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Surgeries, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 15 articles

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8 pages, 2469 KiB  
Case Report
Urethral Sheath to Evacuate Blood Clots through Mitrofanoff Appendicovesicostomy
by Marcello Della Corte, Erica Clemente, Mattia Sibona, Elisa Cerchia, Berenice Tulelli, Paolo Gontero and Simona Gerocarni Nappo
Surgeries 2023, 4(2), 293-300; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries4020030 - 16 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Background: the Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy provides a catheterizable submucosal tunnel between umbilicus and bladder (or neobladder). In patients with a closed bladder neck, the Mitrofanoff channel is the only way to access the bladder. We describe our case of a 17 year-old girl with [...] Read more.
Background: the Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy provides a catheterizable submucosal tunnel between umbilicus and bladder (or neobladder). In patients with a closed bladder neck, the Mitrofanoff channel is the only way to access the bladder. We describe our case of a 17 year-old girl with a Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy and a previous surgical closure of the bladder neck and who developed a large bladder clot due to hematuria after a surgical cystolithotomy in an augmented bladder; Methods: after an unsuccessful trans-appendicovesicostomy bladder washing, the endoscopic evaluation was performed using a 14 Ch rigid cystoscope and surrounded by its own urethral sheath. The clot was progressively fragmented through the cystoscope under direct vision. Clot fragments were aspirated to obtain a complete evacuation; Results: the urethral sheath prevented damages to the appendicovesicostomy, allowing at the same time repeated accesses of the cystoscope into the neobladder and ensuring the procedural success. The postoperative period was uneventful, and the neobladder catheter was removed after two days. Neither channel stenosis nor anastomosis dehiscence nor incontinence were reported after five months; Conclusions: the use of urethral sheath 14 Ch through an appendicovesicostomy preserves both the stoma and the channel, making possible endoscopic procedures such as blood clot evacuation into the neobladder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perioperative Patient Blood Management)
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10 pages, 635 KiB  
Article
The Role of Cisternostomy in the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Triple-Center Study
by Manuel Encarnación Ramirez, Ismael Peralta Baez, Harmonie Marszal Mangbel’ Mikorska, Jeff Natalaja Mukengeshay, Renat Nurmukhametov, Matias Baldoncini, Jesus Lafuente, Carlos Ovalles, Michael David López Santos, Gennady E. Chmutin and Nicola Montemurro
Surgeries 2023, 4(2), 283-292; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries4020029 - 7 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1643
Abstract
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a critical public health problem worldwide, constituting a major cause of mortality and morbidity for people of all ages, but especially in the younger population. Decompressive craniectomy (DC) and cisternostomy are surgical procedures commonly used in the [...] Read more.
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a critical public health problem worldwide, constituting a major cause of mortality and morbidity for people of all ages, but especially in the younger population. Decompressive craniectomy (DC) and cisternostomy are surgical procedures commonly used in the management of severe TBI, but their effectiveness in improving outcomes remains controversial. Methods: We conducted a prospective longitudinal study on patients who underwent surgical treatment for severe TBI between 2021 and 2022. The extended Glasgow outcome scale (GOS-E) was used to assess clinical outcome at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. Results: The study included 30 patients (21 men and 9 women) who met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 24 patients (80%) underwent DC combined with cisternostomy, while 6 patients (20%) underwent cisternostomy alone. The initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission ranged from 4 to 8 points, with an average score of 5.9. The overall mortality and overall morbidity was 13.3% and 20%, respectively. The mortality rate was 12.5% and 16.7% in the DC + cisternostomy group and in the cisternostomy alone group, respectively. No statistically significant difference was seen between the two groups in terms of mortality, morbidity and favorable outcome at 2 weeks, 3 months and 6 months. Conclusions: Our preliminary multi-center study shows a good clinical outcome in patients who underwent DC + cisternostomy or cisternostomy alone in both early and long-term follow-up. Larger multi-center randomized trials are needed to establish the effectiveness of cisternostomy in the management of TBI. Full article
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8 pages, 1992 KiB  
Case Report
ATTR Variant Amyloidosis in Patients with Dysphagia
by Christina Hui Lee Ng, Gerald J. Berry and Edward J. Damrose
Surgeries 2023, 4(2), 275-282; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries4020028 - 6 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1511
Abstract
Amyloidosis is a rare disease characterized by the accumulation of misfolded extracellular proteins in various organs. Over 30 precursor proteins have been identified that can form amyloid deposits in different parts of the body. The most frequently encountered amyloidosis variant is the immunoglobulin [...] Read more.
