# Inter-Limb Asymmetry in the Kinematic Parameters of the Long Jump Approach Run in Female Paralympic-Level Class T63/T64 Athletes

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

_{SYM}) is considered a robust method to document asymmetry-related parameters (i.e., the magnitude and the direction of asymmetry) without considering, in the calculation, the existence of a reference limb that poses a limitation in the asymmetry estimation [16,20]. When the θ

_{SYM}method is used, the right-side value is plotted against the respective left-side value, forming an angle with regard to the x-axis [21]. When a 45° angle is created, symmetry is considered to be evident [21].

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Participants

#### 2.2. Data Acquisition

_{MAX}) and the distance of its occurrence from the take-off board (S

_{Vmax}) were evaluated using a Stalker ATS 5.02 radar (Applied Concepts Inc., Richardson, TX, USA; sampling rate: 46.9 Hz). The speed radar was fixed at a height of 1 m on a tripod located parallel to the middle axis of the runway 10 m from the far end of the sand pit. The radar was adjusted to be pointed directly at the middle of the lower torso of the jumpers.

#### 2.3. Data Analysis

_{MAX}and the S

_{Vmax}from the take-off board were calculated after the application of a zero lag, 4th-order Butterworth filter on the acquired data from the speed radar. The cutoff frequency was set at 8 Hz [50].

_{%ADJ}) and the shorter last step (SL1

_{%ADJ}), were calculated as the percentage difference between the penultimate step to the 3rd-to-last step and the last step to the 2nd-to-last-step, respectively.

_{FL}) and contact (t

_{C}) phase was measured for each step using the time-instants of touch-down (first field depicting ground contact) and take-off (first field presenting the break of the ground contact). In addition, step frequency (SF) and average approach step velocity (SV) were estimated as follows (Equations (1) and (2)):

_{SYM}) method [21]. The θ

_{SYM}was calculated as presented in Equation (3):

_{SYM}is the symmetry angle, x

_{INT}is the mean value for the INT steps and x

_{PWL}is the mean value for the PWL steps. However, if the relationship depicted in Equation (4) occurred

_{SYM}values, the direction of asymmetry indicated a larger INT value, whereas a negative θ

_{SYM}indicated a larger PWL value. For the convenience of the comparison of the magnitude of the θ

_{SYM}values among the examined step parameters, the absolute θ

_{SYM}values were included in the statistical analyses [51].

#### 2.4. Statistical Analysis

_{PWL}and x

_{INT}values. Cohen’s d was used to estimate the effect size (<0.2: trivial, <0.5: small, <0.8: moderate, and ≥0.8: large) [52] To determine asymmetry, the procedure presented by Exell et al. [51] and Theodorou et al. [6] was conducted.

## 3. Results

_{FL}, and t

_{C}values than the respective INT steps. Conversely, PWL steps had lower SF compared to the steps commenced from the INT. These observations were not evident for SV.

_{PWL}to x

_{INT}difference was observed for SF (Table 2), with the comparison for SV just missing statistical significance (p = 0.05). The θ

_{SYM}magnitude was 1.79 ± 1.28%, 3.28 ± 2.24%, and 3.19 ± 2.46%, for SL, SF, and SV, respectively. Significant (p < 0.05) asymmetry was revealed for SL in 2/12 jumpers, SF in 3/12 jumpers, and SV in 1/12 jumpers. In the case of SV, significant asymmetry occurred in concordance with SF asymmetry.

_{MAX}(r = 0.861, p < 0.001) and moderately negatively correlated to the magnitude of θ

_{SYM}for SF (r = −0.661, p = 0.019).

## 4. Discussion

_{MAX}was significantly positively correlated with the official long jump result. The correlation coefficient found in the present study was similar for below- and above-knee amputees [39], even larger than those reported in the past for elite female amputee athletes [40], and comparable to able-bodied female jumpers [55]. This finding suggests that the athletes in this study were able to take advantage of the speed attained during the approach [40], which is a determining factor for long jump performance [5]. In general, the closing of the performance gap in the long jump between the Olympic and unilateral lower-limb amputee Paralympic jumpers [56] reveals that Paralympic athletes perform the long jump technique effectively using prostheses.

