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Dairy, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Lately, concern about the protease AprX has increased due to its ability to survive UHT treatment and spoil UHT milk. Efficient prediction methods for UHT milk spoilage are currently lacking. The present study aimed to gain more insight into the variability between Pseudomonas strains regarding proteolytic potential. The variability in aprX expression levels in four Pseudomonas strains were related to physical stability, milk proteolysis and peptidomic cleavage patterns of milk proteins. A positive relationship was observed between the relative expression of aprX and milk proteolysis during storage. The peptide formation analysis showed a similar protein hydrolysis pattern between strains and high hydrolysis of αs1-caseins during long-term spoilage putatively due to the activity of AprX was observed. View this paper
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14 pages, 654 KiB  
Article
Developing New High-Protein-Content Traditional-Type Greek Yoghurts Based on Jersey Cow Milk
by Grigorios Nelios, Anastasios Nikolaou, Panagiotis Papazilakis and Yiannis Kourkoutas
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 235-248; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010017 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
In the past few years, Jersey cow milk has been considered an effective commodity for the production of dairy products, such as cheese and yoghurts, due to its high nutrient density. Initially, the microbial safety and physicochemical properties of pasteurized milk from Jersey [...] Read more.
In the past few years, Jersey cow milk has been considered an effective commodity for the production of dairy products, such as cheese and yoghurts, due to its high nutrient density. Initially, the microbial safety and physicochemical properties of pasteurized milk from Jersey cows raised in Evrofarma S.A. dairy facilities were monitored and compared to Holstein Friesian milk over a six-month period. Subsequently, a new traditional-type Greek yoghurt was prepared using Jersey cow milk andthe physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties were monitored throughout its shelf time and compared to commercially available traditional-type Greek yoghurts made with Milk Protein Concentrate powder (MPC)-fortified Holstein Friesian milk. Our study confirmed the significantly higher fat (29.41%), protein (20.6%) and calcium content (19.9%) compared to Holstein Friesian milk. The new yoghurt demonstrated several technological advantages and shared similar physicochemical properties with the commercially available products. Importantly, high protein concentration (4.03 g/100 g) was documented without the addition of MPC. Finally, the new yoghurt was accepted during the preliminary sensory evaluation, while similar scores with the commercially available products were noted during the texture, flavour, aroma and overall quality assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Milk Processing)
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13 pages, 1477 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Concentration and Profile of Free Fatty Acids during the Ripening of a Spanish Blue-Veined Cheese Made from Raw and Pasteurized Cow and Goat Milk
by Isabel Diezhandino, Domingo Fernández, Daniel Abarquero, Bernardo Prieto, Erica Renes, José María Fresno and María Eugenia Tornadijo
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 222-234; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010016 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
Blue-veined cheeses in general undergo a pronounced lipolysis. The aim of this work was to determine the evolution of free fatty acids (FFA) in Valdeón cheese during ripening, comparing cheeses made from raw and pasteurized milk. The effect of season on the evolution [...] Read more.
Blue-veined cheeses in general undergo a pronounced lipolysis. The aim of this work was to determine the evolution of free fatty acids (FFA) in Valdeón cheese during ripening, comparing cheeses made from raw and pasteurized milk. The effect of season on the evolution of FFA in pasteurized milk cheeses was also studied. Cheeses made with raw milk showed the highest concentrations of FFA, reaching values of 23,081.9 mg 100 g−1 dry matter at the end of ripening, compared to the values of cheeses made with pasteurized milk (7327.1 mg 100 g−1 dry matter), in both cases with a predominance of oleic and palmitic acids. However, pasteurization did not affect the FFA profile of the cheeses. Regarding the cheeses made with pasteurized milk in different seasons, the highest FFA concentration was reached in cheeses made in summer after 30 days of ripening. The season also influenced the FFA profile and thus the concentration of short-, medium- and long-chain fatty acids in relation to total FFA. There were no significant differences in sensory analysis between cheeses made from raw and pasteurized milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blue Cheeses)
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7 pages, 588 KiB  
Case Report
Associations of Eliminating Free-Stall Head Lock-Up during Transition Period with Milk Yield, Health, and Reproductive Performance in Multiparous Dairy Cows: A Case Report
by Sushil Paudyal, Juan Piñeiro and Logan Papinchak
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 215-221; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010015 - 09 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1496
Abstract
The objective of this retrospective case study was to understand the effects of eliminating free-stall lock-up time during 21 days postpartum on milk yield, reproductive performance, and health events at a large dairy herd. A group of 200 cows were selected as the [...] Read more.
