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World, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 14 articles

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12 pages, 644 KiB  
Article
How Economic Growth Contributes to CO2 Emissions in the Presence of Globalization and Eco-Innovations in South Asian Countries?
by Usman Mehmood, Salman Tariq, Zia Ul Haq, Muhammad Umar Aslam and Ali Imran
World 2023, 4(1), 202-213; https://doi.org/10.3390/world4010014 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1744
Abstract
Many nations made pledges at the Paris climate conference to eventually become carbon neutral. As a result, the effects of eco-innovations (ECO), globalization (GLO), and economic growth (GDP) on CO2 emissions in a panel comprising India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and [...] Read more.
Many nations made pledges at the Paris climate conference to eventually become carbon neutral. As a result, the effects of eco-innovations (ECO), globalization (GLO), and economic growth (GDP) on CO2 emissions in a panel comprising India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Bhutan are assessed in this work. This study employs a unique panel (QARDL) methodology to data from 1980Q1 to 2018Q4 for analysis. The purpose of this study is to find the relation between GDP, GLO, ECO and CO2. The results show that environmental quality is being harmed because of GLO and GDP. Climate-change-causing CO2 emissions are decreasing globally thanks to ECO. Furthermore, the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) theory in developing nations has been confirmed by this work. This study implies that the selected South Asian countries should switch to renewable energy sources to improve environmental quality. In addition, governments will need to rethink their approach to global trade. Importing effective technologies for producing renewable energy should be a priority. The future looks bright for these nations, as rising environmental consciousness will likely lead to the adoption of stringent environmental rules. Full article
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17 pages, 714 KiB  
Case Report
Markusen’s Typology with a “European” Twist, the Examples of the French Aerospace Valley Cluster and the Andalucia Aerospace Cluster
by Vasileios Kyriazis and Theodore Metaxas
World 2023, 4(1), 185-201; https://doi.org/10.3390/world4010013 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1870
Abstract
The phenomenon of firms grouping together has been extensively researched and is commonly known as industrial clusters. There are various ways to categorize these clusters, and in this paper, we adopt Markusen’s classification, which identifies four distinct types of industrial districts: the Marshallian/Italianate [...] Read more.
The phenomenon of firms grouping together has been extensively researched and is commonly known as industrial clusters. There are various ways to categorize these clusters, and in this paper, we adopt Markusen’s classification, which identifies four distinct types of industrial districts: the Marshallian/Italianate type, the hub-and-spoke type, the satellite industrial platforms, and the state-anchored clusters. Adding to Markusen’s typology, we will also try to delineate these two clusters’ “European Aspects”. We will examine if they have developed any “inter-European” synergy/ies with other entities (clusters, companies, E.U. institutions, etc.) of the E.U. ecosystem. The creation of such synergies includes the creation of technology innovation and interpersonal networks to serve as conduits for the diffusion of knowledge and exchange of information, the development of innovation initiatives between the entities of the technological ecosystem of the E.U. defense industry, and the creation of tangible “knowledge links”. The aim of this study is to investigate which of the four types of industrial clusters described by Markusen the French Aerospace Valley cluster of the Midi-Pyrénées and Aquitaine regions and the Andalucia Aerospace cluster belong to. Full article
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14 pages, 1089 KiB  
Article
Elucidating Well-Being Measurement from the Wellness Perspective of Religious Travelers
by Siti Hasnah Hassan, Thurasamy Ramayah and Muhammad Imran Qureshi
World 2023, 4(1), 171-184; https://doi.org/10.3390/world4010012 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1670
Abstract
The holistic conceptions of multi-dimensional well-being that synergize the constructs that capture all elements of the well-being of travelers are lacking in current literature. This study aims to develop an instrument to measure religious travelers’ well-being based on multi-dimensional well-being from the perspective [...] Read more.
