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Acoustics, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 17 articles

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21 pages, 6454 KiB  
Case Report
The Acoustics of the Palace of Charles V as a Cultural Heritage Concert Hall
by Jose A. Almagro-Pastor, Rafael García-Quesada, Jerónimo Vida-Manzano, Francisco J. Martínez-Irureta and Ángel F. Ramos-Ridao
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 800-820; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030048 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3678
Abstract
This paper analyses the acoustic behaviour of the Palace of Charles V from a room acoustics perspective but also ponders the uniqueness of the space and its ability to engage and enhance the audience experience. The Palace of Charles V is a relevant [...] Read more.
This paper analyses the acoustic behaviour of the Palace of Charles V from a room acoustics perspective but also ponders the uniqueness of the space and its ability to engage and enhance the audience experience. The Palace of Charles V is a relevant part of the historical heritage of Granada. It has an architectural but also an acoustic uniqueness that deserves research. A measurement campaign was made to calculate parameters such as T30, IACC, C80 or Gm, and to explain the behaviour of the Palace. The BQI is quite high, but the late part of the impulse response (t > 80 ms) has strong unwanted reflections causing low clarity (C80) and listener envelopment (LEV). Nevertheless, the Palace is a successful concert venue with good feedback from musicians and the audience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics, Soundscapes and Sounds as Intangible Heritage)
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17 pages, 4225 KiB  
Article
Measuring the Acoustical Properties of the BBC Maida Vale Recording Studios for Virtual Reality
by Gavin Kearney, Helena Daffern, Patrick Cairns, Anthony Hunt, Ben Lee, Jacob Cooper, Panos Tsagkarakis, Tomasz Rudzki and Daniel Johnston
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 783-799; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030047 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3938
Abstract
In this paper we present a complete acoustic survey of the British Broadcasting Corporation Maida Vale recording studios. The paper outlines a fast room acoustic measurement framework for capture of spatial impulse response measurements for use in three or six degrees of freedom [...] Read more.
In this paper we present a complete acoustic survey of the British Broadcasting Corporation Maida Vale recording studios. The paper outlines a fast room acoustic measurement framework for capture of spatial impulse response measurements for use in three or six degrees of freedom Virtual Reality rendering. Binaural recordings from a KEMAR dummy head as well as higher order Ambisonic spatial room impulse response measurements taken using a higher order Ambisonic microphone are presented. An acoustic comparison of the studios is discussed, highlighting remarkable similarities across three of the recording spaces despite significant differences in geometry. Finally, a database of the measurements, housing the raw impulse response captures as well as processed spatial room impulse responses is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics, Soundscapes and Sounds as Intangible Heritage)
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19 pages, 3996 KiB  
Article
Spatial Coherence Comparisons between the Acoustic Field and Its Frequency-Difference and Frequency-Sum Autoproducts in the Ocean
by Nicholas J. Joslyn, Alexander S. Douglass and David R. Dowling
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 764-782; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030046 - 7 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2551
Abstract
The frequency-difference and frequency-sum autoproducts, quadratic products of complex acoustic field amplitudes at two frequencies, may mimic genuine acoustic fields at the difference and sum frequencies of the constituent fields, respectively. Autoproducts have proven useful in extending the useable frequency range for acoustic [...] Read more.
The frequency-difference and frequency-sum autoproducts, quadratic products of complex acoustic field amplitudes at two frequencies, may mimic genuine acoustic fields at the difference and sum frequencies of the constituent fields, respectively. Autoproducts have proven useful in extending the useable frequency range for acoustic remote sensing to frequencies outside a recorded field’s bandwidth. In array signal processing applications, the spatial coherence of the field often sets performance limits. This paper presents results for the spatial coherence of the genuine field, the frequency-difference autoproduct, and the frequency-sum autoproduct as determined from data collected during the Cascadia Open-Access Seismic Transects (COAST 2012) experiment. In this experiment, an airgun array providing a 10 to 200 Hz signal was repeatedly fired off the coast of Washington state, and the resulting acoustic fields were recorded by a nominal 8 km long, 636-element towed horizontal array. Based on hundreds of airgun firings from a primarily shore-parallel transect, both autoproducts were found to extend field coherence to frequencies outside the genuine field’s bandwidth and to produce longer coherence lengths than genuine fields, in most cases. When used for matched-field processing, the same data illustrate the benefits of the autoproducts’ extended coherence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Acoustics)
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18 pages, 1656 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Listeners’ Mood on Equalization-Based Listening Experience
by Nefeli Dourou, Valeria Bruschi, Susanna Spinsante and Stefania Cecchi
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 746-763; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030045 - 1 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3462
Abstract
Using equalization to improve sound listening experience is a well-established topic among the audio society. Finding a general equalization curve is a difficult task because of spectral content influenced by the reproduction system (loudspeakers and room environment) and personal preference diversity. Listeners’ mood [...] Read more.
