Next Issue
Volume 4, September
Previous Issue
Volume 4, March
 
 

Dairy, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 8 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Whey cheeses have been produced from the very early steps of cheesemaking practices as a sustainable way to utilize whey, which is the main by-product of cheesemaking. The production of whey cheese is based on the denaturation of whey proteins by heating to 88–92 °C. The specific processing conditions and aspects of the microbiology of whey cheeses are discussed. The special characteristics of whey cheeses, including a high pH and high moisture contents, make them susceptible to microbial growth. Due to the limited shelf life of these products, extended research has been carried out to extend the shelf life of whey cheese. Sustainable preservation approaches, such as modified atmosphere packaging, the addition of herbs and/or plant extracts, and bio-preservation methods, are reviewed. Moreover, novel whey cheeses focused on functional properties have developed over the last 10 years. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
3 pages, 204 KiB  
Editorial
Mycotoxins in the Dairy Industry
by Carlos Humberto Corassin and Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira
Dairy 2023, 4(2), 392-394; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4020025 - 14 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1014
Abstract
Dairy animals’ diets may be naturally and simultaneously contaminated by several fungi that are able to produce different secondary toxic metabolites, known as mycotoxins [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in the Dairy Industry)
32 pages, 9343 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Oral Exposure of Dairy Cows to the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol (DON) through Toxin Residues in Blood and Other Physiological Matrices with a Special Focus on Sampling Size for Future Predictions
by Sven Dänicke, Susanne Kersten, Fabian Billenkamp, Joachim Spilke, Alexander Starke and Janine Saltzmann
Dairy 2023, 4(2), 360-391; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4020024 - 31 May 2023
Viewed by 1338
Abstract
Evaluation of dairy cow exposure to DON can generally be managed through analyses of feed or physiological specimens for DON residues. The latter enables a diagnosis not only on an individual basis but also on a herd basis. For this purpose, on the [...] Read more.
Evaluation of dairy cow exposure to DON can generally be managed through analyses of feed or physiological specimens for DON residues. The latter enables a diagnosis not only on an individual basis but also on a herd basis. For this purpose, on the basis of published data, linear regression equations were derived for blood, urine, milk, and bile relating DON residue levels as predictor variables to DON exposure. Amongst the matrices evaluated, blood was identified to reflect the inner exposure to DON most reliably on toxicokinetic backgrounds, which was supported by a linear relationship between DON residues in blood and DON exposure. On the basis of this, and because of extended blood data availability, the derived regressions were validated using internal and external data, demonstrating a reasonable concordance. For all matrices evaluated, the ultimately recommended linear regression equations intercepted the origin and enabled the prediction of the DON exposure to be expected within the prediction intervals. DON exposure (µg/kg body weight/d) can be predicted by multiplying the DON residues (ng/mL) in blood by 2.52, in urine by 0.022, and in milk by 2.47. The span of the prediction intervals varied according to the dispersion of the observations and, thus, also considered apparent outliers that were not removed from the datasets. The reasons were extensively discussed and included toxicokinetic aspects. In addition, the suggestions for sample size estimation for future characterization of the mean exposure level of a given herd size were influenced by expectable variation in the data. It was concluded that more data are required for all specimens to further qualify the preliminary prediction equations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy Animal Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
Effect of Blend-Pelleted Products Based on Carinata Meal or Canola Meal in Combination with Lignosulfonate on Ruminal Degradation and Fermentation Characteristics, Intestinal Digestion, and Feed Milk Value When Fed to Dairy Cows
by Aya Ismael, Basim Refat, Victor Hugo Guevara-Oquendo and Peiqiang Yu
Dairy 2023, 4(2), 345-359; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4020023 - 30 May 2023
Viewed by 1099
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of newly developed blend-pelleted products based on carinata meal (BPPCR) or canola meal (BPPCN) in combination with peas and lignosulfonate on ruminal fermentation characteristics, degradation kinetics, intestinal digestion and feed milk values (FMV) [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of newly developed blend-pelleted products based on carinata meal (BPPCR) or canola meal (BPPCN) in combination with peas and lignosulfonate on ruminal fermentation characteristics, degradation kinetics, intestinal digestion and feed milk values (FMV) when fed to high-producing dairy cows. Three dietary treatments were Control = control diet (common barley-based diet in western Canada); BPPCR = basal diet supplemented with 12.3%DM BPPCR (carinata meal 71.4% + pea 23.8% + lignosulfonate4.8%DM), and BPPCN = basal diet supplemented with 13.3%DM BPPCN (canola meal 71.4% + pea 23.8% + lignosulfonate 4.8%DM). In the whole project, nine mid-lactating Holstein cows (body weight, 679 ± 124 kg; days in milk, 96 ± 22) were used in a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square study for an animal production performance study. For this fermentation and degradation kinetics study, the experiment was a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three different dietary treatments in three different periods with three available multiparous fistulated Holstein cows. The results showed that the control diet was higher (p < 0.05) in total VFA rumen concentration (138 mmol/L) than BPPCN. There was no dietary effect (p > 0.10) on the concentration of rumen ammonia and ruminal degradation kinetics of dietary nutrients. There was no significant differences (p > 0.10) among diets on the intestinal digestion of nutrients and metabolizable protein. Similarly, the feed milk values (FMV) were not affected (p > 0.10) by diets. In conclusion, the blend-pelleted products based on carinata meal for a new co-product from the bio-fuel processing industry was equal to the pelleted products based on conventional canola meal for high producing dairy cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy Animal Health)