The holistic conceptions of multi-dimensional well-being that synergize the constructs that capture all elements of the well-being of travelers are lacking in current literature. This study aims to develop an instrument to measure religious travelers’ well-being based on multi-dimensional well-being from the perspective of Muslim travelers who traveled to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to perform Umrah to gauge their level of well-being. The scale development technique was employed by creating, refining, and validating the instrument. The final survey instrument, which was administered using a purposive snowball sampling procedure, featured 30 items representing six dimensions of well-being. The final dataset included 202 Muslims who traveled to perform Umrah and were analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) using AMOS 21.0 software. Four low-loading items were removed, leaving 26 items with a satisfactory model fit that covered six wellness dimensions: physical, spiritual, emotional, social, intellectual, and financial well-being. The findings contribute to the literature on religious tourism by providing an in-depth description of the experience of a religious pilgrimage for Muslims and their subsequent sense of fulfillment. The newly constructed instrument is believed to provide a more comprehensive view on well-being, allowing for a more nuanced assessment of a traveler’s well-being upon return. Full article
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18 pages, 9763 KiB  
Article
The Neglected Solutions: Local Farming Systems for Sustainable Development in the Amazon
by Gabriel da Silva Medina and Claudio Wilson Soares Barbosa
World 2023, 4(1), 153-170; https://doi.org/10.3390/world4010011 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1919
Abstract
The productive inclusion of local communities is one of the main challenges to sustainable rural development in the Amazon. Existing development initiatives often prioritize projects with exogenous production systems; thus, local systems are overlooked, despite their large coverage. Based on surveys conducted in [...] Read more.
The productive inclusion of local communities is one of the main challenges to sustainable rural development in the Amazon. Existing development initiatives often prioritize projects with exogenous production systems; thus, local systems are overlooked, despite their large coverage. Based on surveys conducted in 107 riparian communities and detailed case studies in eight communities doing ranching, logging, and fishing, this study describes local management systems developed by rural communities in the confluence between the Amazon and Xingu Rivers. The study showed that (1) local management systems for buffalo ranching, logging, and fishing agreements were found in 61%, 60%, and 21% of the 107 riparian communities, respectively; (2) these systems are based on local know-how and on technological solutions that are locally available; and (3) the improvement and consolidation of these local systems require governmental support. The study reveals that local and traditional farming practices may underpin sustainable development in the Amazon. Full article
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13 pages, 268 KiB  
Article
Effects of COVID-19 on Kenya’s Healthcare System: Healthcare Providers’ Experiences with Maternal Health Services Utilization in Coastal Kenya
by Stephen Okumu Ombere and Agnetta Adiedo Nyabundi
World 2023, 4(1), 140-152; https://doi.org/10.3390/world4010010 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2244
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic overstretched health systems in developed and developing nations. Like other African nations, Kenya has a frail health system, making responding to the pandemic a problem. Recent studies during COVID-19 have shown that Kenya’s health systems were either strained to their [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic overstretched health systems in developed and developing nations. Like other African nations, Kenya has a frail health system, making responding to the pandemic a problem. Recent studies during COVID-19 have shown that Kenya’s health systems were either strained to their maximum capability or worse in handling patients. Therefore, citizens were advised not to go to the hospital unless necessary. This advice applies to all, including pregnant mothers. This article utilized the anthropological description of the healthcare system, viewed as a cultural system attached to particular provisions of social institutions and forms of social connections. It is a social and cultural system in origin, structure, function, and significance. In every society, healthcare systems are forms of social reality in which they embody specific social roles and relationships between these roles. There is a dearth of information on how healthcare providers experienced the effects of COVID-19 on Kenya’s healthcare system, which this study addresses for those in Coastal Kenya. This rapid qualitative study utilized data from sixteen purposefully selected healthcare providers in charge of various departments in Kilifi County of Coastal Kenya. We utilized thematic analysis and textual description to present our findings. It emerged that there was a diversion in resources allocated for maternal health programs, health facilities were temporarily shut down due to inadequate resources and equipment for health workers, there was a lack of preparation by health workers, there was a reduced flow of pregnant mothers and missing scheduled appointments for ante- and postnatal clinics, maternal mortality increased, and mothers resorted to traditional midwives for deliveries. These findings show that maternal health services were negatively affected. Thus, the government needs to institute alternative measures for continued access to maternal health services during pandemics. We recommend expanding and supporting the existing community midwifery model (CMM). For instance, incorporating community health workers (CHWs) and other local health institutions in the community, such as traditional birth attendants (TBAs), and creating midwifery centers managed by trained midwives in communities. Full article
18 pages, 3161 KiB  
Article
CLLD in the 2014–2020 EU Programming Period: An Innovative Framework for Local Development
by Stefan Kah, Haris Martinos and Urszula Budzich-Tabor
World 2023, 4(1), 122-139; https://doi.org/10.3390/world4010009 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2360
Abstract
This paper presents an overview of how the Community-led Local Development (CLLD) instrument has been used in the EU in the 2014–2020 programming period. It provides a typology of countries applying the options offered by CLLD and illustrates the various ways in which [...] Read more.
