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IoT, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 9 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The Internet of Things (IoT) is creating a global ecosystem of objects that communicate with each other to enrich our lives. Information moves across nodes in a peer-to-peer network, in which the concept of trustworthiness is essential. Trust and Reputation Models (TRMs) are being developed with the goal of guaranteeing that the actions undertaken by entities in a system reflect their trustworthiness values. TRMs also aim to prevent these values from being manipulated by malicious entities. The cornerstone of any TRM is the ability to generate a coherent evaluation of the information received. Indeed, the feedback generated by the consumers of services his a vitally important source of information for any trust model. View this paper
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25 pages, 5278 KiB  
Article
A Pervasive Collaborative Architectural Model at the Network’s Periphery
by Ghassan Fadlallah, Hamid Mcheick and Djamal Rebaine
IoT 2021, 2(3), 524-548; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot2030027 - 6 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3576
Abstract
Pervasive collaborative computing within the Internet of Things (IoT) has progressed rapidly over the last decade. Nevertheless, emerging architectural models and their applications still suffer from limited capacity in areas like power, efficient computing, memory, connectivity, latency and bandwidth. Technological development is still [...] Read more.
Pervasive collaborative computing within the Internet of Things (IoT) has progressed rapidly over the last decade. Nevertheless, emerging architectural models and their applications still suffer from limited capacity in areas like power, efficient computing, memory, connectivity, latency and bandwidth. Technological development is still in progress in the fields of hardware, software and wireless communications. Their communication is usually done via the Internet and wireless via base stations. However, these models are sometimes subject to connectivity failures and limited coverage. The models that incorporate devices with peer-to-peer (P2P) communication technologies are of great importance, especially in harsh environments. Nevertheless, their power-limited devices are randomly distributed on the periphery where their availability can be limited and arbitrary. Despite these limitations, their capabilities and efficiency are constantly increasing. Accelerating development in these areas can be achieved by improving architectures and technologies of pervasive collaborative computing, which refers to the collaboration of mobile and embedded computing devices. To enhance mobile collaborative computing, especially in the models acting at the network’s periphery, we are interested in modernizing and strengthening connectivity using wireless technologies and P2P communication. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to enhance and maintain connectivity and improve the performance of these pervasive systems while performing the required and expected services in a challenging environment. This is especially important in catastrophic situations and harsh environments, where connectivity is used to facilitate and enhance rescue operations. Thus, we have established a resilient mobile collaborative architectural model comprising a peripheral autonomous network of pervasive devices that considers the constraints of these resources. By maintaining the connectivity of its devices, this model can operate independently of wireless base stations by taking advantage of emerging P2P connection technologies such as Wi-Fi Direct and those enabled by LoPy4 from Pycom such as LoRa, BLE, Sigfox, Wi-Fi, Radio Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. Likewise, we have designed four algorithms to construct a group of devices, calculate their scores, select a group manager, and exchange inter- and intra-group messages. The experimental study we conducted shows that this model continues to perform efficiently, even in circumstances like the breakdown of wireless connectivity due to an extreme event or congestion from connecting a huge number of devices. Full article
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14 pages, 276 KiB  
Article
Shaping the Future of Smart Dentistry: From Artificial Intelligence (AI) to Intelligence Augmentation (IA)
by Hossein Hassani, Pedram Amiri Andi, Alireza Ghodsi, Kimia Norouzi, Nadejda Komendantova and Stephan Unger
IoT 2021, 2(3), 510-523; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot2030026 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6897
Abstract
Digitization is the emerging process in the current transformation of industry. Understanding the role and socio-economic consequences of digitalization is crucial for the way technology is being deployed in each sector. One of the affected sectors is dentistry. This study highlights the current [...] Read more.