29 pages, 550 KiB  
Review
Listeria monocytogenes: An Inconvenient Hurdle for the Dairy Industry
by Alessandra Casagrande Ribeiro, Felipe Alves de Almeida, Mariana Medina Medeiros, Bruna Ribeiro Miranda, Uelinton Manoel Pinto and Virgínia Farias Alves
Dairy 2023, 4(2), 316-344; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4020022 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4989
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes is an opportunistic pathogen that affects specific groups of individuals, with a high mortality rate. The control of L. monocytogenes in dairy industries presents particular challenges, as this bacterium is capable of adhering and forming biofilms, as well as thriving at [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes is an opportunistic pathogen that affects specific groups of individuals, with a high mortality rate. The control of L. monocytogenes in dairy industries presents particular challenges, as this bacterium is capable of adhering and forming biofilms, as well as thriving at refrigerated temperatures, which enables it to persist in harsh environments. The consumption of dairy products has been linked to sporadic cases and outbreaks of listeriosis, and L. monocytogenes is frequently detected in these products in retail stores. Moreover, the bacterium has been shown to persist in dairy-processing environments. In this work, we review the main characteristics of L. monocytogenes and listeriosis, and highlight the factors that support its persistence in processing environments and dairy products. We also discuss the main dairy products involved in outbreaks of listeriosis since the early 1980s, and present control measures that can help to prevent the occurrence of this pathogen in foods and food-processing environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy Systems Biology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 989 KiB  
Article
Fatty Acid, Carotenoid and Fat-Soluble Vitamin Composition of Multispecies Swards Grown in Ireland—Implications for a Sustainable Feed in Dairy Farming
by Samuel Rapisarda, Graham O’Neill and Nissreen Abu-Ghannam
Dairy 2023, 4(2), 300-315; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4020021 - 17 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1804
Abstract
Although traditional ryegrass pastures are still commonly used, they require intense management and input and do not perform well during the summer months. Multispecies systems have been recognised as more sustainable, needing less fertiliser and being tolerant to drought and heat. While data [...] Read more.
Although traditional ryegrass pastures are still commonly used, they require intense management and input and do not perform well during the summer months. Multispecies systems have been recognised as more sustainable, needing less fertiliser and being tolerant to drought and heat. While data on monoculture system fat composition exist, information for multispecies is scarce. The present study compared the fatty acid (FA), carotenoid and fat-soluble composition of a multispecies system (consisting of perennial ryegrass, timothy, white clover, red clover, chicory and plantain) (MULTI) with two other conventional grazing systems (monoculture perennial ryegrass (PRG) and a binary mixture of perennial ryegrass and white clover (PRG+WC)) over the Irish late-summer grazing season of dairy cattle (July–September). The results showed that the three systems had similar levels of FAs (p > 0.05), with mean α-linolenic acid values of 20.00 mg/g in PRG, 18.51 mg/g in PRG+WC, and 17.90 mg/g in MULTI and mean linoleic acid values of 3.84 mg/g in PRG, 4.16 mg/g in PRG+WC, and 4.39 mg/g in MULTI. Fourfold and twofold increases in the concentrations of α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, respectively, were observed throughout July–September. Variations in stearic acid concentrations were not significant (p > 0.05), and palmitic acid concentrations increased over time (p < 0.05). The average values of lutein (36.68 mg/kg in PRG, 31.26 mg/kg in PRG+WC, and 35.75 mg/kg in MULTI) and α-tocopherol (2.28 mg/kg in PRG, 1.49 mg/kg in PRG+WC, and 1.83 mg/kg in MULTI) were similar among the grazing systems (p > 0.05), and the average β-carotene value was 25% higher in monoculture ryegrass (140.74 mg/kg) than in the multispecies (102.51 mg/kg) (p < 0.05). Nonetheless, the levels of β-carotene found in the multispecies were still above the recommended intake required for ruminants. In conclusion, multispecies pastures could be included in dairy cattle production systems as a sustainable alternative to traditional pastures while also providing typically adequate sources of fats for animal diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Sustainability of Dairy Animal Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1004 KiB  
Review
Review: The Potential Role of Vitamin E Analogs as Adjunctive Antioxidant Supplements for Transition Cows
by Matthew J. Kuhn
Dairy 2023, 4(2), 285-299; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4020020 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1554
Abstract
Despite routine supplementation of dairy cattle with vitamins with antioxidant functions, such as α-tocopherol, the high energy demand of the transition period creates a pro-oxidant state that can overcome antioxidant defenses and damage macromolecules. Known as oxidative stress, this condition impairs host immune [...] Read more.