Amyloidosis is a rare disease characterized by the accumulation of misfolded extracellular proteins in various organs. Over 30 precursor proteins have been identified that can form amyloid deposits in different parts of the body. The most frequently encountered amyloidosis variant is the immunoglobulin light chain amyloid (AL). In this report, we present a unique case of a patient with biopsy-confirmed hypopharyngeal amyloidosis caused by transthyretin (ATTR). While hypopharyngeal involvement has been hypothesized in the past, conclusive reports are lacking, although rare instances of hypopharyngeal involvement by the AL variant of amyloidosis have been reported. We present the first case of biopsy-proven ATTR systemic amyloidosis with cardiomyopathy and hypopharyngeal involvement. Full article
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11 pages, 568 KiB  
Review
Exploring Artificial Intelligence in Anesthesia: A Primer on Ethics, and Clinical Applications
by Marco Cascella, Maura C. Tracey, Emiliano Petrucci and Elena Giovanna Bignami
Surgeries 2023, 4(2), 264-274; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries4020027 - 29 May 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6703
Abstract
The field of anesthesia has always been at the forefront of innovation and technology, and the integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) represents the next frontier in anesthesia care. The use of AI and its subtypes, such as machine learning, has the potential to [...] Read more.
The field of anesthesia has always been at the forefront of innovation and technology, and the integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) represents the next frontier in anesthesia care. The use of AI and its subtypes, such as machine learning, has the potential to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and ameliorate patient outcomes. AI can assist with decision making, but its primary advantage lies in empowering anesthesiologists to adopt a proactive approach to address clinical issues. The potential uses of AI in anesthesia can be schematically grouped into clinical decision support and pharmacologic and mechanical robotic applications. Tele-anesthesia includes strategies of telemedicine, as well as device networking, for improving logistics in the operating room, and augmented reality approaches for training and assistance. Despite the growing scientific interest, further research and validation are needed to fully understand the benefits and limitations of these applications in clinical practice. Moreover, the ethical implications of AI in anesthesia must also be considered to ensure that patient safety and privacy are not compromised. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of AI in anesthesia, including its current and potential applications, and the ethical considerations that must be considered to ensure the safe and effective use of the technology. Full article
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11 pages, 2609 KiB  
Communication
Percutaneous Lengthening with an Intramuscular Needle of the Gastrocsoleus Complex Improves Critical Ankle Kinematic Values in Resistant Pediatric Equinus: A Pilot Study
by Ignacio Martínez-Caballero, María Galán-Olleros, Rosa M. Egea-Gámez, J. Ignacio Serrano, Ana Ramírez-Barragán, Álvaro Pérez-Somarriba Moreno, Carlos Martín-Gómez and Sergio Lerma-Lara
Surgeries 2023, 4(2), 253-263; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries4020026 - 29 May 2023
Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Retrospective analytical study that aims to evaluate the kinematic and kinetic results obtained after percutaneous lengthening with an intramuscular needle (PLIN) of gastrocsoleus complex (GSC) zones I, II, and III, performed outside the operating room between 2018 and 2019, in pediatric patients with [...] Read more.