The objective of this retrospective case study was to understand the effects of eliminating free-stall lock-up time during 21 days postpartum on milk yield, reproductive performance, and health events at a large dairy herd. A group of 200 cows were selected as the treatment (TRT) group, which did not receive a lock-up time during early lactation, and a separate group of 200 cows served as the control (CON) group, which received on average 2 h/day of lockup time. The TRT group had greater milk yield (mean ± SE) on the third monthly milk test day (33.1 ± 0.75 vs. 29.9 ± 1.22; p = 0.04) and tended to have greater milk yield on the second test day (38.3 ± 1.55 vs. 39.1 ± 0.79; p = 0.06) compared to the CON cows. Milk fat% (mean ± SE) was greater in the TRT group than in the CON group on the first monthly milk test (3.65 ± 0.06 vs. 3.31 ± 0.12, p = 0.01). The TRT group had lower linear somatic cell scores on the first monthly milk test day compared to the CON group (2.6 ± 0.24 vs. 3.2 ± 0.11; p = 0.01). Cows in the TRT group had lower days in milk at first breeding (DIMFB) (66.2 ± 3.7 vs. 76.7 ± 2.9; p = 0.02) and were confirmed pregnant earlier as indicated by smaller days in milk to pregnancy (DIMPREG) (96.9 ± 12.32 vs. 112.1 ± 5.5; p < 0.01). Cows in the TRT group also had fewer incidences of all health events combined (13% vs. 30.5%; p < 0.001), lameness (3% vs. 9.5%; p = 0.01), and mastitis (3% vs. 16%; p < 0.001). We conclude that eliminating the stall lockup may have contributed to the increased milk yield, health, and reproductive performance of dairy cows in this dairy herd. Future prospective cohort studies are needed to further assess the potential effect of eliminating lock up time on cow performance. Full article
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15 pages, 3536 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Cow, Goat, and Water Buffalo Milk Fat Globule Lipids by High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography
by Ayushi Kapoor, Aparna Verma and Kiran Ambatipudi
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 200-214; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010014 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2687
Abstract
Ruminant milk is an essential part of the human diet and is widely accepted as a major nutrient source in developing countries. However, the polar and neutral lipid content variation in milk fat globules (MFG)among cow, goat, and water buffalo is poorly understood. [...] Read more.
Ruminant milk is an essential part of the human diet and is widely accepted as a major nutrient source in developing countries. However, the polar and neutral lipid content variation in milk fat globules (MFG)among cow, goat, and water buffalo is poorly understood. This study used high-performance thin layer chromatography to identify and quantify five major polar (PL) and three neutral lipids (NL) from the MFG of cow, goat, and water buffalo. Optimal separation was achieved for PLs using chloroform: methanol: water (65:25:4), and hexane: diethyl ether: acetic acid (70:30:1) for NLs. The lower detectable (0.12 to 1.53 μg/mL) and quantification (0.12 to 1.53 μg/mL) limits indicated the high sensitivity of the method. Quantification at 540 nm showed the highest abundance of phosphatidylethanolamine and triglycerides. Fat globules were further characterized for size and microstructural properties, which revealed smaller globules in goats (0.99 ± 0.04 μm) than cows (1.85 ± 0.03 μm) and water buffaloes (2.91 ± 0.08 μm), indicating a negative correlation with PL but a positive correlation with NL. The variation in lipid quantity among different animal species suggests more research to support their selection as a suitable source for developing functional food to impact human health positively. Full article
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20 pages, 4413 KiB  
Article
Inline Particle Size Analysis during Technical-Scale Processing of a Fermented Concentrated Milk Protein-Based Microgel Dispersion: Feasibility as a Process Control
by Anisa Heck, Stefan Nöbel and Jörg Hinrichs
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 180-199; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010013 - 21 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1890
Abstract
Particle size is not only important for the sensory perception of fat-free fermented concentrated milk products, but also for processing operations because of the direct relationship with apparent viscosity. The aim of this study was to apply inline particle size analysis using focused [...] Read more.