Using equalization to improve sound listening experience is a well-established topic among the audio society. Finding a general equalization curve is a difficult task because of spectral content influenced by the reproduction system (loudspeakers and room environment) and personal preference diversity. Listeners’ mood is said to be a factor that affects the individual equalization preference. In this study, the effect of a listener’s mood on equalization preference is tried to be investigated. Starting from an experiment with fifty-two listeners, considering five predefined equalization curves and a database of ten music excerpts, the relationship between listeners’ mood and preferred sound equalization has been studied. The main findings of this study showed that the “High-frequency boosting” equalization was the most preferred among participants. However, the “High-frequency boosting” preference of low-aroused people was slightly lower than the high aroused listeners, increasing the preference of the “Low-frequency boosting”. Full article
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13 pages, 4940 KiB  
Article
Effects of Industrial Noise on Physiological Responses
by Massimiliano Masullo, Roxana Adina Toma and Luigi Maffei
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 733-745; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030044 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3562
Abstract
Noise pollution is one of the most common workplace hazards. Noise exposure may induce auditory and extra-auditory physiological and psychological alterations that affect job performance, safety, comfort, and wellbeing. Recent research showed a connection between frequency components of noise and health outcomes, annoyance, [...] Read more.
Noise pollution is one of the most common workplace hazards. Noise exposure may induce auditory and extra-auditory physiological and psychological alterations that affect job performance, safety, comfort, and wellbeing. Recent research showed a connection between frequency components of noise and health outcomes, annoyance, physiological and psychological changes. This study investigated whether and how the activation of different typologies of industrial noises set at three different sound levels induced increases in electrodermal activity (EDA) and the heart rate variations differently. A laboratory listening test was performed for the study, in which 24 subjects were exposed to the activation of different industrial noises: Low Frequency, High Frequency, and Modulated noises at Low, Medium, and High sound levels, while some physiological responses were recorded. The noise stimuli were also evaluated based on a self-report questionnaire. Results show that the EDA variation increases as the Sound Level increases and is higher at HF. In contrast, no relevant changes have been found in RR variation. EDA changes are also related to the perception of the Valence dimension of the noise environment, while RR variations not. The findings of this study emphasized that the changes in EDA depend on the sound levels and frequency content of industrial noise typologies, as well as on the perception of their Valence. Full article
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13 pages, 3955 KiB  
Article
Numerical and Experimental Validation of Active Vibration Control Logic Performance of a Hybrid Noise Control-Based Brick
by Ilaria Ronconi, Roberta Salierno, Ling Liu, Andrea Giglio, Francesco Ripamonti and Ingrid Paoletti
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 720-732; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030043 - 28 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2348
Abstract
The limitations of active noise control (ANC) in coping with low frequencies and of passive noise control (PNC) in coping with middle-high frequencies are objects of research that present the potentialities of hybrid noise control (HBC). It aims at combining both of the [...] Read more.
The limitations of active noise control (ANC) in coping with low frequencies and of passive noise control (PNC) in coping with middle-high frequencies are objects of research that present the potentialities of hybrid noise control (HBC). It aims at combining both of the behaviours by broadening the range of absorbed frequencies. Among the several application fields, the AEC (architecture, engineering, and construction) market can take advantage for those applications in which the noise conditions are caused by sound sources that tune in a broad frequencies range. In this frame, the paper describes the numerical and experimental validation of the active behaviour of an under-development project of a hybrid noise control-based acoustic bricks. The latter intends to embed the potentialities of active vibrational noise control (AVC) and passive destructive interference (PDI) in a unique design of an easy-to-mount, 3D-printed, customisable smart acoustic blocks. Active vibration control, the object of this paper, is provided by a 5-mm thick aluminium circular plate with an attached piezoelectric patch. The vibration of the latter, depending on a specific control law, defines the vibration of the plate itself achieving an abatement of the reflection coefficient. Through mathematical modelling and tests in an impedance tube, the results show that the control logic can reach an average abatement of the reflection coefficient of 82% in the frequency range 144–1007 Hz. Full article
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16 pages, 1843 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of MP3 Coding Depends on the Music Genre: Evaluation Using Semantic Differential Scales
by Nikolaos M. Papadakis, Ioanna Aroni and Georgios E. Stavroulakis
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 704-719; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030042 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3527
Abstract
MPEG-1 Layer 3 (MP3) is one of the most popular compression formats used for sound and especially for music. However, during the coding process, the MP3 algorithm negatively affects the spectral and dynamic characteristics of the audio file being compressed. The aim of [...] Read more.
MPEG-1 Layer 3 (MP3) is one of the most popular compression formats used for sound and especially for music. However, during the coding process, the MP3 algorithm negatively affects the spectral and dynamic characteristics of the audio file being compressed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect the MP3 coding format for different music genres and different bitrates via listening tests in which the original uncompressed files and the compressed files are compared. For this purpose, five different music genres were selected (rock, jazz, electronic, classical and solo instrument), and the files were compressed in three different bitrates (96 kbps, 160 kbps and 320 kbps). The semantic differential method was used, and ten bipolar scales were selected for the listening tests (e.g., better–worse, more distortion–less distortion, etc.). The following are the most important findings of this study: classical music was negatively affected the most among the genres due to the MP3 compression (lowest ratings in 8 out of 10 bipolar scales), the solo instrument was least affected among the genres (highest rating in 7 out of 10 bipolar scales), and for higher bit rates, the differences in ratings were small for all music genres. The findings of this study could be used to optimize and adapt the standard, depending on the music genre and the musical piece that needs to be encoded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing)
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25 pages, 32299 KiB  
Article
Sound Scattering by Gothic Piers and Columns of the Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris
by Antoine Weber and Brian F. G. Katz
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 679-703; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030041 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4091
Abstract
Although the acoustics of Gothic cathedrals are of interest to researchers, the acoustic impact of their many columns is often neglected. The construction of the Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris spanned several centuries, including a wide variety of architectonic elements. This study investigates the [...] Read more.
Although the acoustics of Gothic cathedrals are of interest to researchers, the acoustic impact of their many columns is often neglected. The construction of the Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris spanned several centuries, including a wide variety of architectonic elements. This study investigates the sound scattering of a selection of seven designs that are relevant to this building as well as to the architectural style itself. These were measured on scale models (1:8.5 to 1:12), using a subtraction method, for receivers at about 3 m at full scale and a far-field source. They were also numerically simulated using a finite-difference time-domain method in two-dimensional space with an incident plane wave. The method integrates a finite volume framework to employ an unstructured mesh conforming to the complex geometries of interest. The two methods are in strong agreement for the considered configurations. Relative levels to the direct sound of backscattered reflections between 10 dB and 2 dB and between 15 dB and 6 dB in the transverse directions were estimated for the dimensions considered, relative to reported reflection audibility thresholds. Cross-sections with smaller scale geometrical elements on their perimeter can produce diffuse reflections similar to those of surface diffusers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics, Soundscapes and Sounds as Intangible Heritage)
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23 pages, 1214 KiB  
Article
BDREA Betta and Dolphin Pods Routing via Energy Scarcity Aware Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks (UAWSNs)
by Hamza Zradgui and Khalil Ibrahimi
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 656-678; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030040 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
There exist numerous applications for deploying Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs), including submarine detection, disaster prevention, oil and gas monitoring, off-shore exploration, and military target tracking. The acoustic sensor nodes are deployed to monitor the underwater environment, considering the area under observation. This [...] Read more.
There exist numerous applications for deploying Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs), including submarine detection, disaster prevention, oil and gas monitoring, off-shore exploration, and military target tracking. The acoustic sensor nodes are deployed to monitor the underwater environment, considering the area under observation. This research work proposes an energy scarcity-aware routing protocol for energy efficient UWSNs. Moreover, it aims to find the feasible region on the basis of the objective function, in order to minimize the energy tax and extend the network life. There are three different sensors nodes in the network environment, i.e., anchor nodes, relay nodes, and the centralized station. Anchor nodes originate data packets, while relay nodes process them and broadcast between each other until the packets reach the centralized station. The underline base scheme Weighting Depth and Forwarding Area Division Depth-Based Routing (WDFAD-DBR) for routing is based on the depth differences of the first- and second-hop nodes of the source node. The propose work, Betta and Dolphin Pods Routing via Energy Scarcity Aware protocol (BDREA) for packet forwarding from the forwarding nodes considers the first and second hops of the source node, i.e., the packet advancement, the network traffic, the distance to the centralized station, and the inverse normalized energy of the forwarding zone. It is observed that the proposed work improves the performance parameters by approximately 50% in terms of energy efficiency, and prolongs the network life compared to Dolphin and Whale Pod (DOW-PR) protocols. Furthermore, the energy efficiency directly relates to the other parameters, and its enhancement can be seen in terms of an 18.02% reduction in end-to-end delay when compared with the Weighting Depth and Forwarding Area Division Depth-Based Routing (WDFAD-DBR) protocol. Furthermore, BDREA improves the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) by approximately 8.71%, compared to DOW-PR, and by 10% compared with the benchmark, WDFAD-DBR, the energy tax by 50% in comparison to DOW-PR, the end-to-end delay by 18%, and the APD by 5% in comparison to WDFAD-DBR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Acoustics)
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19 pages, 2256 KiB  
Article
Double-Talk Detection-Aided Residual Echo Suppression via Spectrogram Masking and Refinement
by Eran Shachar, Israel Cohen and Baruch Berdugo
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 637-655; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030039 - 25 Aug 2022
Viewed by 2763
Abstract
Acoustic echo in full-duplex telecommunication systems is a common problem that may cause desired-speech quality degradation during double-talk periods. This problem is especially challenging in low signal-to-echo ratio (SER) scenarios, such as hands-free conversations over mobile phones when the loudspeaker volume is high. [...] Read more.
Acoustic echo in full-duplex telecommunication systems is a common problem that may cause desired-speech quality degradation during double-talk periods. This problem is especially challenging in low signal-to-echo ratio (SER) scenarios, such as hands-free conversations over mobile phones when the loudspeaker volume is high. This paper proposes a two-stage deep-learning approach to residual echo suppression focused on the low SER scenario. The first stage consists of a speech spectrogram masking model integrated with a double-talk detector (DTD). The second stage consists of a spectrogram refinement model optimized for speech quality by minimizing a perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) related loss function. The proposed integration of DTD with the masking model outperforms several other configurations based on previous studies. We conduct an ablation study that shows the contribution of each part of the proposed system. We evaluate the proposed system in several SERs and demonstrate its efficiency in the challenging setting of a very low SER. Finally, the proposed approach outperforms competing methods in several residual echo suppression metrics. We conclude that the proposed system is well-suited for the task of low SER residual echo suppression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing)
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28 pages, 15870 KiB  
Article
Control of Acoustic Energy Input for Cleaning of Industrial Boilers
by Thabang Mafokwane and Daramy Vandi Von Kallon
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 609-636; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030038 - 31 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2183
Abstract
A non-intrusive cleaning method for boiler tubes at Sasol Synfuels power station at Secunda, in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa, is preferred over conventional methods that require boiler shutdown. The elected non-intrusive cleaning method utilizes sound energy waves, produced by an acoustic [...] Read more.