This paper presents an overview of how the Community-led Local Development (CLLD) instrument has been used in the EU in the 2014–2020 programming period. It provides a typology of countries applying the options offered by CLLD and illustrates the various ways in which the different eligible EU funds were contributing financially. The article discusses the experiences made with CLLD implementation, focusing on the purpose for which CLLD was implemented, the barriers encountered, and the achievements so far. A particular look is taken at the urban dimension of CLLD as one of the innovative elements of the 2014–2020 programming period. Overall, CLLD can bring significant added value for the targeted territories and can foster an increased policy integration. However, challenges remain, particularly around administrative complexities, and these impact on the willingness of policy-makers to make use of the full range of options offered by CLLD. Indeed, looking into 2021–2027, there are countries discontinuing CLLD, but, at the same time, the CLLD model is being expanded where experiences have been predominantly positive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Opportunities for Rural Development)
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12 pages, 246 KiB  
Article
Impact of Chronic Diseases on Labour Force Participation among South African Women: Further Analysis of Population-Based Data
by Michael Ekholuenetale, Anthony Ike Wegbom, Clement Kevin Edet, Charity Ehimwenma Joshua, Amadou Barrow and Chimezie Igwegbe Nzoputam
World 2023, 4(1), 110-121; https://doi.org/10.3390/world4010008 - 09 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1954
Abstract
The impact of chronic diseases on labour force participation is not frequently examined or considered as part of cost-of-illness studies. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic diseases on labour force participation among South African women. This study [...] Read more.
The impact of chronic diseases on labour force participation is not frequently examined or considered as part of cost-of-illness studies. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic diseases on labour force participation among South African women. This study included 6126 women from the 2016 South African Demographic and Health Survey. Labour force participation/employment was the outcome variable. Data were analyzed in percentage and multivariable binary logistic regression. Results showed that approximately 28.7% of women participated in the labour force and about 5.0% had diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes among women who are not in the labour force was 5.5%, whereas those in the labour force reported 3.8% prevalence of diabetes. The diabetic women had 35% reduction in labour force participation when compared with non-diabetic women (aOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.89). Geographical region was associated with labour force participation. Rural women and those currently in union/living with a man had 35% (aOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.56 to 0.76) and 27% (aOR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.85) reduction in labour force participation, respectively, when compared with their urban and single counterparts. The findings of this study revealed that diabetes was significantly associated with reduction in labour force participation among women. Full article
15 pages, 831 KiB  
Article
Oecumene: Repositioning Ourselves in Our Habitat
by Roderick J. Lawrence
World 2023, 4(1), 95-109; https://doi.org/10.3390/world4010007 - 02 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1993
Abstract
We should rethink individual and collective positions that promote and sustain the health of the planet and people in an era of increasing uncertainty and unpredictability concerning various threats to our lives and the livelihoods of all living species on Earth. This fundamental [...] Read more.
We should rethink individual and collective positions that promote and sustain the health of the planet and people in an era of increasing uncertainty and unpredictability concerning various threats to our lives and the livelihoods of all living species on Earth. This fundamental rethink is a prerequisite before radical societal change is implemented to respond more effectively to persistent global problems than numerous ineffective responses during the last 50 years. Our positionality, which defines and is mutually defined by fundamental values and worldviews, will influence how we anticipate or discount the risk and threats to our common future. This contribution follows a period of documentary research and personal reflections at the Ecumenical Institute at the Château de Bossey, in Switzerland. The aim was to reconsider a global, conceptual framework that acknowledges pluralism and includes an ecumenic and ecological interpretation of people–environment interrelations. Given that ecumene, economy, and ecology have the same linguistic roots in ancient Greek philosophy, combining them with core principles of human ecology creates an inclusive and wholistic framework for repositioning ourselves using eco-ethical principles and equitable and just values in a world of persistent problems that threaten life on Earth. This repositioning can begin by reconnecting children and adults with natural ecosystems, and three approaches currently applied are included. Full article
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15 pages, 2902 KiB  
Article
A Gender Study of Food Stress and Implications for International Students Acculturation
by Ruining Jin, Tam-Tri Le, Thu-Trang Vuong, Thi-Phuong Nguyen, Giang Hoang, Minh-Hoang Nguyen and Quan-Hoang Vuong
World 2023, 4(1), 80-94; https://doi.org/10.3390/world4010006 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3793
Abstract
Acculturative stress can be a big problem for international students. Among the adaptation difficulties they may face, adjusting to new foods in a new environment is crucial to their well-being. Existing studies related to dietary acculturation point to gender differences, mostly on objective [...] Read more.