Particle size is not only important for the sensory perception of fat-free fermented concentrated milk products, but also for processing operations because of the direct relationship with apparent viscosity. The aim of this study was to apply inline particle size analysis using focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) to obtain real-time information regarding the particle size of a fat-free fermented concentrated milk product, namely, fresh cheese. By comparing inline particle size data to offline particle size, apparent viscosity, protein content and processing information, the potential to use inline particle size analysis as a process monitoring and control option during fresh cheese production was assessed. Evaluation of inline particle size after fermentation and before further processing, e.g., after a buffering tank, shows promise as a means to control variance of product entering downstream processing and, thus, improve final product consistency over time. Measurement of inline particle size directly before filling could allow for precise control of final product characteristics by the use of mechanical or mixing devices placed before the inline measurement. However, attention should be given to the requirements of the inline measurement technology for accurate measurement, such as product flow rate and pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tailoring Physical Properties of Fermented Dairy Products)
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13 pages, 511 KiB  
Article
A Study of Milk Composition and Coagulation Properties of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and Their Cross Milked Once or Twice a Day
by Inthujaa Sanjayaranj, Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos, Hugh T. Blair, Patrick W. M. Janssen, Stephen E. Holroyd and Alastair K. H. MacGibbon
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 167-179; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010012 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
The objective of the study was to explore the effect of breed on the composition and coagulation properties (rennet coagulation time (min), curd firming rate (min), and curd firmness (mm)) of milk from cows milked once a day or twice a day in [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to explore the effect of breed on the composition and coagulation properties (rennet coagulation time (min), curd firming rate (min), and curd firmness (mm)) of milk from cows milked once a day or twice a day in the morning and afternoon, using a Formagraph. Thirty cows (11 Holstein-Friesian, 8 Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cross, and 11 Jersey) from a once-a-day milking herd and thirty cows (16 Holstein-Friesian, 10 Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cross, and 4 Jersey) from a twice-a-day milking herd were sampled in late lactation. The milk composition and coagulation properties were analysed for each milk sample. Jersey cows had better milk coagulation properties at each milking frequency-milking time compared to Holstein-Friesian cows. Curd firmness 30 min after the addition of rennet was positively (p < 0.05) correlated with the protein concentration. However, the correlations were inconsistent between milking frequencies and milking times, resulting in poor prediction of the changes in cheese-making potential. This study indicated that milk composition and coagulation properties were affected by breed and milking frequency. The effect of the breed could be due to the variation in the composition of the milk, but firm recommendations were hampered by a low number of samples. Further research with larger cow numbers is justified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Milk Processing)
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17 pages, 3559 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Low-Temperature Inactivation of Protease AprX from Pseudomonas on Its Proteolytic Capacity and Specificity: A Peptidomic Study
by Chunyue Zhang, Sjef Boeren, Liming Zhao, Etske Bijl and Kasper Hettinga
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 150-166; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010011 - 03 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1778
Abstract
The destabilization of UHT milk during its shelf life can be promoted by the residual proteolytic activity attributed to the protease AprX from Pseudomonas. To better understand the hydrolysis patterns of AprX, and to evaluate the feasibility of using low-temperature inactivation (LTI) [...] Read more.
