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Acoustics, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2022) – 14 articles

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25 pages, 38577 KiB  
Article
Soundscape Approach in the Seaport of Ancona: A Case Study
by Samantha Di Loreto, Fabio Serpilli and Valter Lori
Acoustics 2022, 4(2), 492-516; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4020031 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3625
Abstract
Today, the art of knowing how to listen is more urgent than ever. The perceptive sound system of the human being is stimulated daily by countless artificial sounds that dominate natural ones. When it comes to the idea of the soundscape, the terminology [...] Read more.
Today, the art of knowing how to listen is more urgent than ever. The perceptive sound system of the human being is stimulated daily by countless artificial sounds that dominate natural ones. When it comes to the idea of the soundscape, the terminology was initially referred to by composer and environmentalist Raymond Murray Shafer, who defined “soundscape” as a relationship between the ear, humans, built environments, and society. This paper aims to apply the sound landscape approach in the seaport area of Ancona (Italy); a large area, frequented daily by many people, which is divided into passenger and ferry terminals, container terminals, plants for solid bulk, and commercial and recreational activities. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the perception that a human has of the urban layout of the port area by correlating the parameters of traditional acoustics with psychoacoustics. To evaluate the subjective parameters, a questionnaire was developed and applied, enabling the analysis of demographic and behavioral factors such as age, visit frequency, and length of stay of the participants in the clusters of the seaport. This way, it was possible to give an indication of the sound quality of the different clusters of the port area, from an acoustic and emotional point of view, and this information could be particularly helpful in the planning phase of new attractions for the Ancona seaport. Full article
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13 pages, 3164 KiB  
Article
Environmental Noise Evolution during COVID-19 State of Emergency: Evidence of Peru’s Need for Action Plans
by Rubén Rodríguez, María Machimbarrena and Ana I. Tarrero
Acoustics 2022, 4(2), 479-491; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4020030 - 2 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3211
Abstract
In Peru, as in many countries worldwide, varying degrees of restrictions have been established on the movement of the population after the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the condition of pandemic by COVID-19. In Lima, there have been different degrees of compulsory social [...] Read more.
In Peru, as in many countries worldwide, varying degrees of restrictions have been established on the movement of the population after the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the condition of pandemic by COVID-19. In Lima, there have been different degrees of compulsory social immobilization (CSI), and the resumption of activities was planned in three consecutive phases. To analyse and evaluate the influence of such restrictions on the evolution of environmental noise, an investigation was carried out in one of the main avenues in the city of Lima during various successive mobility restriction conditions. The sound pressure level was measured, and the traffic flow was also registered. Considering that in Peru there is no environmental noise monitoring system whatsoever, in situ data are extremely valuable and allow the environmental noise problem to be depicted, even if in a limited area of the big city. The results show that in spite of the strongly restrictive social immobilization conditions, the measured noise levels have remained above the WHO recommendations and often above the Peruvian environmental noise quality standards. The results highlight the need to properly assess the environmental noise and noise sources in the city of Lima as well as the number of people exposed in order to adequately implement effective and cost-efficient noise mitigation action plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noise Control for Healthy and Enhanced Acoustic Environments)
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10 pages, 1794 KiB  
Article
The Dipole Resonator and Dipole Waveguide Insulator in Dense Liquid Medium
by Mikhail Mironov
Acoustics 2022, 4(2), 469-478; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4020029 - 22 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2771
Abstract
In this paper, the propagation of sound in an acoustically narrow waveguide, the wall of which is lined with identical dipole resonators and masses on springs, is theoretically considered. It is shown that, in the frequency range above the resonant frequency of the [...] Read more.
In this paper, the propagation of sound in an acoustically narrow waveguide, the wall of which is lined with identical dipole resonators and masses on springs, is theoretically considered. It is shown that, in the frequency range above the resonant frequency of the resonators, sound waves exponentially attenuate, and the waveguide is locked. The width of this range depends on two parameters—the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the resonators and the waveguide and the ratio of the mass of the resonator to the mass of the medium displaced by it. As the resonator mass decreases, the locking band width expands and may become infinite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resonators in Acoustics)
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9 pages, 970 KiB  
Article
A Preliminary Investigation on Frequency Dependant Cues for Human Emotions
by Manish Kumar, Thushara D. Abhayapala and Prasanga Samarasinghe
Acoustics 2022, 4(2), 460-468; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4020028 - 22 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 20340
Abstract
The recent advances in Human-Computer Interaction and Artificial Intelligence have significantly increased the importance of identifying human emotions from different sensory cues. Hence, understanding the underlying relationships between emotions and sensory cues have become a subject of study in many fields including Acoustics, [...] Read more.