Acculturative stress can be a big problem for international students. Among the adaptation difficulties they may face, adjusting to new foods in a new environment is crucial to their well-being. Existing studies related to dietary acculturation point to gender differences, mostly on objective health impacts. Using the information processing approach, this study aims to examine the subjective perception of dietary acculturation difficulties, with a focus on the influence of social connectedness. Using the Bayesian inference approach with the Hamiltonian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique on a sample of 268 students from a Japanese international university, we found that female students are more likely to have perceived difficulties in the process of adjusting to new foods, but social connectedness lessens this effect. We also found no significant differences between domestic and international students regarding perceived difficulties of food adjustment in this study site, likely due to its highly multicultural environment. We suggest international universities provide better information about the food situations on campuses, especially for female students, and organize more cultural exchange events and food-related social activities to help students overcome barriers of food stress. Full article
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24 pages, 1727 KiB  
Article
Exploring Justice in the Process of Redesigning Local Development Strategies for LEADER: Representation, Distribution, and Recognition
by Franziska Lengerer, Tialda Haartsen and Annett Steinführer
World 2023, 4(1), 56-79; https://doi.org/10.3390/world4010005 - 17 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1729
Abstract
After its first funding period from 1991 to 1994, LEADER was positively evaluated as a successful strategy to empower actors at the regional level, enable regional development and contribute to territorial cohesion within the European Union. Critical studies, however, have highlighted elitist tendencies [...] Read more.
After its first funding period from 1991 to 1994, LEADER was positively evaluated as a successful strategy to empower actors at the regional level, enable regional development and contribute to territorial cohesion within the European Union. Critical studies, however, have highlighted elitist tendencies in LEADER processes and asked whether the proclaimed goal of strengthening ‘the local’ contributes to new or other forms of social and spatial injustice. Our research focus lies in how representation, distribution, and recognition—as the three interrelated dimensions of justice according to Nancy Fraser—are featured in the discourse related to redesigning a local development strategy (LDS). During this process, which is conceived as the most open and inclusive phase in each LEADER funding period, we conducted expert interviews and participatory observations in a case study region and gathered media reports, documents, and official regulations. In our analysis of issues of representation, distribution, and recognition, we also focus on the spatial scales that are referred to and the ways in which the involved actors challenge and justify the status quo. Our analysis explicates the actors’ implicit normative understandings as well as their different perspectives and positions considering perceived injustice. Even though the LDS process provides opportunities to negotiate these positions and to work towards more just representation, distribution, and recognition, they are partly constrained by structural and individual dependencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Opportunities for Rural Development)
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16 pages, 3421 KiB  
Article
Closed Season and the Distribution of Small-Scale Fisheries Fishing Effort in Davao Gulf, Philippines
by Edison D. Macusi, Andre Chagas da Costa-Neves, Christian Dave Tipudan and Ricardo P. Babaran
World 2023, 4(1), 40-55; https://doi.org/10.3390/world4010004 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4487
Abstract
The Davao Gulf supports various livelihoods and activities for small-scale and commercial fisheries. However, facing a declining catch, a closed season was implemented to arrest the decline. This study aimed to describe the Davao Gulf fisheries, determine the movement patterns of fishing boats [...] Read more.