Retrospective analytical study that aims to evaluate the kinematic and kinetic results obtained after percutaneous lengthening with an intramuscular needle (PLIN) of gastrocsoleus complex (GSC) zones I, II, and III, performed outside the operating room between 2018 and 2019, in pediatric patients with equinus gait resistant to non-operative treatment. Gait analysis was performed prior to treatment and 6 months post treatment in 48 ankles (30 patients), with a median patient age of 10.11 (2.85) years. Twelve patients had a diagnosis of idiopathic equinus, twelve spastic hemiplegia, and six spastic diplegia. Statistical analysis included pre–post comparison, correlation, and linear regression of critical kinematic and kinetic ankle values. Significant improvement was observed for the following parameters: ankle angle at initial contact, −4.57(10.31)/0.05(3.04)°; maximum ankle dorsiflexion in the stance phase (mADFStP), 3.70(7.56)/10.42(4.52)°; and maximum ankle dorsiflexion in the swing phase (mADFSwP), −6.54(8.41)/−0.35(6.17)°. In addition, an inversely proportional correlation with pre-intervention values was obtained for those parameters, with rho values of −0.864, −0.755, and −0.696, respectively (p < 0.0005). No significant changes in ankle kinetics were evidenced. Linear regression equations allowed for estimation of the post mADFStP, with a standard error (SE) = 1.82; R2 = 0.797 (p < 0.0005), and the post mADFSwP, with an SE = 2.376; R2 = 0.829 (p < 0.0005). To conclude, the addition of the GSC in patients with resistant equinus significantly improves ankle initial contact, mADFStP, and mADFSwP, with greater changes occurring with worse initial values. The regression formulas used to estimate post-procedure results will allow therapeutic indications to be adjusted. Full article
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7 pages, 4467 KiB  
Case Report
Hybrid Exoscopic and Robotic Transoral Removal of a Bilateral Hilar Submandibular Stone: Technical Note and Review of the Literature
by Giovanni Cammaroto, Francesco Moretti, Giuseppe Meccariello, Carlos Miguel Chiesa-Estomba, Claudio Vicini and Pasquale Capaccio
Surgeries 2023, 4(2), 246-252; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries4020025 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 1029
Abstract
Submandibular gland sialolithiasis can be addressed by gland removal or by stone removal. Intraoral stone removal has now become the go-to technique to minimize aesthetic and functional sequelae (e.g., marginalis mandibulae injury, visible surgery scar) and, although traditional techniques were first experimented with [...] Read more.
Submandibular gland sialolithiasis can be addressed by gland removal or by stone removal. Intraoral stone removal has now become the go-to technique to minimize aesthetic and functional sequelae (e.g., marginalis mandibulae injury, visible surgery scar) and, although traditional techniques were first experimented with (intraoral ducotomy), newer techniques drew the interest of the scientific community: sialoendoscopy, TORS-S (TransOral Robotic Surgery Assisted–Sialolithotomy) and VITOM-guided sialolithotomy. In this article, we compare the two newest transoral techniques for transoral sialolithotomy, TORS-S and 3D-4K VITOM-guided sialolithotomy, used to treat bilateral hilar submandibular gland sialolithiasis in the same patient, one technique for each side. Using these techniques, a faster recovery is achievable with almost no anatomical and/or functional sequelae, since they both allow better visualization and manipulation of soft tissues and noble structures (e.g., lingual nerve and Wharton’s duct) and make surgery easier and safer. Moreover, OR staff can better perceive surgical steps and be involved in the procedure, thus showing the high educational and training potential of these technologies. Full article
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11 pages, 2223 KiB  
Case Report
Malignant Gastrointestinal Neuroectodermal Tumor: A Case Report and Literary Review for a Rare Differential Diagnosis
by Cinzia Baccaro, Noemi Zorzetti, Manuela Cuoghi, Adele Fornelli, Tania Franceschini, Sara Coluccelli, Vincenzo Cennamo and Giuseppe Giovanni Navarra
Surgeries 2023, 4(2), 235-245; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries4020024 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 1756
Abstract
Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET) is an infrequent soft-tissue sarcoma, formerly referred to as clear-cell sarcoma-like gastrointestinal tumor (CCSLGT) and frequently reported in the literature as clear-cell sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract (CCS-GI); it is characterized by an absence of melanocytic differentiation and [...] Read more.
Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET) is an infrequent soft-tissue sarcoma, formerly referred to as clear-cell sarcoma-like gastrointestinal tumor (CCSLGT) and frequently reported in the literature as clear-cell sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract (CCS-GI); it is characterized by an absence of melanocytic differentiation and the presence of nontumoral osteoclast-like giant cells (OLGCs). The current study reports a case of a 79 year old woman admitted to the emergency department (ED) with symptoms of constipation and intestinal obstruction; a mass was found within the ileal wall necessitating of surgical approach. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells surprisingly had the hallmark of GNETs. Unfamiliarity with tumors with the features of GNETs can easily lead to a misdiagnosis by surgical pathologist. Therefore, comprehensive evaluation, including morphology and additional studies, is required for an appropriated diagnosis. Furthermore, without a high index of suspicion, there is actually no consensus on staging or treatment. Full article
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12 pages, 1934 KiB  
Case Report
Dermal Cosmetic Migration after Lip Augmentation Procedure: Clinical Management and Histological Analysis in a Case Report with Review of the Literature
by Antonio Scarano, Francesco Inchingolo, Maristella Di Carmine, Marco Marchetti, Felice Lorusso, Roberto Amore and Domenico Amuso
Surgeries 2023, 4(2), 223-234; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries4020023 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2303
Abstract
Lip augmentation procedures have become gradually more popular and common due to cultural tendencies and an increasing association of the appearance of the lips with both beauty and youth. Different dermal fillers have been proposed for lip augmentation—such as collagen, calcium hydroxylapatite, hyaluronic [...] Read more.
Lip augmentation procedures have become gradually more popular and common due to cultural tendencies and an increasing association of the appearance of the lips with both beauty and youth. Different dermal fillers have been proposed for lip augmentation—such as collagen, calcium hydroxylapatite, hyaluronic acid, and polylactic acid—which are used as temporary fillers. The present case report describes the histopathologic and clinical management of one case of HA filler migrating into the intraoral cheek, which caused discomfort by intraoral swelling. There is also a review of the relevant literature. A female patient, V.A., 34 years old, smoker, no allergies to drug and food substances, came to our attention. The patient was referred to the Department of Innovative Technology in Medicine and Dentistry of the University “G. D’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara in Italy by her dentist for the removal of a mass present in the right cheek. The clinical examination of the patient revealed a single mobile mass mimicking a soft tissue tumor in the right anterior cheek. The mass was palpable and approximately 2 cm long and was causing pain and swelling. The mucosa appeared healthy without ulcers. The filler, which had migrated into the cheek, was removed by reaching it with a scalped blade. The material was stored immediately in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histological analysis. The literature search was carried out in accordance with the criteria of the PICO guidelines. Observed histologically, the filler was surrounded by fibroblasts and a few inflammatory cells and giant cells without granuloma formation. The clinical diagnosis was swelling and discomfort caused by chewing trauma, while the histological examination excluded discomfort due to a foreign body reaction caused by the HA used for a lip augmentation procedure. In conclusion, the high-pressure and high-volume filler injections probably caused a detachment of the tissues, with the orbicularis oris muscle concurrently acting as a pump and moving the HA implant, causing migration to the area with low-density tissue such as the cheek. Full article
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11 pages, 2629 KiB  
Communication
Can We Extend the Indications for Multilevel Surgery to Non-Ambulatory Children with Neuromuscular Diseases? A Safety and Efficacy Study
by María Galán-Olleros, Ignacio Martínez-Caballero, Gonzalo Chorbadjian-Alonso, Rosa M. Egea-Gámez, David Sánchez-López, Ana Ramírez-Barragán, Manuel Fraga-Collarte and Sergio Lerma-Lara
Surgeries 2023, 4(2), 212-222; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries4020022 - 13 May 2023
Viewed by 1272
Abstract
A retrospective study that aims to analyze the safety and efficacy of single-event multilevel surgery (SEMLS) involving bifocal femoral osteotomy (BFO) performed in nine non-ambulatory children with neuromuscular diseases (NMD), with a median age of 12.86 years, to resolve both hip subluxation and [...] Read more.
