In recent decades, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become a popular ambient sensing and model-based solution for various applications. WSNs are now achievable due to the developments of micro electro mechanical and semiconductors logic circuits with rising computational power and wireless communication technology.
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In recent decades, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become a popular ambient sensing and model-based solution for various applications. WSNs are now achievable due to the developments of micro electro mechanical and semiconductors logic circuits with rising computational power and wireless communication technology. The most difficult issues concerning WSNs are related to their energy consumption. Since communication typically requires a significant amount of energy, there are some techniques/ways to reduce energy consumption during the operation of the sensor’s communication systems. The topology control technique is one such effective method for reducing WSNs’ energy usage. A cluster head (CH) is usually selected using a topology control technique known as clustering to control the entire network. A single factor is inadequate for CH selection. Additionally, with the traditional clustering method, each round exhibits a new batch of head nodes. As a result, when using conventional techniques, nodes decay faster and require more energy. Furthermore, the inceptive energy of nodes, the range between sensor nodes and base stations, the size of data packets, voltage and transmission energy measurements, and other factors linked to sensor nodes are also completely unexpected due to irregular or hazardous natural circumstances. Here, unpredictability represented by Triangular Fuzzy Numbers (TFNs). The associated parameters of nodes were converted into crisp ones via the defuzzification of fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy number has been defuzzified using the well-known signed distance approach. Here, we have employed a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach to choosing the CHs depending on a bunch of characteristics of each node (i) residual energy, (ii) the number of neighbors, (iii) distance from the sink, (iv) average distance of cluster node, (v) distance ratio, and (vi) reliability. This study used the entropy-weighted Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) approach to select the CH in WSNs. For experiments, we have used the NSG2.1 simulator, and based on six characteristics comprising residual energy, number of neighbor nodes, distance from the sink or base station (BS), average distance of cluster nodes, distance ratio, and reliability, optimal CHs have been selected. Finally, experimental results have been presented and compared graphically with the existing literature. A statistical hypothesis test has also been conducted to verify the results that have been provided.