The recent advances in Human-Computer Interaction and Artificial Intelligence have significantly increased the importance of identifying human emotions from different sensory cues. Hence, understanding the underlying relationships between emotions and sensory cues have become a subject of study in many fields including Acoustics, Psychology, Psychiatry, Neuroscience and Biochemistry. This work is a preliminary step towards investigating cues for human emotion on a fundamental level by aiming to establish relationships between tonal frequencies of sound and emotions. For that, an online perception test is conducted, in which participants are asked to rate the perceived emotions corresponding to each tone. The results show that a crossover point for four primary emotions lies in the frequency range of 417–440 Hz, thus consolidating the hypothesis that the frequency range of 432–440 Hz is neutral from human emotion perspective. It is also observed that the frequency dependant relationships between emotion pairs Happy—Sad, and Anger—Calm are approximately mirrored symmetric in nature. Full article
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19 pages, 1601 KiB  
Article
Speech Enhancement Framework with Noise Suppression Using Block Principal Component Analysis
by Abdullah Zaini Alsheibi, Kimon P. Valavanis, Asif Iqbal and Muhammad Naveed Aman
Acoustics 2022, 4(2), 441-459; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4020027 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3225
Abstract
With the advancement in voice-communication-based human–machine interface technology in smart home devices, the ability to decompose the received speech signal into a signal of interest and an interference component has emerged as a key requirement for their successful operation. These devices perform their [...] Read more.
With the advancement in voice-communication-based human–machine interface technology in smart home devices, the ability to decompose the received speech signal into a signal of interest and an interference component has emerged as a key requirement for their successful operation. These devices perform their tasks in real time based on the received commands, and their effectiveness is limited when there is a lot of ambient noise in the area in which they operate. Most real-time speech enhancement algorithms do not perform adequately well in the presence of high amounts of noise (i.e., low input-signal-to-noise ratio). In this manuscript, we propose a speech enhancement framework to help these algorithms in situations when the noise level in the received signal is high. The proposed framework performs noise suppression in the frequency domain by generating an approximation of the noisy signals’ short-time Fourier transform, which is then used by the speech enhancement algorithms to recover the underlying clean signal. This approximation is performed by using the proposed block principal component analysis (Block-PCA) algorithm. To illustrate efficacy of the proposed framework, we present a detailed performance evaluation under different noise levels and noise types, highlighting the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Moreover, the proposed method can be used in conjunction with any speech enhancement algorithm to improve its performance under moderate to high noise scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing)
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22 pages, 6855 KiB  
Article
Investigation of a Tuff Stone Church in Cappadocia via Acoustical Reconstruction
by Ali Haider Adeeb and Zühre Sü Gül
Acoustics 2022, 4(2), 419-440; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4020026 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3147
Abstract
This study investigates the indoor acoustical characteristics of a Middle Byzantine masonry church in Cappadocia. The Bell Church is in partial ruins; therefore, archival data and the church’s remains are used for its acoustical reconstruction. The study aims to formulate a methodology for [...] Read more.
This study investigates the indoor acoustical characteristics of a Middle Byzantine masonry church in Cappadocia. The Bell Church is in partial ruins; therefore, archival data and the church’s remains are used for its acoustical reconstruction. The study aims to formulate a methodology for a realistic simulation of the church by testing the applicability of different approaches, including field and laboratory tests. By conducting qualitative and quantitative material tests, different tuff stone samples are examined from the region. Impedance tube tests are performed on the samples from Göreme and Ürgüp to document their sound absorption performances. Previous field tests on two sites in Cappadocia are also used to compare the sound absorption performance of tuff stones, supported by acoustical simulations. The texture, physical and chemical characteristics of the stones together with the measured sound absorption coefficient values are comparatively evaluated for selecting the most suitable material to be applied in the Bell Church simulations. The church was constructed in phases and underwent architectural modifications and additions over time. The indoor acoustical environment of the church is analyzed over objective acoustical parameters of EDT, T30, C50, C80, D50, and STI for its different phases with different architectural features and functional patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics, Soundscapes and Sounds as Intangible Heritage)
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13 pages, 3221 KiB  
Article
Measurement of Ultrasound Parameters of Bovine Cancellous Bone as a Function of Frequency for a Range of Porosities via Through-Transmission Ultrasonic Spectroscopy
by Alina Karki and Junru Wu
Acoustics 2022, 4(2), 406-418; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4020025 - 3 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2902
Abstract
The relationship between ultrasonic parameters (attenuation coefficients and velocity) and bone porosity in bovine cancellous bone is explored to understand the possibility of fracture risk diagnosis associated with osteoporosis by applying ultrasound. In vitro measurements of ultrasonic parameters on twenty-one bovine cancellous bone [...] Read more.