A retrospective study that aims to analyze the safety and efficacy of single-event multilevel surgery (SEMLS) involving bifocal femoral osteotomy (BFO) performed in nine non-ambulatory children with neuromuscular diseases (NMD), with a median age of 12.86 years, to resolve both hip subluxation and ipsilateral knee flexion contracture that impaired standing, and to evaluate patient and caregiver satisfaction. Results: Median surgical time was 4 h 15 min (2 h 35 min–5 h 50 min). Hip flexion deformity improved by a median of 30° (15–35), while median improvement in knee flexion deformity was 30° (20–50). Only two patients could use a standing frame prior to surgery, although with increasing difficulty, while all children could use it following SEMLS. Mean follow-up was 27.47 months (24.33–46.9). Significant blood loss requiring transfusion was the only complication recorded (8/9). All caregivers reported slight, moderate, or significant improvement in all domains of the questionnaire, and all would undergo the procedure again and recommend it to others, as nearly all (8/9) were very satisfied. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that SEMLS including BFOs in non-ambulatory children with NMD can correct hip, knee, and foot deformities and simultaneously realign lower limbs to restore functional standing and wheelchair transfer. The functional results, safety, and degree of satisfaction achieved justify offering this strategy to families. Full article
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16 pages, 3323 KiB  
Article
Primary Human Ligament Fibroblast Adhesion and Growth on 3D-Printed Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications
by Jean-Gabriel Lacombe, Megan E. Cooke, Hyeree Park, Suliman Mohammed Alshammari, Rahul Gawri, Showan N. Nazhat, Paul A. Martineau and Derek H. Rosenzweig
Surgeries 2023, 4(2), 196-211; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries4020021 - 3 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
The current gold standard technique for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is reconstruction with a tendon autograft. These treatments have a relatively high failure and re-rupture rate and are associated with early-onset osteoarthritis, developing within two decades of injury. Furthermore, [...] Read more.
The current gold standard technique for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is reconstruction with a tendon autograft. These treatments have a relatively high failure and re-rupture rate and are associated with early-onset osteoarthritis, developing within two decades of injury. Furthermore, both autografting and allografting come with several drawbacks. Tissue engineering and additive manufacturing present exciting new opportunities to explore 3D scaffolds as graft substitutes. We previously showed that 3D-printed scaffolds using low-cost equipment are suitable for tissue engineering approaches to regenerative medicine. Here, we hypothesize that Lay-Fomm 60, a commercially available nanoporous elastomer, may be a viable tissue engineering candidate for an ACL graft substitute. We first printed nanoporous thermoplastic elastomer scaffolds using low-cost desktop 3D printers and determined the mechanical and morphological properties. We then tested the impact of different surface coatings on primary human ACL fibroblast adhesion, growth, and ligamentous matrix deposition in vitro. Our data suggest that poly-L-lysine-coated Lay-Fomm 60 scaffolds increased ligament fibroblast activity and matrix formation when compared to uncoated scaffolds but did not have a significant effect on cell attachment and proliferation. Therefore, uncoated 3D printed Lay-Fomm 60 scaffolds may be viable standalone scaffolds and warrant further research as ligament tissue engineering and reconstruction grafts. Full article
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8 pages, 2503 KiB  
Brief Report
Use of Ethanol Injections to Create a Complete Atrioventricular Block in a Rat Model
by Abdelmotagaly Elgalad, Ahmed E. Hanafy, Angel Moctezuma-Ramirez, Allison Post, Mathews John, Yutao Xi and Mehdi Razavi
Surgeries 2023, 4(2), 188-195; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries4020020 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1202
Abstract
Complete atrioventricular block (AVB) is an abnormal heart rhythm resulting from a defect in the cardiac conduction system. Patients with complete AVB are at risk of symptoms ranging from syncope or hypotension to cardiovascular collapse or sudden cardiac death. A reliable animal model [...] Read more.