Digitization is the emerging process in the current transformation of industry. Understanding the role and socio-economic consequences of digitalization is crucial for the way technology is being deployed in each sector. One of the affected sectors is dentistry. This study highlights the current advances and challenges in integrating and merging artificial intelligence (AI), intelligence augmentation (IA), and machine learning (ML) in dentistry. We conduct a comparative analysis to give an overview of which technology is being currently deployed and what role IA and AI will play in dentistry, as AI plays an assistive role in advancing human capabilities. We find that challenges range from AI finding its way into routine medical practice to qualitative challenges of retrieving adequate data input. Other challenges lie in the yet unanswered questions of liability in how to reduce deployment costs of new technology. Given these challenges, we provide an outlook of how future technology can be deployed in daily-life dentistry and how robots and humans will interact, given the current technology developments. The aim of this paper is to discuss the future of dentistry and whether it is AI or IA conquering the modern dentistry era. Full article
12 pages, 3283 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Feedback Evaluation for Trust Management Models in the Internet of Things
by Claudio Marche, Luigi Serreli and Michele Nitti
IoT 2021, 2(3), 498-509; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot2030025 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2969
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is transforming the world into an ecosystem of objects that communicate with each other to enrich our lives. The devices’ collaboration allows the creation of complex applications, where each object can provide one or more services needed for [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is transforming the world into an ecosystem of objects that communicate with each other to enrich our lives. The devices’ collaboration allows the creation of complex applications, where each object can provide one or more services needed for global benefit. The information moves to nodes in a peer-to-peer network, in which the concept of trustworthiness is essential. Trust and Reputation Models (TRMs) are developed with the goal of guaranteeing that actions taken by entities in a system reflect their trustworthiness values and to prevent these values from being manipulated by malicious entities. The cornerstone of any TRM is the ability to generate a coherent evaluation of the information received. Indeed, the feedback generated by the consumers of the services has a vital role as the source of any trust model. In this paper, we focus on the generation of the feedback and propose different metrics to evaluate it. Moreover, we illustrate a new collusive attack that influences the evaluation of the received services. Simulations with a real IoT dataset show the importance of feedback generation and the impact of the new proposed attack. Full article
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22 pages, 7012 KiB  
Article
An IoT-Based Mobile System for Safety Monitoring of Lone Workers
by Pietro Battistoni, Monica Sebillo and Giuliana Vitiello
IoT 2021, 2(3), 476-497; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot2030024 - 3 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6715
Abstract
The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work considers Smart Personal Protective Equipment as “Intelligent Protection For The Future”. It mainly consists of electronic components that collect data about their use, the workers who wear them, and the working environment. This paper [...] Read more.
The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work considers Smart Personal Protective Equipment as “Intelligent Protection For The Future”. It mainly consists of electronic components that collect data about their use, the workers who wear them, and the working environment. This paper proposes a distributed solution of Smart Personal Protective Equipment for the safety monitoring of Lone Workers by adopting low-cost electronic devices. In addition to the same hazards as anyone else, Lone Workers need additional and specific systems due to the higher risk they run on a work site. To this end, the Edge-Computing paradigm can be adopted to deploy an architecture embedding wearable devices, which alerts safety managers when workers do not wear the prescribed Personal Protective Equipment and supports a fast rescue when a worker seeks help or an accidental fall is automatically detected. The proposed system is a work-in-progress which provides an architecture design to accommodate different requirements, namely the deployment difficulties at temporary and large working sites, the maintenance and connectivity recurring cost issues, the respect for the workers’ privacy, and the simplicity of use for workers and their supervisors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Computing for IoT)
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27 pages, 13641 KiB  
Article
Developing a Low-Order Statistical Feature Set Based on Received Samples for Signal Classification in Wireless Sensor Networks and Edge Devices
by George D. O’Mahony, Kevin G. McCarthy, Philip J. Harris and Colin C. Murphy
IoT 2021, 2(3), 449-475; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot2030023 - 1 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3486
Abstract
Classifying fluctuating operating wireless environments can be crucial for successfully delivering authentic and confidential packets and for identifying legitimate signals. This study utilizes raw in-phase (I) and quadrature-phase (Q) samples, exclusively, to develop a low-order statistical feature set for wireless signal classification. Edge [...] Read more.