The relationship between ultrasonic parameters (attenuation coefficients and velocity) and bone porosity in bovine cancellous bone is explored to understand the possibility of fracture risk diagnosis associated with osteoporosis by applying ultrasound. In vitro measurements of ultrasonic parameters on twenty-one bovine cancellous bone samples from tibia were conducted, using ultrasonic spectroscopy in the through-transmission mode. Transducers of three different center frequencies were used to cover a wide diagnostic frequency range between 1.0–7.8 MHz. The nonlinear relationship of porosity and normalized attenuation coefficient (nATTN) and normalized broadband attenuation coefficient (nBUA) were well described by a third-order polynomial fit, whereas porosity and the phase velocity (UV) were found to be negatively correlated with the linear correlation coefficients of −0.93, −0.89 and −0.83 at 2.25, 5.00 and 7.50 MHz, respectively. The results imply that the ultrasound parameters attain maximum values for the bone sample with the lowest porosity, and then decrease for samples with greater porosity for the range of porosities in our samples for all frequencies. Spatial variation in the ultrasound parameters was found to be caused by non-uniform pore size distribution, which was examined at five different locations within the same bone specimen. However, it did not affect the relationship of ultrasound parameters and porosity at these frequencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Ultrasound Applications)
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12 pages, 1185 KiB  
Article
A Method for Modeling Acoustic Waves in Moving Subdomains
by Milan Brankovic and Mark E. Everett
Acoustics 2022, 4(2), 394-405; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4020024 - 13 Apr 2022
Viewed by 3377
Abstract
Forward modeling plays a key role in both the creation of predictive models and the study of the surrounding environment through inversion methods. Due to their competitive computational cost and modest algorithmic complexity, finite difference methods (FDM) are commonly used to model the [...] Read more.
Forward modeling plays a key role in both the creation of predictive models and the study of the surrounding environment through inversion methods. Due to their competitive computational cost and modest algorithmic complexity, finite difference methods (FDM) are commonly used to model the acoustic wave equation. An algorithm has been developed to decrease the computational cost of acoustic-wave forward modeling that can be applied to most finite difference methods. An important feature of the algorithm is the calculation, at each time step, of the pressure in only a moving subdomain which contains the grid points across which waves are passing. The computation is skipped at grid points at which the waves are negligibly small or non-existent. The novelty in this work comes from flexibility of the subdomain and its ability to closely follow the developing wavefield. To demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm, it is applied to a standard finite difference scheme and validated against 2-D modeling results. The algorithm herein can play an important role in the reduction in computation time of seismic data analysis as the volumes of seismic data increase due to developments in data acquisition technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elastic Wave Scattering in Heterogeneous Media)
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12 pages, 2978 KiB  
Article
On the Influence of Certain Geometric Characteristics of the Resonator on the Impedance Determined by the Dean’s Method
by Vadim Palchikovskiy, Igor Khramtsov and Oleg Kustov
Acoustics 2022, 4(2), 382-393; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4020023 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2636
Abstract
This article considers the influence of the orifice arrangement in a cover of a cylindrical resonator on the impedance determined by the Dean’s method. A resonator with a small height and a low perforation degree is studied. This geometry provides different non-uniformity of [...] Read more.
