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Physics, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 24 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): An electron is similar to a mirror. In fact, in terms of the radiation emitted, they are identical. At the very least, this is a functional coincidence, general enough to be applied to any trajectory equation of motion—useful for determining the spectrum, energy, power, particle count, and other interesting physics. The moving mirror has a long history as a black hole analog, and it is tempting to speculate that black hole evaporation and electron radiation are closely related. The correspondence has the potential to help to develop general but precise links between acceleration, gravity, and thermodynamics. In this short work, we explore a particular trajectory that emits finite energy and demonstrates the explicit agreement between a moving mirror and the moving point charge. View this paper
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9 pages, 1030 KiB  
Communication
Finite-Size Effects of Casimir–van der Waals Forces in the Self-Assembly of Nanoparticles
by Raul Esquivel-Sirvent
Physics 2023, 5(1), 322-330; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010024 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1859
Abstract
Casimir–van der Waals forces are important in the self-assembly processes of nanoparticles. In this paper, using a hybrid approach based on Lifshitz theory of Casimir–van der Waals interactions and corrections due to the shape of the nanoparticles, it is shown that for non-spherical [...] Read more.
Casimir–van der Waals forces are important in the self-assembly processes of nanoparticles. In this paper, using a hybrid approach based on Lifshitz theory of Casimir–van der Waals interactions and corrections due to the shape of the nanoparticles, it is shown that for non-spherical nanoparticles, the usual Hamaker approach overestimates the magnitude of the interaction. In particular, the study considers nanoplates of different thicknesses, nanocubes assembled with their faces parallel to each other, and tilted nanocubes, where the main interaction is between edges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vacuum Fluctuations)
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12 pages, 2201 KiB  
Article
Resonant Fast-Alfvén Wave Coupling in a 3D Coronal Arcade
by Andrew Wright and Thomas Elsden
Physics 2023, 5(1), 310-321; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010023 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
The resonant excitation of Alfvén waves using the fast magnetosonic mode is important in space plasmas. In this paper, we consider a simple model of a three-dimensional (3D) coronal arcade. A numerical approach is used to produce a driven normal mode. We find [...] Read more.
The resonant excitation of Alfvén waves using the fast magnetosonic mode is important in space plasmas. In this paper, we consider a simple model of a three-dimensional (3D) coronal arcade. A numerical approach is used to produce a driven normal mode. We find that resonant coupling can occur in 3D, but there are new features that are absent in 2D. In particular, the polarisation of the Alfvén waves can vary with position throughout the Resonant Zone. Moreover, there are an infinite number of possible paths the resonant waves can exist on. Full article
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12 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
On the Use and Misuse of the Oberbeck–Boussinesq Approximation
by Antonio Barletta, Michele Celli and D. Andrew S. Rees
Physics 2023, 5(1), 298-309; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010022 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
The Oberbeck–Boussinesq approximation is the most commonly employed theoretical scheme for the study of natural or mixed convection flows. However, the misunderstanding of this approximated framework is a possibility that may cause the emergence of paradoxes or, at least, incorrect conclusions. In this [...] Read more.
The Oberbeck–Boussinesq approximation is the most commonly employed theoretical scheme for the study of natural or mixed convection flows. However, the misunderstanding of this approximated framework is a possibility that may cause the emergence of paradoxes or, at least, incorrect conclusions. In this paper, the basic features of the Oberbeck–Boussinesq approximation are briefly recalled and three simple examples where this theoretical scheme may be misused are provided. Such misuses of the approximation lead to erroneous conclusions that, in the examples presented in this note, entail violations of the principle of mass conservation. A discussion about the Oberbeck–Boussinesq approximation as an asymptotic theory obtained by letting the product of the thermal expansion coefficient and the reference temperature difference tend to zero is also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Statistical Physics and Nonlinear Phenomena)
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22 pages, 584 KiB  
Article
The Interplay between Coronal Holes and Solar Active Regions from Magnetohydrostatic Models
by Jaume Terradas
Physics 2023, 5(1), 276-297; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010021 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Coronal holes (CHs) and active regions (ARs) are typical magnetic structures found in the solar corona. The interaction of these two structures was investigated mainly from the observational point of view, but a basic theoretical understanding of how they are connected is missing. [...] Read more.