The destabilization of UHT milk during its shelf life can be promoted by the residual proteolytic activity attributed to the protease AprX from Pseudomonas. To better understand the hydrolysis patterns of AprX, and to evaluate the feasibility of using low-temperature inactivation (LTI) for AprX, the release of peptides through AprX activity on milk proteins was examined using an LC-MS/MS-based peptidomic analysis. Milk samples were either directly incubated to be hydrolyzed by AprX, or preheated under LTI conditions (60 °C for 15 min) and then incubated. Peptides and parent proteins (the proteins from which the peptides originated) were identified and quantified. The peptides were mapped and the cleavage frequency of amino acids in the P1/P1′ positions was analyzed, after which the influence of LTI and the potential bitterness of the formed peptides were determined. Our results showed that a total of 2488 peptides were identified from 48 parent proteins, with the most abundant peptides originating from κ-casein and β-casein. AprX may also non-specifically hydrolyze other proteins in milk. Except for decreasing the bitterness potential in skim UHT milk, LTI did not significantly reduce the AprX-induced hydrolysis of milk proteins. Therefore, the inactivation of AprX by LTI may not be feasible in UHT milk production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omics Research in Dairy Sciences)
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13 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
Adequate Dietary Intake and Consumption of Indigenous Fermented Products Are Associated with Improved Nutrition Status among Children Aged 6–23 Months in Zambia
by Bubala Thandie Hamaimbo, Pamela A. Marinda, Vincent Nyau, Justin Chileshe, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa and Sijmen E. Schoustra
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 137-149; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010010 - 03 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1755
Abstract
Agroecological food systems and socioeconomic characteristics are known to influence household food security and food consumption patterns and consequently have an impact on child nutritional status. The present study examined food consumption patterns among children aged 6–23 months in two geographic regions of [...] Read more.
Agroecological food systems and socioeconomic characteristics are known to influence household food security and food consumption patterns and consequently have an impact on child nutritional status. The present study examined food consumption patterns among children aged 6–23 months in two geographic regions of Zambia, with special focus on consumption of fermented products, and its association with illnesses and nutritional status. The cross-sectional survey enrolled a total of 213 children from Namwala and Mkushi districts of Zambia. A 24 h recall and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to determine the number of food groups consumed and consequently dietary diversity scores and food consumption patterns, respectively. Determinants of child’s linear growth as measured by Height-for-Age Z-scores (HAZ) were assessed via multiple linear regression analysis. In total, 54% of the children met the minimum dietary diversity by consuming food from at least 5+ food groups. Maize meal porridge, Mabisi (fermented milk), Chibwantu and Munkoyo (fermented beverages based on cereals) and groundnuts were among the frequently consumed foods. A higher consumption of fermented beverages was observed in Namwala compared to Mkushi district. A significant association was observed between HAZ score (rho = 0.198, p = 0.004), Weight-for-Age Z-score (WAZ) (rho = 0.142, p = 0.039) and consumption of mabisi. Dietary intake had a positive association with child nutritional status. The frequent consumption of traditional non-alcoholic cereal and milk-based fermented foods underpinned their contribution to the children’s dietary intake. Moreover, the trend would be viewed as an indicator to nutrition and policy actors on possible unoptimized potential of indigenous fermented foods’ influence in nutritional and health status among children at regional and national levels. Although Zambia has a wide range of traditional non-alcoholic fermented food products, their prospects in provision of macro- and micronutrients along with microbiota benefits remain scanty despite global efforts increasingly advocating for the inclusion of such traditional foods in food-based recommendations. Full article
13 pages, 1662 KiB  
Article
Development of Thresholds to Predict Grazing Behaviour of Dairy Cows from Motion Sensor Data and Application in a Pasture-Based Automatic Milking System
by Brendan Cullen, Zelin Li, Saranika Talukder, Long Cheng and Ellen C. Jongman
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 124-136; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010009 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
The monitoring and measurement of animal behaviour may be valuable for improving animal production and welfare. This study was designed to develop thresholds to predict the grazing, standing, walking, and lying behaviour of dairy cows from motion sensor (IceTag) output. The experiment included [...] Read more.