The Davao Gulf supports various livelihoods and activities for small-scale and commercial fisheries. However, facing a declining catch, a closed season was implemented to arrest the decline. This study aimed to describe the Davao Gulf fisheries, determine the movement patterns of fishing boats during closed and open seasons, and quantify and compare their catch and their fishing distances. Boat tracking was combined with catch logbook monitoring of fishers and supplemented with interview surveys (N = 35) and mapping surveys (N = 167), including the use of secondary catch data. Results from the interviews showed that the average age of the fishers was 45 years old, with 27 years of fishing experience using motorized boats with 8 HP engines. Their average catch was 7 kg per trip dominated by big-eyed scad (Selar crumenophthalmus), frigate tuna (Auxis thazard), roundscad (Decapterus spp.), skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). There were highly significant differences between the volume of catch of small-scale fishers and commercial fishers after the closure in 2014 (278 t vs. 80 t; p < 0.001) and between the species caught (p < 0.001). Fishing activities were associated with a speed class of 0–1 km/h, while the average moving speed was 5.28 km/h. Fishing ground overlap was common among fishers from the same port of origin but not fishers of different ports. Some fishers move farther away from their port during the closure period. Our study provided a better understanding of fishing effort distribution in the Davao Gulf. Full article
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3 pages, 162 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of World in 2022
by World Editorial Office
World 2023, 4(1), 37-39; https://doi.org/10.3390/world4010003 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1193
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
16 pages, 3299 KiB  
Article
‘Nexus’ Narratives in Urban Vulnerable Places: Pathways to Sustainability via Municipal Health Programs in Brazil
by Alberto Matenhauer Urbinatti, Simone Ley Omori-Honda, Carolina Monteiro de Carvalho, Klaus Frey, Pedro Roberto Jacobi and Leandro Luiz Giatti
World 2023, 4(1), 21-36; https://doi.org/10.3390/world4010002 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
In recent years, the water–energy–food (WEF) nexus approach has been widely used as a framework in the context of urban Sustainability. However, some elements of the approach are normative, leading to a technical view of resources and technocratic policy implementation. To avoid such [...] Read more.
In recent years, the water–energy–food (WEF) nexus approach has been widely used as a framework in the context of urban Sustainability. However, some elements of the approach are normative, leading to a technical view of resources and technocratic policy implementation. To avoid such tendencies, this study uses the framework of ‘nexus of humility’. We used insights from the Science and Technology Studies to better assess the interactions between water, energy, and food, and consider the social construction aspects of the nexus itself. The approach of Pathways to Sustainability is combined with this framework to analyze two government programs in the cities of São Paulo and Guarulhos, Brazil; namely, the Green and Healthy Environments Program and the Environmental Health Program, respectively. We interviewed 20 individuals linked to these policies and analyzed narratives inductively and deductively. The results showed six groups of narratives, namely: environmental and social determinants of health, health prevention and promotion, intersectorality, politics and economy, territory, learning, and participation. Moreover, we concluded that narratives related to the WEF nexus, even if not explicitly part of the government guidelines, are present within the existing axes of action. Public health was understood as an important support pillar for the development of synergies related to Sustainability in urban areas. Finally, we sought to contribute to the literature by showing how this new framework can ‘open up’ avenues for sustainability within the contexts of high urban vulnerability and social inequality. Full article
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20 pages, 4536 KiB  
Article
Stochastic Evaluation of the Investment Risk by the Scale of Water Infrastructures—Case Study: The Municipality of West Mani (Greece)
by David Markantonis, G.-Fivos Sargentis, Panayiotis Dimitriadis, Theano Iliopoulou, Aimilia Siganou, Konstantina Moraiti, Maria Nikolinakou, Ilias Taygetos Meletopoulos, Nikos Mamassis and Demetris Koutsoyiannis
World 2023, 4(1), 1-20; https://doi.org/10.3390/world4010001 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2296
Abstract
Social structure is based on the availability of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus. To cover these needs of society, several solutions of different scales of infrastructures coexist. The construction of infrastructure is capital-intensive; therefore, investment risk is always a consideration. In this paper, we try [...] Read more.
Social structure is based on the availability of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus. To cover these needs of society, several solutions of different scales of infrastructures coexist. The construction of infrastructure is capital-intensive; therefore, investment risk is always a consideration. In this paper, we try to evaluate the investment risk by interest rates (IR). We show that IR is a key indicator, which includes multiple parameters of prosperity expressing the political and economic status quo of the society. The selection of a particular scale influences the required capital and is thus one of the most critical decisions. Water supply infrastructure is one of the foundations of society, and the selection of the optimal scale of such infrastructure is often a great challenge in civil engineering. As a case study, we analyse three different scales of water supply infrastructures for the area of West Mani (Greece), i.e., dam, water ponds, and seawater desalination. We evaluate each case by the capital intensity by performing stochastic simulations of interest rates and identify the optimal solution as the one with the smallest median unit cost, in this case, the water ponds. In order to assess the impact of the development level of a country on the resulting unit cost stochastic properties we apply the optimal solution to various countries with different development levels and IR. We show that IR in the least developed countries, being generally higher and more variable, increases the unit cost, including its variability, which ultimately indicates higher investment risk. Full article
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