Coronal holes (CHs) and active regions (ARs) are typical magnetic structures found in the solar corona. The interaction of these two structures was investigated mainly from the observational point of view, but a basic theoretical understanding of how they are connected is missing. To address this problem, in this paper, magnetohydrostatic models are constructed by numerically solving a Grad–Shafranov equation in two dimensions. A common functional form for the pressure and temperature in the CH and in the AR are assumed throught the study. Keeping the parameters of the CH constant and modifying the parameters of the nearby bipolar AR, one finds essentially three types of solutions depending on the magnitude and sign of the magnetic field at the closest foot of the AR to the CH. Two of the three solutions match well with the observation, but the third solution predicts the existence of closed magnetic field lines with quite low density and temperature with opposite characteristics to those in typical ARs. Simple analytical expressions are obtained for the pressure, temperature and density at the core of the AR and their dependence upon several major physical parameters are studied. The results obtained in this paper need to be contrasted with observations. Full article
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15 pages, 3307 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Magnetic Field Topology in the Evolution of Small-Scale Two-Fluid Jets in the Solar Atmosphere
by Elton Everardo Díaz-Figueroa, Gonzalo Ares de Parga and José Juan González-Avilés
Physics 2023, 5(1), 261-275; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010020 - 27 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1494
Abstract
In this paper, a series of numerical simulations is performed to recreate small-scale two-fluid jets using the JOANNA code, considering the magnetohydrodynamics of two fluids (ions plus electrons and neutral particles). First, the jets are excited in a uniform magnetic field by using [...] Read more.
In this paper, a series of numerical simulations is performed to recreate small-scale two-fluid jets using the JOANNA code, considering the magnetohydrodynamics of two fluids (ions plus electrons and neutral particles). First, the jets are excited in a uniform magnetic field by using velocity pulse perturbations located at y0= 1.3, 1.5, and 1.8 Mm, considering the base of the photosphere at y=0. Then, the excitation of the jets is repeated in a magnetic field that mimics a flux tube. Mainly, the jets excited at the upper chromosphere (y1.8 Mm) reach lower heights than those excited at the lower chromosphere (y1.3 Mm); this is due to the higher initial vertical location because of the lesser amount of plasma dragging. In both scenarios, the dynamics of the neutral particles and ions show similar behavior, however, one can still identify some differences in the velocity drift, which in the simulations here is of the order of 103 km/s at the tips of the jets once they reached their maximum heights. In addition, the heat due to the friction between ions and neutrals (Qi,nin) is estimated to be of the order of 0.002–0.06 W/m3. However, it hardly contributes to the heating of the surroundings of the solar corona. The jets in the two magnetic environments do not show substantial differences other than a slight variation in the maximum heights reached, particularly in the uniform magnetic field scenario. Finally, the maximum heights reached by the three different jets are found in the range of some morphological parameters corresponding to macrospicules, Type I spicules, and Type II spicules. Full article
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14 pages, 314 KiB  
Article
van der Waals Dispersion Potential between Excited Chiral Molecules via the Coupling of Induced Dipoles
by A. Salam
Physics 2023, 5(1), 247-260; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010019 - 24 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1124
Abstract
The retarded van der Waals dispersion potential between two excited chiral molecules was calculated using an approach, in which electric and magnetic dipole moments are induced in each particle by fluctuations in the vacuum electromagnetic field. An expectation value of the coupling of [...] Read more.
The retarded van der Waals dispersion potential between two excited chiral molecules was calculated using an approach, in which electric and magnetic dipole moments are induced in each particle by fluctuations in the vacuum electromagnetic field. An expectation value of the coupling of the moments at different centres to the dipolar interaction tensors was taken over excited matter states and the ground state radiation field, the former yielding excited molecular polarisabilities and susceptibilities, and the latter field–field spatial correlation functions. The dispersion potential term proportional to the mixed dipolar polarisability is discriminatory, dependent upon molecular handedness, and contains additional terms due to transitions that de-excite each species as well as the usual u-integral term over imaginary frequency, which applies to both upward and downward transitions. Excited state dispersion potentials of a comparable order of magnitude involving paramagnetic and diamagnetic couplings were also computed. Pros and cons of the method adopted are compared to other commonly used approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vacuum Fluctuations)
18 pages, 358 KiB  
Article
Two New Methods in Stochastic Electrodynamics for Analyzing the Simple Harmonic Oscillator and Possible Extension to Hydrogen
by Daniel C. Cole
Physics 2023, 5(1), 229-246; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010018 - 21 Feb 2023
Viewed by 948
Abstract
The position probability density function is calculated for a classical electric dipole harmonic oscillator bathed in zero-point plus Planckian electromagnetic fields, as considered in the physical theory of stochastic electrodynamics (SED). The calculations are carried out via two new methods. They start from [...] Read more.