The monitoring and measurement of animal behaviour may be valuable for improving animal production and welfare. This study was designed to develop thresholds to predict the grazing, standing, walking, and lying behaviour of dairy cows from motion sensor (IceTag) output. The experiment included 29 lactating cows grazed in a pasture-based dairy production system with voluntary cow movement in northern Victoria, Australia. Sensors recorded motion data at 1 min intervals. A total of 5818 min of cow observations were used. Two approaches were developed using (1) the IceTag lying index and steps only and (2) the IceTag lying index, steps, and motion index for each behaviour. Grazing behaviour was best predicted by the second approach, which had a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 60%. The thresholds were then used to predict cow behaviour during two periods. On average, across both time periods, cows spent 38% of the day grazing, 38% lying, 19% standing, and 5% walking. Predicted individual cow grazing time was positively correlated with both milk production and milking frequency. The thresholds developed were effective at predicting cow behaviours and can be applied to measure behaviour in pasture-based dairy production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Digital Dairy)
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16 pages, 2320 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Heat Exchanger Type on Stirred Yogurt Properties Formulated at Different Total Solids and Fat Contents
by Noémie Lussier, Audrey Gilbert, Daniel St-Gelais and Sylvie L. Turgeon
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 108-123; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010008 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2263
Abstract
In this work stirred yogurts were produced using a technical scale pilot in which the cooling step was processed using either a tubular (THX; low shear) or a plate (PHX, high shear) heat exchanger. The aim was to determine how total solids (TS, [...] Read more.
In this work stirred yogurts were produced using a technical scale pilot in which the cooling step was processed using either a tubular (THX; low shear) or a plate (PHX, high shear) heat exchanger. The aim was to determine how total solids (TS, adjusted using lactose) and fat contents (FC) impact stirred yogurt properties during storage, depending on the heat exchanger used. Using raw milk, cream, skim milk powder, and lactose, four yogurts were formulated at 16.5% TS and 4.2% proteins, with different FC (0.0, 1.3, 2.6, and 3.9%); one more control yogurt was formulated at 14% TS, 4.2% proteins, and 0.0% FC. Analyses of yogurts (firmness, viscosity, induced syneresis) were realized at days 1, 3, 7, 21, and 34 after production. The addition of lactose between the non-fat yogurt at 14 or 16.5% TS had little to no effect on stirred yogurt properties. Increasing FC reduced syneresis while increasing firmness and viscosity. The use of PHX reduced the syneresis compared to THX; however, it also tended to reduce the firmness of the yogurts with 3.9% FC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tailoring Physical Properties of Fermented Dairy Products)
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8 pages, 1391 KiB  
Communication
Ultrasound-Assisted Cavitation Effect on the Biofilm-Forming Ability of Common Dairy Sporeformers
by Taghreed Almalki and Sanjeev Anand
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 100-107; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010007 - 28 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Thermoduric sporeformers survive heat treatment and can form biofilm on contact food surfaces that is difficult to clean and may cause cross contamination to milk products. It was hypothesized that cavitation would influence sporeformers’ ability to attach to contact surfaces and form biofilm. [...] Read more.
Thermoduric sporeformers survive heat treatment and can form biofilm on contact food surfaces that is difficult to clean and may cause cross contamination to milk products. It was hypothesized that cavitation would influence sporeformers’ ability to attach to contact surfaces and form biofilm. Common dairy sporeformers of Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sporothermodurans were individually inoculated in sterile skim milk at the levels of 6.0 log CFU/mL. Inoculated samples were treated by cavitation at 80% amplitudes for 10 min each. Pre and post samples were used to develop biofilms on stainless steel coupons under static conditions. Scanning electron micrograph was used to observe the developed biofilms. All the experiments were conducted in triplicate and were statistically analyzed using a t test. The average counts of spiked milk samples were 7.2, 8.0, and 7.7 logs CFU/mL, respectively, for the three sporeformers. Post-cavitation counts were reduced significantly to 3.4, 4.2, and 3.7 logs CFU/mL, respectively. Pre-cavitation biofilm counts of the three sporeformers were 5.35, 6.42, and 6.5 logs CFU/ cm2, respectively in 72 h. The three sporeformers’ biofilm showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower counts after cavitation of 4.39, 5.44, and lower counts of 4.39 logs CFU/cm2, respectively, for the three organisms. The result showed that G. stearothermophilus formed the least biofilms among others after cavitation. Although the ultrasonication treatment reduced the number of sporeformer bacteria, the survivors still retained the ability to attach to the stainless-steel food contact surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolomics and Foodomics)
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2 pages, 188 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Dairy in 2022
by Dairy Editorial Office
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 98-99; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010006 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 809
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
15 pages, 1817 KiB  
Article
Peptidomic Fingerprints of Stored UHT Milk Inoculated with Protease Extracts from Different Pseudomonas Strains Relative to aprX Expression and Visible Spoilage
by Miguel Aguilera-Toro, Søren Drud-Heydary Nielsen, Martin Laage Kragh, Yinghua Xiao, Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen, Valentin Rauh, Lars Wiking, Nina Aagaard Poulsen and Lotte Bach Larsen
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 83-97; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010005 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2400
Abstract
Lately, concern about the protease AprX produced by Pseudomonas has increased in the dairy industry due to its ability to survive UHT treatment and spoil UHT milk. Efficient prediction methods for UHT milk spoilage are currently lacking, mainly due to high diversity in [...] Read more.