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Depiction of the data analysis, with the reference markers indicated in the yellow dashed circles. (

**a**) the initiation of the toe–board distance (TBD) measure; (

**b**) the TBD measurement at the 3 m marker. In this case, the take-off point of the penultimate step is at a distance of 3.59 m from the take-off line.

**Figure 2.**Results for the examined temporal and kinematic parameters. (

**a**) step length; (

**b**) step frequency; (

**c**) average step velocity; (

**d**) contact (t

_{C}) and flight (t

_{FL}) time.

**Figure 3.**The results for the direction of asymmetry for the T63 and T64 Class female long jumpers (PWL: leg wearing the prosthesis; INT: the intact limb; SL: step length; SF: step frequency; SV: average step velocity).

Parameter | Minimum | Maximum | Mean | SD | Skewness | Kurtosis |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

TBD at take-off (m) | 0.05 | 0.16 | 0.09 | 0.03 | 0.96 | 0.74 |

Vapp_{MAX} (m/s) | 6.14 | 7.96 | 7.12 | 0.59 | −0.36 | −0.75 |

S_{Vmax} (m) | 1.75 | 8.54 | 5.49 | 2.13 | −0.47 | −0.33 |

SL2_{%ADJ} (%) | −6.40 | 17.71 | 4.48 | 9.26 | −0.05 | −1.57 |

SL1_{%ADJ} (%) | −29.61 | 14.72 | −2.74 | 15.58 | −0.51 | −1.26 |

_{MAX}: maximum speed attained at the approach; S

_{Vmax}: distance from the board where Vapp

_{MAX}was achieved; SL2

_{%ADJ}: the percentage difference between the length of the 2nd-to-last compared to the 3rd-to-last step of the approach; SL1

_{%ADJ}: the percentage difference between the length of the last compared to the 2nd-to-last step of the approach.

Parameter | x_{PWL} | x_{INT} | t | p | d |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

SL (m) | 1.71 ± 0.13 | 1.66 ± 0.15 | 1.512 | 0.159 | 0.38 |

SF (Hz) | 3.69 ± 0.32 * | 4.09 ± 0.19 | 5.331 | <0.001 | 1.52 |

SV (m/s) | 6.37 ± 0.82 | 6.81 ± 0.72 | 2.198 | 0.050 | 0.57 |

_{PWL}: average value for the leg wearing the prosthesis; x

_{INT}: average value for the intact leg; SL: step length; SF: step frequency; SV: average step velocity; *: p < 0.05 compared to x

_{INT}.

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

García-Fresneda, A.; Panoutsakopoulos, V.; Padullés Riu, J.-M.; Torralba Jordán, M.A.; López-del Amo, J.L.; Padullés, X.; Exell, T.A.; Kotzamanidou, M.C.; Metaxiotis, D.; Theodorou, A.S.
Inter-Limb Asymmetry in the Kinematic Parameters of the Long Jump Approach Run in Female Paralympic-Level Class T63/T64 Athletes. *Prosthesis* **2024**, *6*, 146-156.
https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis6010012

**AMA Style**

García-Fresneda A, Panoutsakopoulos V, Padullés Riu J-M, Torralba Jordán MA, López-del Amo JL, Padullés X, Exell TA, Kotzamanidou MC, Metaxiotis D, Theodorou AS.
Inter-Limb Asymmetry in the Kinematic Parameters of the Long Jump Approach Run in Female Paralympic-Level Class T63/T64 Athletes. *Prosthesis*. 2024; 6(1):146-156.
https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis6010012

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

García-Fresneda, Adrián, Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos, Josep-Maria Padullés Riu, Miguel Angel Torralba Jordán, José Luís López-del Amo, Xavier Padullés, Timothy A. Exell, Mariana C. Kotzamanidou, Dimitrios Metaxiotis, and Apostolos S. Theodorou.
2024. "Inter-Limb Asymmetry in the Kinematic Parameters of the Long Jump Approach Run in Female Paralympic-Level Class T63/T64 Athletes" *Prosthesis* 6, no. 1: 146-156.
https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis6010012