Classifying fluctuating operating wireless environments can be crucial for successfully delivering authentic and confidential packets and for identifying legitimate signals. This study utilizes raw in-phase (I) and quadrature-phase (Q) samples, exclusively, to develop a low-order statistical feature set for wireless signal classification. Edge devices making decentralized decisions from I/Q sample analysis is beneficial. Implementing appropriate security and transmitting mechanisms, reducing retransmissions and increasing energy efficiency are examples. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and their Internet of Things (IoT) utilization emphasize the significance of this time series classification problem. Here, I/Q samples of typical WSN and industrial, scientific and medical band transmissions are collected in a live operating environment. Analog Pluto software-defined radios and Raspberry Pi devices are utilized to achieve a low-cost yet high-performance testbed. Features are extracted from Matlab-based statistical analysis of the I/Q samples across time, frequency (fast Fourier transform) and space (probability density function). Noise, ZigBee, continuous wave jamming, WiFi and Bluetooth signal data are examined. Supervised machine learning approaches, including support vector machines, Random Forest, XGBoost, k nearest neighbors and a deep neural network (DNN), evaluate the developed feature set. The optimal approach is determined as an XGBoost/SVM classifier. This classifier achieves similar accuracy and generalization results, on unseen data, to the DNN, but for a fraction of time and computation requirements. Compared to existing approaches, this study’s principal contribution is the developed low-order feature set that achieves signal classification without prior network knowledge or channel assumptions and is validated in a real-world wireless operating environment. The feature set can extend the development of resource-constrained edge devices as it is widely deployable due to only requiring received I/Q samples and these features are warranted as IoT devices become widely used in various modern applications. Full article
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21 pages, 1302 KiB  
Article
Towards a Hybrid Deep Learning Model for Anomalous Activities Detection in Internet of Things Networks
by Imtiaz Ullah, Ayaz Ullah and Mazhar Sajjad
IoT 2021, 2(3), 428-448; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot2030022 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5562
Abstract
The tremendous number of Internet of Things (IoT) applications, with their ubiquity, has provided us with unprecedented productivity and simplified our daily life. At the same time, the insecurity of these technologies ensures that our daily lives are surrounded by vulnerable computers, allowing [...] Read more.
The tremendous number of Internet of Things (IoT) applications, with their ubiquity, has provided us with unprecedented productivity and simplified our daily life. At the same time, the insecurity of these technologies ensures that our daily lives are surrounded by vulnerable computers, allowing for the launch of multiple attacks via large-scale botnets through the IoT. These attacks have been successful in achieving their heinous objectives. A strong identification strategy is essential to keep devices secured. This paper proposes and implements a model for anomaly-based intrusion detection in IoT networks that uses a convolutional neural network (CNN) and gated recurrent unit (GRU) to detect and classify binary and multiclass IoT network data. The proposed model is validated using the BoT-IoT, IoT Network Intrusion, MQTT-IoT-IDS2020, and IoT-23 intrusion detection datasets. Our proposed binary and multiclass classification model achieved an exceptionally high level of accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial IoT as IT and OT Convergence: Challenges and Opportunities)
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27 pages, 375 KiB  
Article
Achieving Ethical Algorithmic Behaviour in the Internet of Things: A Review
by Seng W. Loke
IoT 2021, 2(3), 401-427; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot2030021 - 4 Jul 2021
Viewed by 5057
Abstract
The Internet of Things is emerging as a vast, inter-connected space of devices and things surrounding people, many of which are increasingly capable of autonomous action, from automatically sending data to cloud servers for analysis, changing the behaviour of smart objects, to changing [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things is emerging as a vast, inter-connected space of devices and things surrounding people, many of which are increasingly capable of autonomous action, from automatically sending data to cloud servers for analysis, changing the behaviour of smart objects, to changing the physical environment. A wide range of ethical concerns has arisen in their usage and development in recent years. Such concerns are exacerbated by the increasing autonomy given to connected things. This paper reviews, via examples, the