Lately, concern about the protease AprX produced by Pseudomonas has increased in the dairy industry due to its ability to survive UHT treatment and spoil UHT milk. Efficient prediction methods for UHT milk spoilage are currently lacking, mainly due to high diversity in proteolytic potential between Pseudomonas strains. The present study aimed to gain more insight into the variability between Pseudomonas strains regarding proteolytic potential by comparing their proteolytic capability with their aprX expression levels and differences in peptide formation. The variability in aprX expression levels in four Pseudomonas strains were related to physical stability, milk proteolysis and peptidomic cleavage patterns of milk proteins in a storage experiment of UHT milk inoculated with protease extracellular extracts and stored for 45 days at 20 °C. A positive relationship was observed between the relative expression of aprX and milk proteolysis during storage, with the strain Pseudomonas panacis DSM 18529 showing the highest level in both parameters. This strain was the only strain to show visual gelation, which occurred after 21 days. The peptide formation analysis showed a similar protein hydrolysis pattern between strains and high hydrolysis of αs1-caseins during long-term spoilage putatively due to the activity of AprX was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Processing of Milk and Milk Products)
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15 pages, 1786 KiB  
Article
Postprandial Glycaemia, Insulinemia, and Lipidemia after 12 Weeks’ Cheese Consumption: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Human Sub-Study
by Louise Kjølbæk, Farinaz Raziani, Tine Tholstrup, Rosa Caroline Jullie Rudnicki, Christian Ritz, Arne Astrup and Anne Raben
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 68-82; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010004 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
Some populations are recommended to consume low-fat dairy, although the evidence behind replacing high-fat with low-fat dairy products is limited. This exploratory sub-study investigated the effect of cheese with different fat content on postprandial changes in type-2-diabetes risk markers. Following 12-week cheese or [...] Read more.
Some populations are recommended to consume low-fat dairy, although the evidence behind replacing high-fat with low-fat dairy products is limited. This exploratory sub-study investigated the effect of cheese with different fat content on postprandial changes in type-2-diabetes risk markers. Following 12-week cheese or jam intake, a 4 h meal test was conducted with 37 participants. Test meals included bread and either: 80 g regular-fat cheese (REG), 80 g reduced-fat cheese (RED) or 25 g jam (CHO). Postprandial blood was drawn and appetite sensations registered. Time-meal interactions were not observed for glucose and insulin, but for triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA). Pairwise comparisons showed 0.17 ± 0.07 mmol/L (p = 0.044) and 0.25 ± 0.07 mmol/L (p = 0.002) higher TG at 180 and 240 min, respectively, and 94 ± 37 mmol/L (p = 0.029) higher FFA at 180 min for REG compared with RED. Compared with CHO, intake of both cheese meals reduced insulin and glucose (main effects of meal, both p ≤ 0.011) and increased FFA and TG at certain time points. In conclusion, intake of cheese with a regular, compared with reduced, fat content did not affect glucose, insulin and appetite, but increased TG and FFA. Full article
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25 pages, 401 KiB  
Article
Descriptive Characteristics and Cheesemaking Technology of Greek Cheeses Not Listed in the EU Geographical Indications Registers
by Eleni C. Pappa and Efthymia Kondyli
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 43-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010003 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
Greece has a variety of cheeses that are registered as protected designation of origin and protected geographical indications, and many others that are produced in a traditional way, without such registration. This article aims to describe the characteristics of these cheeses, which do [...] Read more.
Greece has a variety of cheeses that are registered as protected designation of origin and protected geographical indications, and many others that are produced in a traditional way, without such registration. This article aims to describe the characteristics of these cheeses, which do not bear a certification of geographical indication, in order to increase their significance. Therefore, in this work, the scientific data published about the history, production, composition, and other specific properties of some milk cheeses (Kariki, hard Xinotyri, soft Xinotyri, Kefalotyri, Kashkaval Pindos, Graviera, Manoura Sifnos, Teleme, Tsalafouti, Tyraki Tinou, Ladotyri Zakynthou, Touloumotyri, and Melichloro) and whey cheeses (Anthotyros, Myzithra, and Urda) are presented. This information may contribute to their better promotion and recognition, protecting their heritage, and supporting the local economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delivering Sustainable Dairy Products with Added Value)
17 pages, 860 KiB  
Review
Physiological Aspects of Milk Somatic Cell Count in Small Ruminants—A Review
by Shehadeh Kaskous, Sabine Farschtschi and Michael W. Pfaffl
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 26-42; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010002 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3382
Abstract
The aim of this review was to focus on the physiological aspects of milk somatic cell count (SCC) in small ruminants (SM). The SCC is an important component naturally present in milk and is generally used as an indicator of milk quality and [...] Read more.
The aim of this review was to focus on the physiological aspects of milk somatic cell count (SCC) in small ruminants (SM). The SCC is an important component naturally present in milk and is generally used as an indicator of milk quality and udder health in milk producing ruminants. SCC contains the following cells: polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), macrophages, lymphocytes, and many milk epithelial (MEC) cells, cell fragments, and cytoplasmic particles/vesicles. PMN (40–80%) represent the major cell type in milk in healthy uninfected goats, whereas the macrophages (45–88%) are the major cell type in sheep’s milk. However, dairy goats and sheep have an apocrine secretory system that produces cytoplasmic cellular particles/vesicles and large numbers of cell fragments, resulting in the physiological SCC limit being exceeded. It is obvious that the SCC level in milk of SM can be affected by various influencing factors, such as milk fraction, breed, stage of lactation, parity, type of birth, milking system, and others. An increase in the SCC above the physiological level not only indicates an udder or general health problem but reduces milk production, changes the milk composition, and hence affects milk processing. Moreover, the milking machine plays an important role in maintaining udder health in SM and stable SCC at physiological levels in the milk obtained. So far, there are no healthy or pathological physiological SCC levels defined in SM milk. Furthermore, a differential cell count (DCC) or even a high resolution DCC (HRDCC), which were recently developed for cattle milk, could also help in SM to gain deeper insight into the immunology of the mammary gland and find biomarkers to assess udder health. In conclusion, SCC is an indication of udder health or exposure of the udder to infectious agents or mechanical stress and should therefore always be considered a warning sign. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy Small Ruminants)
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25 pages, 11644 KiB  
Article
Two- and Three-Dimensional Computer Vision Techniques for More Reliable Body Condition Scoring
by Niall O’Mahony, Lenka Krpalkova, Gearoid Sayers, Lea Krump, Joseph Walsh and Daniel Riordan
Dairy 2023, 4(1), 1-25; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy4010001 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3186
Abstract
This article identifies the essential technologies and considerations for the development of an Automated Cow Monitoring System (ACMS) which uses 3D camera technology for the assessment of Body Condition Score (BCS). We present a comparison of a range of common techniques at the [...] Read more.
This article identifies the essential technologies and considerations for the development of an Automated Cow Monitoring System (ACMS) which uses 3D camera technology for the assessment of Body Condition Score (BCS). We present a comparison of a range of common techniques at the different developmental stages of Computer Vision including data pre-processing and the implementation of Deep Learning for both 2D and 3D data formats commonly captured by 3D cameras. This research focuses on attaining better reliability from one deployment of an ACMS to the next and proposes a Geometric Deep Learning (GDL) approach and evaluating model performance for robustness from one farm to another in the presence of background, farm, herd, camera pose and cow pose variabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Digital Dairy)
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