The position probability density function is calculated for a classical electric dipole harmonic oscillator bathed in zero-point plus Planckian electromagnetic fields, as considered in the physical theory of stochastic electrodynamics (SED). The calculations are carried out via two new methods. They start from a general probability density expression involving the formal integration over all probabilistic values of the Fourier coefficients describing the stochastic radiation fields. The first approach explicitly carries out all these integrations; the second approach shows that this general probability density expression satisfies a partial differential equation that is readily solved. After carrying out these two fairly long analyses and contrasting them, some examples are provided for extending this approach to quantities other than position, such as the joint probability density distribution for positions at different times, and for position and momentum. This article concludes by discussing the application of this general probability density expression to a system of great interest in SED, namely, the classical model of hydrogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vacuum Fluctuations)
14 pages, 1048 KiB  
Article
Damping and Dispersion of Non-Adiabatic Acoustic Waves in a High-Temperature Plasma: A Radiative-Loss Function
by Sergei Derteev, Nikolai Shividov, Dzhirgal Bembitov and Badma Mikhalyaev
Physics 2023, 5(1), 215-228; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010017 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
The behavior of acoustic waves in a rarefied high-temperature plasma is studied; as an example, the plasma of the solar corona is considered. Effects of thermal conductivity and a heating/radiative loss are taken into account; data on a temperature distribution of a radiation [...] Read more.
The behavior of acoustic waves in a rarefied high-temperature plasma is studied; as an example, the plasma of the solar corona is considered. Effects of thermal conductivity and a heating/radiative loss are taken into account; data on a temperature distribution of a radiation intensity obtained from the CHIANTI 10 code are used. The classical Spitzer expression for a full-ionized plasma is used for the thermal conductivity. Based on the found values of the radiation-loss function, the cubic spline method is used to construct an approximate analytical expression necessary for studying linear waves. A dispersion relation is obtained, and a frequency, a phase speed, and a damping coefficient are found. Dispersion and damping properties are considered for a temperature of about 106 K and a particle density of about 1015m3, which are typical for the coronal plasma. In sum, superiority in the dispersion and damping of the thermal conduction is shown; the heating and radiation loss manifest themselves at large wavelengths. In accordance with general results by Field, a condition was found under which the acoustic oscillations become unstable. It is shown that at certain values of the temperature and density, the wave damping is dominated by the heating/radiative loss misbalance. Thus, the earlier results on mechanisms of damping of observed acoustic waves in the solar corona are refined here. Full article
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10 pages, 690 KiB  
Communication
Determination of a Key Pandemic Parameter of the SIR-Epidemic Model from Past COVID-19 Mutant Waves and Its Variation for the Validity of the Gaussian Evolution
by Reinhard Schlickeiser and Martin Kröger
Physics 2023, 5(1), 205-214; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010016 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1354
Abstract
Monitored differential infection rates of past corona waves are used to infer, a posteriori, the real time variation of the ratio of recovery to infection rate as a key parameter of the SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered/removed) epidemic model. From monitored corona waves in five different [...] Read more.
Monitored differential infection rates of past corona waves are used to infer, a posteriori, the real time variation of the ratio of recovery to infection rate as a key parameter of the SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered/removed) epidemic model. From monitored corona waves in five different countries, it is found that this ratio exhibits a linear increase at early times below the first maximum of the differential infection rate, before the ratios approach a nearly constant value close to unity at the time of the first maximum with small amplitude oscillations at later times. The observed time dependencies at early times and at times near the first maximum agree favorably well with the behavior of the calculated ratio for the Gaussian temporal evolution of the rate of new infections, although the predicted linear increase of the Gaussian ratio at late times is not observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Life Physics)
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12 pages, 3127 KiB  
Article
Stability of Slow Magnetoacoustic and Entropy Waves in the Solar Coronal Plasma with Thermal Misbalance
by Dmitrii Y. Kolotkov, Valery M. Nakariakov and Joseph B. Fihosy
Physics 2023, 5(1), 193-204; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010015 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
The back-reaction of the perturbed thermal equilibrium in the solar corona on compressive perturbations, also known as the effect of wave-induced thermal misbalance, is known to result in thermal instabilities chiefly responsible for the formation of fine thermal structuring of the corona. We [...] Read more.
The back-reaction of the perturbed thermal equilibrium in the solar corona on compressive perturbations, also known as the effect of wave-induced thermal misbalance, is known to result in thermal instabilities chiefly responsible for the formation of fine thermal structuring of the corona. We study the role of the magnetic field and field-aligned thermal conduction in triggering instabilities of slow magnetoacoustic and entropy waves in quiescent and hot active region loops, caused by thermal misbalance. Effects of the magnetic field are accounted for by including it in the parametrization of a guessed coronal heating function, and the finite plasma parameter β, in terms of the first-order thin flux tube approximation. Thermal conduction tends to stabilize both slow and entropy modes, broadening the interval of plausible coronal heating functions allowing for the existence of a thermodynamically stable corona. This effect is most pronounced for hot loops. In contrast to entropy waves, the stability of which is found to be insensitive to the possible dependence of the coronal heating function on the magnetic field, slow waves remain stable only for certain functional forms of this dependence, opening up perspectives for its seismological diagnostics in future. Full article
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14 pages, 2290 KiB  
Opinion
Physical Mechanisms Underpinning the Vacuum Permittivity
by Gerd Leuchs, Margaret Hawton and Luis L. Sánchez-Soto
Physics 2023, 5(1), 179-192; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010014 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1831
Abstract
The debate about the emptiness of space goes back to the prehistory of science and is epitomized by the Aristotelian ‘horror vacui’, which can be seen as the precursor of the ether, whose modern version is the dynamical quantum vacuum. In this paper, [...] Read more.
The debate about the emptiness of space goes back to the prehistory of science and is epitomized by the Aristotelian ‘horror vacui’, which can be seen as the precursor of the ether, whose modern version is the dynamical quantum vacuum. In this paper, we suggest to change a common view to ‘gaudium vacui’ and discuss how the vacuum fluctuations fix the value of the permittivity, ε0, and permeability, μ0, by modelling their dynamical response by three-dimensional harmonic oscillators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vacuum Fluctuations)
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11 pages, 790 KiB  
Article
Diffusion in Phase Space as a Tool to Assess Variability of Vertical Centre-of-Mass Motion during Long-Range Walking
by Nicolas Boulanger, Fabien Buisseret, Victor Dehouck, Frédéric Dierick and Olivier White
Physics 2023, 5(1), 168-178; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010013 - 05 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1292
Abstract
When a Hamiltonian system undergoes a stochastic, time-dependent anharmonic perturbation, the values of its adiabatic invariants as a function of time follow a distribution whose shape obeys a Fokker–Planck equation. The effective dynamics of the body’s centre-of-mass during human walking is expected to [...] Read more.
When a Hamiltonian system undergoes a stochastic, time-dependent anharmonic perturbation, the values of its adiabatic invariants as a function of time follow a distribution whose shape obeys a Fokker–Planck equation. The effective dynamics of the body’s centre-of-mass during human walking is expected to represent such a stochastically perturbed dynamical system. By studying, in phase space, the vertical motion of the body’s centre-of-mass of 25 healthy participants walking for 10 min at spontaneous speed, we show that the distribution of the adiabatic invariant is compatible with the solution of a Fokker–Planck equation with a constant diffusion coefficient. The latter distribution appears to be a promising new tool for studying the long-range kinematic variability of walking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Classical Physics)
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7 pages, 500 KiB  
Communication
Modeling the Magnetic Field of the Inner Corona in a Radially Expanding Solar Wind
by Andrey G. Tlatov and Ivan Berezin
Physics 2023, 5(1), 161-167; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010012 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1205
Abstract
The magnetic field in the interplanetary medium is formed by the action of magnetic field sources on the photosphere of the Sun and currents in the expanding atmosphere of the Sun and the solar wind. In turn, the high-speed plasma flow changes the [...] Read more.
The magnetic field in the interplanetary medium is formed by the action of magnetic field sources on the photosphere of the Sun and currents in the expanding atmosphere of the Sun and the solar wind. In turn, the high-speed plasma flow changes the configuration of the magnetic field lines. The problem of determining the parameters of the magnetic field near the Sun is thus a three-dimensional problem of the interaction of the magnetic field and the plasma of the solar wind. We present analytical expressions for calculating the total magnetic field vector B(r, θ, ϕ) (in spherical coordinates) for a radially expanding solar wind flow of finite conductivity. The parameters of the solar wind are given in the form of a dimensionless magnetic Reynolds number given as an arbitrary function of the radius, r: Rm = rσμv=ξ(r), where σ, μ, and v denote, respectively, the conductivity, magnetic permeability, and velocity of the solar wind. The solution for the magnetic field components is obtained in the form of a decomposition in spherical functions and a radial part depending on the distance from the Sun. Examples of calculations of the configuration of magnetic fields and structures of the solar corona for the solar eclipse of 21 August 2017 are given. Full article
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21 pages, 6355 KiB  
Article
Heating and Cooling in Transversely Oscillating Coronal Loops Powered by Broadband, Multi-Directional Wave Drivers
by Thomas Howson and Ineke De Moortel
Physics 2023, 5(1), 140-160; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010011 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1364
Abstract
Recent studies have identified the potential for coronal wave heating to balance radiative losses in a transversely oscillating low-density loop undergoing resonant absorption, phase mixing and the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. This result relied on a continuous, resonant oscillatory driver acting on one of the [...] Read more.
Recent studies have identified the potential for coronal wave heating to balance radiative losses in a transversely oscillating low-density loop undergoing resonant absorption, phase mixing and the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. This result relied on a continuous, resonant oscillatory driver acting on one of the loop footpoints and similar setups with non-resonant driving produce insufficient heating. Here, we consider broadband and multi-directional drivers with power in both resonant and non-resonant frequencies. Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we impose transverse, continuous velocity drivers at the footpoints of a coronal loop, which is dense in comparison to the background plasma. We include the effects of optically thin radiation and a uniform background heating term that maintains the temperature of the external plasma but is insufficient to balance energy losses within the loop. For both broadband and multi-directional drivers, we find that the energy dissipation rates are sufficient to balance the average energy losses throughout the simulation volume. Resonant components of the wave driver efficiently inject energy into the system and these frequencies dominate the energetics. Although the mean radiative losses are balanced, the loop core cools in all cases as the wave heating rates are locally insufficient, despite the relatively low density considered here. Full article
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9 pages, 560 KiB  
Communication
Electron as a Tiny Mirror: Radiation from a Worldline with Asymptotic Inertia
by Michael R. R. Good and Yen Chin Ong
Physics 2023, 5(1), 131-139; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010010 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
We present a moving mirror analog of the electron, whose worldline possesses asymptotic constant velocity with corresponding Bogoliubov β coefficients that are consistent with finite total emitted energy. Furthermore, the quantum analog model is in agreement with the total energy obtained by integrating [...] Read more.
We present a moving mirror analog of the electron, whose worldline possesses asymptotic constant velocity with corresponding Bogoliubov β coefficients that are consistent with finite total emitted energy. Furthermore, the quantum analog model is in agreement with the total energy obtained by integrating the classical Larmor power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vacuum Fluctuations)
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15 pages, 11646 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Radio Frequency Waves on the Plasma Density in the Tokamak Edge
by Dirk Van Eester and Nil Tournay
Physics 2023, 5(1), 116-130; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010009 - 28 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2281
Abstract
A simple model is presented to describe how the radio frequency electromagnetic field modifies the plasma density the antenna faces in tokamaks. Aside from “off-the-shelf” equations standardly used to describe wave-plasma interaction relying on the quasilinear approach, it invokes the ponderomotive force in [...] Read more.