landscape of ethical issues, and some recent approaches to address these issues concerning connected things behaving autonomously as part of the Internet of Things. We consider ethical issues in relation to device operations and accompanying algorithms. Examples of concerns include unsecured consumer devices, data collection with health-related Internet of Things, hackable vehicles, behaviour of autonomous vehicles in dilemma situations, accountability with Internet of Things systems, algorithmic bias, uncontrolled cooperation among things, and automation affecting user choice and control. Current ideas towards addressing a range of ethical concerns are reviewed and compared, including programming ethical behaviour, white-box algorithms, black-box validation, algorithmic social contracts, enveloping IoT systems, and guidelines and code of ethics for IoT developers; a suggestion from the analysis is that a multi-pronged approach could be useful based on the context of operation and deployment. Full article
26 pages, 3350 KiB  
Article
Attacks and Defenses for Single-Stage Residue Number System PRNGs
by Amy Vennos, Kiernan George and Alan Michaels
IoT 2021, 2(3), 375-400; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot2030020 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3300
Abstract
This paper explores the security of a single-stage residue number system (RNS) pseudorandom number generator (PRNG), which has previously been shown to provide extremely high-quality outputs when evaluated through available RNG statistical test suites or in using Shannon and single-stage Kolmogorov entropy metrics. [...] Read more.
This paper explores the security of a single-stage residue number system (RNS) pseudorandom number generator (PRNG), which has previously been shown to provide extremely high-quality outputs when evaluated through available RNG statistical test suites or in using Shannon and single-stage Kolmogorov entropy metrics. In contrast, rather than blindly performing statistical analyses on the outputs of the single-stage RNS PRNG, this paper provides both white box and black box analyses that facilitate reverse engineering of the underlying RNS number generation algorithm to obtain the residues, or equivalently key, of the RNS algorithm. We develop and demonstrate a conditional entropy analysis that permits extraction of the key given a priori knowledge of state transitions as well as reverse engineering of the RNS PRNG algorithm and parameters (but not the key) in problems where the multiplicative RNS characteristic is too large to obtain a priori state transitions. We then discuss multiple defenses and perturbations for the RNS system that fool the original attack algorithm, including deliberate noise injection and code hopping. We present a modification to the algorithm that accounts for deliberate noise, but rapidly increases the search space and complexity. Lastly, we discuss memory requirements and time required for the attacker and defender to maintain these defenses. Full article
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20 pages, 5187 KiB  
Article
A Client/Server Malware Detection Model Based on Machine Learning for Android Devices
by Arthur Fournier, Franjieh El Khoury and Samuel Pierre
IoT 2021, 2(3), 355-374; https://doi.org/10.3390/iot2030019 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3940
Abstract
The rapid adoption of Android devices comes with the growing prevalence of mobile malware, which leads to serious threats to mobile phone security and attacks private information on mobile devices. In this paper, we designed and implemented a model for malware detection on [...] Read more.
The rapid adoption of Android devices comes with the growing prevalence of mobile malware, which leads to serious threats to mobile phone security and attacks private information on mobile devices. In this paper, we designed and implemented a model for malware detection on Android devices to protect private and financial information, for the mobile applications of the ATISCOM project. This model is based on client/server architecture, to reduce the heavy computations on a mobile device by sending data from the mobile device to the server for remote processing (i.e., offloading) of the predictions. We then gradually optimized our proposed model for better classification of the newly installed applications on Android devices. We at first adopted Naive Bayes to build the model with 92.4486% accuracy, then the classification method that gave the best accuracy of 93.85% for stochastic gradient descent (SGD) with binary class (i.e., malware and benign), and finally the regression method with numerical values ranging from −100 to 100 to manage the uncertainty predictions. Therefore, our proposed model with random forest regression gives a good accuracy in terms of performance, with a good correlation coefficient, minimum computation time and the smallest number of errors for malware detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber Security and Privacy in IoT)
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