Despite routine supplementation of dairy cattle with vitamins with antioxidant functions, such as α-tocopherol, the high energy demand of the transition period creates a pro-oxidant state that can overcome antioxidant defenses and damage macromolecules. Known as oxidative stress, this condition impairs host immune defenses, predisposing cattle to disease and causing dysfunctional inflammation through a dysregulated production of lipid inflammatory mediators known as oxylipids. Non-α-tocopherol analogs of vitamin E have functions in other species that limit oxidative stress and dysfunctional inflammation but have largely remained unstudied in cattle. As non-α-tocopherol analogs of vitamin E have functions similar to α-tocopherol yet are more rapidly metabolized, they may provide further antioxidative functions with a reduced risk for adverse effects. Indeed, in vitro and in vivo evidence in cattle show a strong safety profile of most non-α-tocopherol analogs, and by several measures, non-α-tocopherol analogs present equally or more potent antioxidative activities than α-tocopherol alone. Further, vitamin E analogs are shown to compete with certain fatty acids for enzymatic metabolism, which may impact proinflammatory mediator production. Given that non-α-tocopherol analogs of vitamin E reduce the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and act as potent antioxidants, their safety and efficacy for these purposes should be further evaluated in cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy Animal Nutrition and Welfare)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1385 KiB  
Article
Development and Characterization of Cultured Buttermilk Fortified with Spirulina plantensis and Its Physico-Chemical and Functional Characteristics
by Hency Rose, Shiva Bakshi, Prajasattak Kanetkar, Smitha J. Lukose, Jude Felix, Satya Prakash Yadav, Pankaj Kumar Gupta and Vinod Kumar Paswan
Dairy 2023, 4(2), 271-284; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4020019 - 28 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2694
Abstract
In recent years, there has been an unprecedented increase in the demand for fermented dairy products due to medical recommendations and lifestyle preferences. Cultured buttermilk, as an ancient fermented dairy beverage, is an appropriate product choice in this context. This study presents a [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been an unprecedented increase in the demand for fermented dairy products due to medical recommendations and lifestyle preferences. Cultured buttermilk, as an ancient fermented dairy beverage, is an appropriate product choice in this context. This study presents a novel cultured buttermilk formulated by fortification with high protein microalgae Spirulina platensis, thus making it valuable and attractive because of its antioxidant properties. The fermentation process, nutraceutical properties, and sensory characteristics of developed cultured buttermilk with various concentrations of Spirulina (0.25, 0.5, and 1%) were compared with the control sample (0% Spirulina buttermilk). Different concentrations of Spirulina in buttermilk result in a significant increase in chlorophyll and carotenoid content, boosting its antioxidant properties. The study also evaluated the prebiotic properties of Spirulina, thus, demonstrating its ability to promote a healthy digestive system. It was found that the addition of 0.25% Spirulina was able to ferment the product more quickly and retained the sensory acceptability of the finished product. The protein content, free radical scavenging activity, chlorophyll, carotenoid, and total phenolic content of 0.25% Spirulina-fortified buttermilk was 1.83%, 48.19%, 30.9 mg/g, 8.24 mg/g, and 4.21 mg/g GAE, respectively. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that cultured buttermilk with a high nutritional value and functional health benefits can be developed by fortification with 0.25% Spirulina as a natural ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Milk Processing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 421 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Approaches in Whey Cheese Production: A Review
by Thomas Bintsis and Photis Papademas
Dairy 2023, 4(2), 249-270; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4020018 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4603
Abstract
Whey cheeses have been produced from the very early steps of cheesemaking practices as a sustainable way to utilize whey, which is the main by-product of cheesemaking. Traditional whey cheeses, manufactured with similar processes, are Ricotta, Ricotta salata or Ricottone, and Ricotta fresca [...] Read more.
Whey cheeses have been produced from the very early steps of cheesemaking practices as a sustainable way to utilize whey, which is the main by-product of cheesemaking. Traditional whey cheeses, manufactured with similar processes, are Ricotta, Ricotta salata or Ricottone, and Ricotta fresca in Italy; Anthotyros, Myzithra, Manouri, Xynomyzithra, and Urda in Greece; Urda in Serbia and Romania as well as in other countries such as Israel; Lor in Turkey; Anari in Cyprus; Skuta in Croatia and Serbia; Gjetost and Brunost in Norway; Mesost and Messmör in Sweden; Mysuostur in Iceland; Myseost in Denmark; Requeijão in Portugal; and Requesón in Spain and Mexico. The production of whey cheese is based on the denaturation of whey proteins by heating to 88–92 °C. The specific processing conditions and aspects of the microbiology of whey cheeses are discussed. The special characteristics of whey cheeses, which are high pH and high moisture content, make them susceptible to microbial growth. Due to the limited shelf life of these products, extended research has been carried out to extend the shelf life of whey cheese. The sustainable preservation approaches, such as modified atmosphere packaging, addition of herbs and/or plant extracts, and bio-preservation methods are reviewed. Moreover, novel whey cheeses focused on functional properties have developed during the last 10 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delivering Sustainable Dairy Products with Added Value)
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop