustion engine is used with a fuel comprised of 15–20% green hydrogen and 85–89% green methane depending on vehicle type. This fuel, designated as RHYME, takes advantage of the best attributes of hydrogen and methane, results in lower life cycle carbon dioxide emissions than BEVs or FCEVs and offers a cost-effective and pragmatic approach, both locally as well as globally, in establishing hydrogen as part of the energy economy over the next ten to thirty years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hydrogen)
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1 pages, 154 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Hydrogen in 2021
Hydrogen 2022, 3(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen3010007 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 2117
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
11 pages, 2940 KiB  
Article
Hydrogen Gas Inhalation Prevents Erythrocyte Aggregation and Promotes Leukocyte Phagocytosis Together with Increases in Serum Antioxidant Activity
Hydrogen 2022, 3(1), 72-82; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen3010006 - 03 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4963
Abstract
Hydrogen gas inhalation has not yet been elucidated to improve blood behaviors or antioxidant activity in blood. In the present study, the PEM (proton-exchange-membrane)-/platinum-plated electrode-equipped electrolyzer was examined as a hydrogen gas inhaler, which was estimated to supply 3% hydrogen as rapidly as [...] Read more.
Hydrogen gas inhalation has not yet been elucidated to improve blood behaviors or antioxidant activity in blood. In the present study, the PEM (proton-exchange-membrane)-/platinum-plated electrode-equipped electrolyzer was examined as a hydrogen gas inhaler, which was estimated to supply 3% hydrogen as rapidly as post-operating 10–15 min, together with continuous 30 min retention of 20.8% oxygen being nearly equal to atmospheric oxygen contents. The 40 min inhalation of 3% hydrogen gas and thereafter 60 min rest were shown to enhance the antioxidant ability in human serum, as evaluated by ORAC (oxygen radical absorbing capacity)-based fluorometry, although scarcely enhanced for air dummy inhalation. Unexpectedly, antioxidant ability was 2.50-fold more enhanced for post-inhalational 0–60 min rest than during 40 min inhalation. Oxidative stress-suffering erythrocytes formed a rosary-chain-like aggregation composed of 3–6 cells, together with loss of a single hollow/biconcave-discoid structure in the cell central-part being necessary for erythrocyte passing through capillary vessels, both of which were prevented by 3% hydrogen gas inhalation. Hydrogen gas inhalation increased the intracellular foreign bodies, being distinguished from vacuole/cyst, in leucocytes, suggesting the hydrogen-activated leukocyte phagocytosis-associated events. Thus, 3%-hydrogen gas inhalation is suggested to potentially improve both the erythrocyte rheological/morphologic behaviors and the leucocyte phagocytosis-associated activity, concurrently with the enhanced antioxidant ability in blood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hydrogen)
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11 pages, 3482 KiB  
Article
Hydrogen-Rich Water Prevents Dehydration-Induced Cellular Oxidative Stress and Cell Death in Human Skin Keratinocytes
Hydrogen 2022, 3(1), 62-71; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen3010005 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4760
Abstract
Hypohydration is linked to increased risk of a variety of diseases and can be life-threatening, especially in elderly populations. Dehydration induces cellular damage partially through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, tissues and organs. Hydrogen molecules are known to convert [...] Read more.
Hypohydration is linked to increased risk of a variety of diseases and can be life-threatening, especially in elderly populations. Dehydration induces cellular damage partially through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, tissues and organs. Hydrogen molecules are known to convert ROS to harmless water. Therefore, theoretically hydrogen-rich water (HW) might eliminate dehydration-induced ROS and reverse its harmful effects in cells. In this in vitro study, we demonstrated that air-drying for 5 min could induce ROS generation in both nucleus and cytoplasm of human keratinocytes HaCaT as quantified by CellROX® Green/Orange reagents (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, Massachusetts, U.S.), respectively. Conversely, when the air-drying time was increased to 10 and 20 min, HaCaT cells lost the ability to produce ROS. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images showed that 10 min air-drying could induce severe membrane damage in HaCaT cells. PrestoBlue assay showed that, when HaCaT cells were air-dried for 20 min, cell viability was decreased to 27.6% of the control cells 48 h later. However, once HaCaT cells were pretreated with HW-prepared media, dehydration-induced intracellular ROS, cell membrane damage and cell death were significantly reduced as compared with double distilled water (DDW) under the same conditions. In conclusion, our data suggested that HW can decrease dehydration-induced harmful effects in human cells partially through its antioxidant capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hydrogen)
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9 pages, 775 KiB  
Article
Classical Thermodynamic Analysis of Deuterium-Based Fusion Reactions
Hydrogen 2022, 3(1), 53-61; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen3010004 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3895
Abstract
The fusion reactions involving deuterium are of great interest for the exploitation of the fusion energy via magnetic-confinement devices. In classical thermodynamics, the spontaneity of a process is established through the assessment of the change in Gibbs free energy. So far, the feasibility [...] Read more.