A non-intrusive cleaning method for boiler tubes at Sasol Synfuels power station at Secunda, in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa, is preferred over conventional methods that require boiler shutdown. The elected non-intrusive cleaning method utilizes sound energy waves, produced by an acoustic horn. Due to the nature of sound propagation and the effectiveness required, there is a requisite to control and operate the sonic horn. If the acoustic horn’s sound frequency is too low, it will produce higher sound energy waves that will resonate with the plant’s harmonious frequency and cause structural damage. Conversely, if the sonic horn’s sound frequency is too high, excessive noise levels may be reached and annoy plant personnel. To prevent these undesirable outcomes posed by adopting acoustic cleaning, there needs to be a regulatory system incorporated into the configuration to mitigate vibrations and limit noise. The regulatory system comprises a control system that drives the acoustic horn’s sound frequency as intended through a set point. The designed control system meets the anticipated requirements, such that it has an ideal transient response of 0.562 s, a steady-state error achieved in 1.05 s, with 0.201% overshoot, and most importantly the closed-loop system is stable. Full article
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21 pages, 3967 KiB  
Article
A Basic Study on the Design of Dotted-Art Heterogeneous MPP Sound Absorbers
by Kimihiro Sakagami, Midori Kusaka and Takeshi Okuzono
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 588-608; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030037 - 31 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3174
Abstract
Recently, dotted-art MPPs have been proposed in which a designed pattern is made with the holes. In such a case, the MPP becomes heterogeneous in general. However, existing theories used for the prediction of the absorption characteristics of MPPs assume homogeneity. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
Recently, dotted-art MPPs have been proposed in which a designed pattern is made with the holes. In such a case, the MPP becomes heterogeneous in general. However, existing theories used for the prediction of the absorption characteristics of MPPs assume homogeneity. Therefore, the elaboration of a method for heterogeneous MPPs needs to be performed. In previous work, the authors proposed a method to predict the absorption characteristics of a heterogeneous MPP by using synthesized impedances of each part with different parameters; this is called the synthetic impedance method (SIM) in the present paper. The SIM can potentially be used for various heterogeneous MPPs; however, its scope of applicability needs to be clarified. Furthermore, in proposing a design concept of dotted-art heterogeneous MPPs, the condition that would make the designed MPPs fall within the scope of the SIM needs to be determined. Therefore, in this study, in order to clarify the scope of the applicability of the SIM, twelve samples are first prepared, and then measured sound absorption characteristics and predicted ones are compared and examined in terms of prediction errors. The results show that there are two conditions that should be met to produce predictable heterogeneous MPPs: (1) holes are distributed over the entire surface of the specimen, and (2) the hole spacing is constant. Considering these conditions, a design concept for a dotted-art heterogeneous MPP is proposed: two types of holes, larger holes for the pattern and smaller holes for the background, should be used to meet the above two conditions. Case studies with nine prototypes show that the SIM can make predictions for dotted-art heterogeneous MPPs fabricated according to the concept described above. Full article
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14 pages, 5840 KiB  
Article
Locating Sources of Vibration with Harmonics and Pulse Signals in Industrial Machines
by Anvar Valeev and Bulat Kharrasov
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 574-587; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030036 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2114
Abstract
This paper is devoted to a new approach to condition monitoring. The main feature is an application of strain gauge analysis for geometrical locating of vibrating defects. Information about the exact geometrical location of a defect, intensity of excitation and its frequency provides [...] Read more.
This paper is devoted to a new approach to condition monitoring. The main feature is an application of strain gauge analysis for geometrical locating of vibrating defects. Information about the exact geometrical location of a defect, intensity of excitation and its frequency provides accurate diagnostics. The research contains theoretical and experimental parts. Three types of defects are analyzed: defects with harmonic parameters, defects with non-harmonic periodical parameters (pulse periodic signal) and defects with non-periodical parameters (pulse non-periodical signal). For the first type, analysis of micro movements in the equipment is used. The others use triangulation; for detecting time lag of signal approaching in each sensor, an analysis of phase spectrum is used. This method can find sources of vibration/defects with pulse-like signals. An electronic board and computer program for implementation of the proposed method are developed. The electronics measure strain gauge data in real time and transmit it to a computer program. Such an approach gives new information for diagnostics and provides new opportunities for effective defect detection and condition monitoring of various machines and equipment. Full article
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10 pages, 2284 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Oscillation Velocity in the Neck of the Helmholtz Resonator in Nonlinear Regimes
by Alexandr Komkin, Aleksei Bykov and Olga Saulkina
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 564-573; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030035 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2316
Abstract
Methods for measuring the acoustic characteristics of orifices have been reviewed. Comparison of three methods for evaluating of oscillation velocity in the neck of the Helmholtz resonator are presented. The first method is measurements in an impedance tube with the two-microphone method, the [...] Read more.
Methods for measuring the acoustic characteristics of orifices have been reviewed. Comparison of three methods for evaluating of oscillation velocity in the neck of the Helmholtz resonator are presented. The first method is measurements in an impedance tube with the two-microphone method, the second is based on measuring the sound pressure in the resonator chamber, and the third is based on direct measurements of bias flow with a Pitot tube. The results of measuring the oscillation velocity in the neck of the Helmholtz resonator are presented, and show that these methods are in good agreement only within linear acoustics, but they lead to different results in nonlinear regimes characterized by high sound pressure levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resonators in Acoustics)
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10 pages, 4686 KiB  
Article
One-Way Vibration Absorber
by Oskar Bschorr and Hans-Joachim Raida
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 554-563; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030034 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2438
Abstract
A vibration absorber consisting of a one-dimensional waveguide with a reflectionless termination extracts vibrational energy from a structure that is to be damped. An optimum energy dissipation occurs for the so-called power adjustment, i.e, the same level of resistance and the opposite reactance [...] Read more.