A simple model is presented to describe how the radio frequency electromagnetic field modifies the plasma density the antenna faces in tokamaks. Aside from “off-the-shelf” equations standardly used to describe wave-plasma interaction relying on the quasilinear approach, it invokes the ponderomotive force in presence of the confining static magnetic field. The focus is on dynamics perpendicular to the Bo magnetic field. Stronger fields result in density being pushed further away from the launcher and in stronger density asymmetry along the antenna. Full article
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26 pages, 396 KiB  
Article
Quantum Configuration and Phase Spaces: Finsler and Hamilton Geometries
by Saulo Albuquerque, Valdir B. Bezerra, Iarley P. Lobo, Gabriel Macedo, Pedro H. Morais, Ernesto Rodrigues, Luis C. N. Santos and Gislaine Varão
Physics 2023, 5(1), 90-115; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010008 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1371
Abstract
In this paper, we reviewtwo approaches that can describe, in a geometrical way, the kinematics of particles that are affected by Planck-scale departures, named Finsler and Hamilton geometries. By relying on maps that connect the spaces of velocities and momenta, we discuss the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we reviewtwo approaches that can describe, in a geometrical way, the kinematics of particles that are affected by Planck-scale departures, named Finsler and Hamilton geometries. By relying on maps that connect the spaces of velocities and momenta, we discuss the properties of configuration and phase spaces induced by these two distinct geometries. In particular, we exemplify this approach by considering the so-called q-de Sitter-inspired modified dispersion relation as a laboratory for this study. We finalize with some points that we consider as positive and negative ones of each approach for the description of quantum configuration and phases spaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Quantum Geometry)
18 pages, 2733 KiB  
Article
Advances in the Implementation of the Exactly Energy Conserving Semi-Implicit (ECsim) Particle-in-Cell Method
by Giovanni Lapenta
Physics 2023, 5(1), 72-89; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010007 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
The energy-conserving semi-implicit (ECsim) method presented by the author in 2017, is a particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm for the simulation of plasmas. Energy conservation is achieved within a semi-implicit formulation that does not require any non-linear solver. A mass matrix is introduced to linearly [...] Read more.
The energy-conserving semi-implicit (ECsim) method presented by the author in 2017, is a particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm for the simulation of plasmas. Energy conservation is achieved within a semi-implicit formulation that does not require any non-linear solver. A mass matrix is introduced to linearly express the particle-field coupling. With the mass matrix, the algorithm preserves energy conservation to machine precision. The construction of the mass matrix is the central nature of the method and also the main cost of the computational cycle. Here, three methods that modify the construction of the mass matrix are analyzed. First, the paper considers how the sub-cycling of the particle motion modifies the mass matrix. Second, a form of smoothing that reduces the noise while retaining exact energy conservation is introduced. Finally, an approximation of the mass matrix is discussed that transforms the ECsim scheme to the implicit moment method. Full article
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3 pages, 166 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Physics in 2022
by Physics Editorial Office
Physics 2023, 5(1), 69-71; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010006 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 847
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
10 pages, 288 KiB  
Article
Study on the Thermodynamic Properties of Thin Film of FCC Interstitial Alloy AuSi at Zero Pressure Using the Statistical Moment Method
by Nguyen Thi Hoa, Nguyen Quang Hoc and Hua Xuan Dat
Physics 2023, 5(1), 59-68; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010005 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
We built a model and proposed a theory about the thermodynamic properties of face-centered cubic (FCC) binary interstitial alloy’s thin films based on the statistical moment method and performed numerical calculations for AuSi (gold silicide). First, the statistical moment method (SMM) calculations for [...] Read more.
We built a model and proposed a theory about the thermodynamic properties of face-centered cubic (FCC) binary interstitial alloy’s thin films based on the statistical moment method and performed numerical calculations for AuSi (gold silicide). First, the statistical moment method (SMM) calculations for the thermodynamic properties of Au are compared with reported experiments and calculations that show a good agreement between the calculations in this paper and earlier studies. Additionally, the SMM calculations for thermodynamic properties of AuSi alloy films are performed, which show that the thermal expansion coefficient, the specific heat at constant volume, and the specific heat at constant pressure increases, while the isothermal elastic modulus decreases with increasing temperature and increasing interstitial atom concentration. Furthermore, when the number of layers reaches 100, the thermodynamic properties of the film are similar to those of the bulk material. The achieved theoretical results for AuSi films are novel and can be useful in designing future experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Physics)
14 pages, 5183 KiB  
Article
Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films with 80% Average Transmittance and 32 Ohms per Square Sheet Resistance: A Genuine Alternative to Commercial High-Performance Indium Tin Oxide
by Ivan Ricardo Cisneros-Contreras, Geraldine López-Ganem, Oswaldo Sánchez-Dena, Yew Hoong Wong, Ana Laura Pérez-Martínez and Arturo Rodríguez-Gómez
Physics 2023, 5(1), 45-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010004 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
In this study, a low-sophistication low-cost spray pyrolysis system built by undergraduate students is used to grow aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:Al). The pyrolysis system was able to grow polycrystalline ZnO:Al with a hexagonal wurtzite structure preferentially oriented on the c-axis, corresponding [...] Read more.