The fusion reactions involving deuterium are of great interest for the exploitation of the fusion energy via magnetic-confinement devices. In classical thermodynamics, the spontaneity of a process is established through the assessment of the change in Gibbs free energy. So far, the feasibility of nuclear reactions has been characterized in terms of cross section and Q-value while the entropic term (T ΔS) has been neglected. Such an assumption is always justified for fission reactions where the term ΔS is positive. In the case of fusion reactions that operate at very high temperatures (106–107 K) and where ΔS is negative, the change in Gibbs free energy may be positive, making the reaction non-spontaneous. This paper proposes a classical thermodynamic analysis of D-based reactions of interest for the magnetic-confinement fusion applications. The entropy contribution was evaluated via the Sackur–Tetrode equation while the change in enthalpy was considered constant and as corresponding to the Q-value of the fusion reaction. The results of the thermodynamic analysis are compared with nuclear reaction feasibility criteria based on the reaction reactivity. The DT and D3He reactions show a high degree of spontaneity although the second one presents a lower reactivity. An increase in temperature could enhance the reactivity of the D3He reaction at the cost of decreasing its thermodynamic spontaneity. Both branches of the DD reaction are characterized by a much lower thermodynamic spontaneity than that of the DT and D3He reactions. Furthermore, at the temperature of their maximum cross section, the DD reactions exhibit a largely positive change in Gibbs free energy and, therefore, are not spontaneous. At the temperature of magnetic-confinement fusion machines (1.5 × 108 K), among the D-based reactions studied, the DT one exhibits the highest degrees of spontaneity and reactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hydrogen)
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10 pages, 2428 KiB  
Article
Hydrogen Storage Mechanism in Sodium-Based Graphene Nanoflakes: A Density Functional Theory Study
Hydrogen 2022, 3(1), 43-52; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen3010003 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3127
Abstract
Carbon materials, such as graphene nanoflakes, carbon nanotubes, and fullerene, can be widely used to store hydrogen, and doping these materials with lithium (Li) generally increases their H2-storage densities. Unfortunately, Li is expensive; therefore, alternative metals are required to realize a [...] Read more.
Carbon materials, such as graphene nanoflakes, carbon nanotubes, and fullerene, can be widely used to store hydrogen, and doping these materials with lithium (Li) generally increases their H2-storage densities. Unfortunately, Li is expensive; therefore, alternative metals are required to realize a hydrogen-based society. Sodium (Na) is an inexpensive element with chemical properties that are similar to those of lithium. In this study, we used density functional theory to systematically investigate how hydrogen molecules interact with Na-doped graphene nanoflakes. A graphene nanoflake (GR) was modeled by a large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composed of 37 benzene rings, with GR-Na-(H2)n and GR-Na+-(H2)n (n = 0–12) clusters used as hydrogen storage systems. Data obtained for the Na system were compared with those of the Li system. The single-H2 GR-Li and GR-Na systems (n = 1) exhibited binding energies (per H2 molecule) of 3.83 and 2.72 kcal/mol, respectively, revealing that the Li system has a high hydrogen-storage ability. This relationship is reversed from n = 4 onwards; the Na systems exhibited larger or similar binding energies for n = 4–12 than the Li-systems. The present study strongly suggests that Na can be used as an alternative metal to Li in H2-storage applications. The H2-storage mechanism in the Na system is also discussed based on the calculated results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hydrogen)
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15 pages, 7733 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis for Hydrogen Flame Acceleration during a Severe Accident Initiated by SBLOCA in the APR1400 Containment
Hydrogen 2022, 3(1), 28-42; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen3010002 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2322
Abstract
We performed a hydrogen combustion analysis in the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe (APR1400) containment during a severe accident initiated by a small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) which occurred at a lower part of the cold leg using a multi-dimensional hydrogen [...] Read more.
We performed a hydrogen combustion analysis in the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe (APR1400) containment during a severe accident initiated by a small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) which occurred at a lower part of the cold leg using a multi-dimensional hydrogen analysis system (MHAS) to confirm the integrity of the APR1400 containment. The MHAS was developed by combining MAAP, GASFLOW, and COM3D to simulate hydrogen release, distribution and combustion in the containment of a nuclear power plant during the severe accidents in the containment of a nuclear power reactor. The calculated peak pressure due to the flame acceleration by the COM3D, using the GASFLOW results as an initial condition of the hydrogen distribution, was approximately 555 kPa, which is lower than the fracture pressure 1223 kPa of the APR1400 containment. To induce a higher peak pressure resulted from a strong flame acceleration in the containment, we intentionally assumed several things in developing an accident scenario of the SBLOCA. Therefore, we may judge that the integrity of the APR1400 containment can be maintained even though the hydrogen combustion occurs during the severe accident initiated by the SBLOCA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hydrogen)
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27 pages, 6371 KiB  
Article
Techno-Economic Analysis of a Process to Convert Methane to Olefins, Featuring a Combined Reformer via the Methanol Intermediate Product
Hydrogen 2022, 3(1), 1-27; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen3010001 - 30 Dec 2021
Viewed by 5946
Abstract
The substantial growth in shale-derived natural gas production in the US has caused significant changes in the chemical and petrochemical markets. Ethylene production of ethane and naphtha via steam cracking is one of the most energy- and emission-intensive activities in chemical manufacturing. High [...] Read more.
The substantial growth in shale-derived natural gas production in the US has caused significant changes in the chemical and petrochemical markets. Ethylene production of ethane and naphtha via steam cracking is one of the most energy- and emission-intensive activities in chemical manufacturing. High operating temperatures, high reaction endothermicity, and complex separation create high energy demands as well as considerable CO2 emissions. In this study, a demonstration of a transformational methane-to-ethylene process that offers lower emissions using energy optimization and a CO2 minimum-emission approach is presented. The comparisons of different reforming processes suggest that the dry reforming of methane has a negative carbon footprint at low syngas ratios of 1 and below, and that additional carbon emissions can be reduced using integrated heating and cooling utilities, resulting in a 99.24 percent decrease in CO2. A process design implemented to convert methane into value-added chemicals with minimum CO2 emissions is developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hydrogen)
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