A vibration absorber consisting of a one-dimensional waveguide with a reflectionless termination extracts vibrational energy from a structure that is to be damped. An optimum energy dissipation occurs for the so-called power adjustment, i.e, the same level of resistance and the opposite reactance of structure and absorber. The dimensioning of these impedance parameters on the base of the classic second order “two-way” wave equation provides analytical solutions for a few simple waveguide shapes; solutions for all other waveguides are only accessible via numerical finite-element computation. However, the competing first order “one-way” wave equation allows for an analytical conception of both the known broadband vibration absorber and the “Acoustic Black Hole” absorber. For example, for an exponential waveguide, the two-way calculation shows no resistance (and hence no real wave propagation) below a cut-off frequency, while the one-way wave equation predicts absorption in the whole frequency range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elastic Wave Scattering in Heterogeneous Media)
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16 pages, 7680 KiB  
Article
Audio Denoising Coprocessor Based on RISC-V Custom Instruction Set Extension
by Jun Yuan, Qiang Zhao, Wei Wang, Xiangsheng Meng, Jun Li and Qin Li
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 538-553; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030033 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2833
Abstract
As a typical active noise control algorithm, Filtered-x Least Mean Square (FxLMS) is widely used in the field of audio denoising. In this study, an audio denoising coprocessor based on Retrenched Injunction System Computer-V (RISC-V), a custom instruction set extension was designed and [...] Read more.
As a typical active noise control algorithm, Filtered-x Least Mean Square (FxLMS) is widely used in the field of audio denoising. In this study, an audio denoising coprocessor based on Retrenched Injunction System Computer-V (RISC-V), a custom instruction set extension was designed and a software and hardware co-design was adopted; based on the traditional pure hardware implementation, the accelerator optimization design was carried out, and the accelerator was connected to the RISC-V core in the form of coprocessor. Meanwhile, the corresponding custom instructions were designed, the compiling environment was established, and the library function of coprocessor acceleration instructions was established by embedded inline assembly. Finally, the active noise control (ANC) system was built and tested based on Hbird E203-Core, and the test data were collected through an audio analyzer. The results showed that the audio denoising algorithm can be realized by combining a heterogeneous System on Chip (SoC) with a hardware accelerator, and the denoising effect was approximately 8 dB. The number of instructions consumed by testing custom instructions for specific operations was reduced by approximately 60%, and the operation acceleration effect was significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing)
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21 pages, 939 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of the Main Wave Propagation Characteristics in a Steel-CFRP Laminate Including Model Order Reduction
by Andrey Mikhaylenko, Natalie Rauter, Nanda Kishore Bellam Muralidhar, Tilmann Barth, Dirk A. Lorenz and Rolf Lammering
Acoustics 2022, 4(3), 517-537; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4030032 - 25 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2849
Abstract
Guided ultrasonic waves are suitable for use in the context of structural health monitoring of thin-walled, plate-like structures. Hence, observing the wave propagation in the plates can provide an indication of whether damage has occurred in the structure. In this work, the wave [...] Read more.
Guided ultrasonic waves are suitable for use in the context of structural health monitoring of thin-walled, plate-like structures. Hence, observing the wave propagation in the plates can provide an indication of whether damage has occurred in the structure. In this work, the wave propagation in fiber metal laminate consisting of thin steel foils and layers of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer is studied, focusing on the main propagation characteristics like dispersion diagrams and displacement fields. For this purpose, the dispersion diagrams derived from the analytical framework and numerical simulations are first determined and compared to each other. Next, the displacement fields are computed using the global matrix method for two excitation frequencies. The results derived from the analytical framework is used to validate the numerically determined displacement fields based on a 2D and a 3D modeling approach. For both investigations the results of the analytical treatment and the numerical simulation show good agreement. Furthermore, the displacement field reveals the typical and well-known characteristics of the propagation of guided waves in thin-walled structures. Since the use of full 3D models involves a very high computational cost, this work also successfully investigates the possibility for model order reduction to decrease the computational time and costs of the simulation without the loss of accuracy. Full article
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