Complete atrioventricular block (AVB) is an abnormal heart rhythm resulting from a defect in the cardiac conduction system. Patients with complete AVB are at risk of symptoms ranging from syncope or hypotension to cardiovascular collapse or sudden cardiac death. A reliable animal model of complete AVB is essential for understanding the mechanisms underlying the fatal hemodynamic effects and alterations in electrical conductivity associated with this arrhythmia. We evaluated the use of ethanol injections in a systematic surgical approach to create a complete AVB model in rats. We used eight Sprague Dawley rats (8 weeks old, 220 ± 30 g): four received a 70% ethanol injection in the AV node, and four received a similar injection of 0.9% sodium chloride. Our surgical approach involved performing a partial sternotomy, using the epicardial fat as a landmark for ethanol injections. Animals were followed for 7 and 14 days. Complete AVB was successfully induced in all four rats that received ethanol injections. Rats in the control group experienced a transient AVB with a return to sinus rhythm. Our study found that using 70% ethanol injections in a systematic surgical approach is a reliable, safe, and reproducible way of creating a complete AVB model in rats. Full article
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13 pages, 2994 KiB  
Article
The Evaluation of a Surgical Task-Sharing Program in South Sudan
by Mina Salehi, Irena Zivkovic, Stephanie Mayronne, Jean-Pierre Letoquart, Shahrzad Joharifard and Emilie Joos
Surgeries 2023, 4(2), 175-187; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries4020019 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1450
Abstract
Five billion people lack access to surgery, with the highest burden being in sub-Saharan Africa. As the surgical workforce is crucial in closing this gap, the University of British Columbia collaborated with Médecins Sans Frontières to create and launch the Essential Surgical Skills [...] Read more.
Five billion people lack access to surgery, with the highest burden being in sub-Saharan Africa. As the surgical workforce is crucial in closing this gap, the University of British Columbia collaborated with Médecins Sans Frontières to create and launch the Essential Surgical Skills (ESS) task-sharing program, which consists of online learning modules and hands-on surgical training. Our study aimed to evaluate this pilot program. This is a mixed-method prospective cohort study to evaluate the effectiveness of the ESS program in South Sudan. Quantitative data included patient outcomes (complications, re-operation, and mortality), surgical proficiency of the trainees (quiz, entrustable professional activity (EPA), and logbook data), and electronic surveys. We used semi-structured interviews to collect qualitative data. From July 2019 to February 2021, three trainees performed 385 operations. The most common procedures were skin graft (14.8%) and abscess drainage (9.6%). A total of 172 EPAs were completed, of which 136 (79%) demonstrated the independence of the trainees. During the training, surgical mortality (0.56% vs. 0.13%, p = 0.0541) and morbidity (17% vs. 12%, p = 0.1767) remained unchanged from the pretraining phase. Interviews and surveys revealed that surgical knowledge and interprofessional teamwork improved throughout the training. The program empowered trainees to develop surgical career paths and increased their local acceptance among patients and other healthcare providers. This study confirmed the feasibility of a surgical task-sharing program in South Sudan. This program evaluation will hopefully inform Ministries of Health and their partners for the development of a training pillar of National Surgical, Obstetric, and Anesthesia Plans in the sub-Saharan African region. Full article
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11 pages, 1333 KiB  
Case Report
Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome Manifesting as an Early Complication after Lower Bilobectomy
by Carmelina C. Zirafa, Alessandra Lenzini, Paolo Spontoni, Claudia Cariello, Luca Doroni, Adrea Pieroni, Anna S. Petronio and Franca Melfi
Surgeries 2023, 4(2), 164-174; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries4020018 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1039
Abstract
Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is an uncommon clinical condition characterized by orthostatic dyspnea and hypoxemia. The case of a female patient who manifested postoperative episodes of sudden oxygen desaturation, dyspnea, and systemic arterial hypotension following lower bilobectomy for lung adenocarcinoma was reported. After meticulous [...] Read more.
Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is an uncommon clinical condition characterized by orthostatic dyspnea and hypoxemia. The case of a female patient who manifested postoperative episodes of sudden oxygen desaturation, dyspnea, and systemic arterial hypotension following lower bilobectomy for lung adenocarcinoma was reported. After meticulous clinical investigations, the patient proved to be affected by a rare form of postural dyspnea: platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome, a clinical disorder described in the middle of the last century. The pathophysiology was found in an intracardiac mechanism of right-to-left blood shunt, combined with lung and chest wall modification. Atrial septal defect, such as patent foramen ovale (PFO), is a common cause of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome; the rescue closure of PFO usually allows for an immediate and consistent improvement of the symptoms. Full article
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12 pages, 699 KiB  
Review
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Pathogenesis and Its Relation to Obesity—Where Do We Stand? A Narrative Review
by Vasiliki Chatziravdeli, Evdokia Psaroulaki, Grigoriοs Rodiftsis and Georgios Katsaras
Surgeries 2023, 4(2), 152-163; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries4020017 - 4 Apr 2023
Viewed by 3080
Abstract
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is the most common adolescent hip disorder in children 9–15 years old with an incidence that ranges from 0.33:100,000 to 24.58:100,000. Idiopathic SCFE is strongly associated with obesity, while atypical SCFE is associated with endocrinopathies, metabolic and renal [...] Read more.
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is the most common adolescent hip disorder in children 9–15 years old with an incidence that ranges from 0.33:100,000 to 24.58:100,000. Idiopathic SCFE is strongly associated with obesity, while atypical SCFE is associated with endocrinopathies, metabolic and renal disease, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In this review, we summarized the current data regarding the pathogenesis of SCFE and its association to obesity. In the last years, there have been increasing evidence regarding the implication of obesity in the pathogenesis of SCFE, but no definitive mechanism has been proven. The etiology is probably multifactorial, with both mechanical and metabolic factors contributing to the disease, with the later gaining more ground, especially in obese patients. Understanding what causes the disease will help paediatricians and orthopaedists develop more efficient strategies for treating patients and diminishing complication rates. Full article
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11 pages, 1935 KiB  
Article
Implantation of a Vascular Access Button for Chronic Blood Sampling and Drug Administration in the Rabbit
by Jon Ehrmann, Wendy Johnson, Arlene de Castro and Marcie Donnelly
Surgeries 2023, 4(2), 141-151; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries4020016 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
Rabbits are commonly used for pharmacokinetic (PK) and toxicokinetic (TK) studies in the research setting, requiring repetitive venipuncture, which can be challenging in this species. The auricular vessels are commonly used for venipuncture in rabbits. The repetitive access of these delicate vessels can [...] Read more.
Rabbits are commonly used for pharmacokinetic (PK) and toxicokinetic (TK) studies in the research setting, requiring repetitive venipuncture, which can be challenging in this species. The auricular vessels are commonly used for venipuncture in rabbits. The repetitive access of these delicate vessels can lead to trauma such as hematomas causing venipuncture to become more challenging as the study progresses. In turn, this leads to missed time points or insufficient blood samples. Surgical models for chronic vascular access in rabbits are common throughout the industry. Common models include exteriorized vascular catheters and implanted vascular access ports. However, these implants come with their own complications and restrictions when used in rabbits. Therefore, the authors evaluated the use of a vascular access button (VAB), an implant commonly used in small rodents, as a refinement to the current chronic models in use in the industry. Seventeen rabbits were implanted with either single or dual channel VABs. The catheters were implanted in the femoral artery and/or vein and then tunneled subcutaneously to the button on the dorsal thoracic area. Overall, the results were outstanding, and an established model was created. The average patency rate was 316 days with several implants still patent after 2 years. The authors feel the implantation and use of a vascular access button in rabbits for routine PK studies is an excellent refinement. The rabbits tolerate the buttons extremely well with minimal issues. The patency rate is equal to or better than vascular access ports and when used with the tethering system, provides a hands-off method for blood collection and intravenous administration in rabbits during PK studies. Full article
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