In this study, a low-sophistication low-cost spray pyrolysis system built by undergraduate students is used to grow aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:Al). The pyrolysis system was able to grow polycrystalline ZnO:Al with a hexagonal wurtzite structure preferentially oriented on the c-axis, corresponding to a hexagonal wurtzite structure, and exceptional reproducibility. The ZnO:Al films were studied as transparent conductive oxides (TCOs). Our best ZnO:Al TCO are found to exhibit an 80% average transmittance in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum, a sheet resistance of 32 Ω/□, and an optical bandgap of 3.38 eV. After an extensive optical and nanostructural characterization, we determined that the TCOs used are only 4% less efficient than the best ZnO:Al TCOs reported in the literature. This latter, without neglecting that literature-ZnO:Al TCOs, have been grown by sophisticated deposition techniques such as magnetron sputtering. Consequently, we estimate that our ZnO:Al TCOs can be considered an authentic alternative to high-performance aluminum-doped zinc oxide or indium tin oxide TCOs grown through more sophisticated equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Physics)
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21 pages, 7335 KiB  
Article
Thermosolutal Marangoni Convection for Hybrid Nanofluid Models: An Analytical Approach
by Ulavathi Shettar Mahabaleshwar, Rudraiah Mahesh and Filippos Sofos
Physics 2023, 5(1), 24-44; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010003 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1405
Abstract
The present study investigates the effect of mass transpiration on heat absorption/generation, thermal radiation and chemical reaction in the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Darcy–Forchheimer flow of a Newtonian fluid at the thermosolutal Marangoni boundary over a porous medium. The fluid region consists of H2 [...] Read more.
The present study investigates the effect of mass transpiration on heat absorption/generation, thermal radiation and chemical reaction in the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Darcy–Forchheimer flow of a Newtonian fluid at the thermosolutal Marangoni boundary over a porous medium. The fluid region consists of H2O as the base fluid and fractions of TiO2–Ag nanoparticles. The mathematical approach given here employs the similarity transformation, in order to transform the leading partial differential equation (PDE) into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The derived equations are solved analytically by using Cardon’s method and the confluent hypergeometric function. The solutions are further graphically analyzed, taking into account parameters such as mass transpiration, chemical reaction coefficient, thermal radiation, Schmidt number, Marangoni number, and inverse Darcy number. According to our findings, adding TiO2–Ag nanoparticles into conventional fluids can greatly enhance heat transfer. In addition, the mixture of TiO2–Ag with H2O gives higher heat energy compared to the mixture of only TiO2 with H2O. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Statistical Physics and Nonlinear Phenomena)
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13 pages, 1643 KiB  
Article
Probability Distribution Functions of Solar and Stellar Flares
by Takashi Sakurai
Physics 2023, 5(1), 11-23; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010002 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1823
Abstract
The paper studies the soft X-ray data of solar flares and found that the distribution functions of flare fluence are successfully modeled by tapered power law or gamma function distributions whose power exponent is slightly smaller than 2, indicating that the total energy [...] Read more.
The paper studies the soft X-ray data of solar flares and found that the distribution functions of flare fluence are successfully modeled by tapered power law or gamma function distributions whose power exponent is slightly smaller than 2, indicating that the total energy of the flare populations is mostly due to a small number of large flares. The largest possible solar flares in 1000 years are predicted to be around X70 (a peak flux of 70 × 10−4 W m−2) in terms of the GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites) flare class. The paper also studies superflares (more energetic than solar flares) from solar-type stars and found that their power exponent in the fitting of the gamma function distribution is around 1.05, which is much flatter than solar flares. The distribution function of stellar flare energy extrapolated downward does not connect to the distribution function of solar flare energy. Full article
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10 pages, 427 KiB  
Article
BFSS Matrix Model Cosmology: Progress and Challenges
by Suddhasattwa Brahma, Robert Brandenberger and Samuel Laliberte
Physics 2023, 5(1), 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics5010001 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
We review a proposal to obtain an emergent metric space-time and an emergent early universe cosmology from the Banks–Fischler–Shenker–Susskind (BFSS) matrix model. Some challenges and directions for future research are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Quantum Geometry)
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