This article considers the influence of the orifice arrangement in a cover of a cylindrical resonator on the impedance determined by the Dean’s method. A resonator with a small height and a low perforation degree is studied. This geometry provides different non-uniformity of the sound field at the resonator backing depending on the orifice arrangement in the resonator cover, while the number of orifices does not change. It is shown that, with different orifice arrangements, the impedance values determined by Dean’s method at high frequencies (3000 Hz and more) differ greatly. The authors propose the modification of Dean’s formula by using the amplitude coefficient of the zeroth order mode instead of the acoustic pressure at the resonator backing. The computations performed demonstrate that, in this case, the impedance does not depend on the orifice arrangement in the resonator cover. The computations consist of three stages: numerical simulation of the plane wave incidence onto the resonator (simulating a full-scale experiment); carrying out a modal analysis of the sound field at the resonator backing to extract the zeroth order mode; and determination of the resonator impedance according to the modified Dean’s formula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resonators in Acoustics)
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20 pages, 6925 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Alberich Coating to Optimise Acoustic Stealth of Submarines
by Callum Daniels and Noel Perera
Acoustics 2022, 4(2), 362-381; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4020022 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3964
Abstract
Due to the nature of their deployment, very few people know the location and course of a submarine during its time at sea, including only a handful of the ship’s crew. The possibility of immediate retaliation by the UK and her allies is [...] Read more.
Due to the nature of their deployment, very few people know the location and course of a submarine during its time at sea, including only a handful of the ship’s crew. The possibility of immediate retaliation by the UK and her allies is aided by the submarine’s ability to remain undetected by SONAR at all times. To investigate one method for improving acoustic stealth, a finite element model (FEM) was created on ANSYS to model a unit-cell of an Alberich coating and impeding sound wave representative of SONAR. A simplification of a widely used acoustic impedance equation was adopted into MATLAB code to attain values of impedance that were applied to the model in place of a water loading boundary. Using the results given by five sets of simulations, an optimised Alberich coating was modelled, containing a 26 mm spherical cavity, 40 mm anechoic layer and 30 mm long steel backplate. This optimised model improved the acoustic stealth of submarines by displaying greater acoustic absorption at both ends of the frequency range, compared with other models used, showing that Alberich-style coatings can be used to improve acoustic stealth, to combat new low-frequency SONAR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Acoustics)
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17 pages, 3659 KiB  
Article
Simulation-Based Study on Round Window Atresia by Using a Straight Cochlea Model with Compressible Perilymph
by Wenjia Hong and Yasushi Horii
Acoustics 2022, 4(2), 345-361; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4020021 - 6 Apr 2022
Viewed by 3046
Abstract
The sound stimulus received by the pinna is transmitted to the oval window of the inner ear via the outer ear and middle ear. Assuming that the perilymph in the scala vestibuli and scala tympani is compressible, we report that the sound wave [...] Read more.
The sound stimulus received by the pinna is transmitted to the oval window of the inner ear via the outer ear and middle ear. Assuming that the perilymph in the scala vestibuli and scala tympani is compressible, we report that the sound wave generated in the cochlea due to the vibration of the oval window can be expressed by the combination of even and odd symmetric sound wave modes. Based on this new approach, this paper studies the cause of hearing deterioration in the lower frequency region seen in round window atresia from the viewpoint of cochlear acoustics. Round window atresia is an auditory disease in which the round window is ossified and its movement is restricted. Using the finite element method, a round window atresia model was designed and the acoustic behavior of the round window was discussed corresponding to the level of disease. From this, we report that the healthy round window works as a free-end reflector to the incident sound waves, but it also works as a fixed-end reflector in the case of round window atresia. Next, we incorporated the round window atresia model into a cochlear model and performed a simulation in order to determine the acoustic aspects of the cochlea as a whole. The simulation results indicate that hearing deterioration occurs in a lower frequency range, which is also coincident with the clinical reports (hearing deterioration of approximately 10 to 20 dB below 4000 Hz). Finally, we explain that the cause of hearing deterioration due to round window atresia is considered to be the even sound wave mode enlarging due to the fixed-end reflection at the ossified round window, and, as a result, the odd sound wave mode that generates the Békésy’s traveling wave on a basilar membrane is significantly weakened. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binaural Audition)
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16 pages, 2087 KiB  
Article
Efficient Modelling of Acoustic Metamaterials for the Performance Enhancement of an Automotive Silencer
by Daniel Deery, Lara Flanagan, Gordon O’Brien, Henry J. Rice and John Kennedy
Acoustics 2022, 4(2), 329-344; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4020020 - 1 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5455
Abstract
Significant potential for acoustic metamaterials to provide a breakthrough in sound attenuation has been unlocked in recent times due to advancements in additive manufacturing techniques. These materials allow the targeting of specific frequencies for sound attenuation. To date, acoustic metamaterials have not been [...] Read more.
Significant potential for acoustic metamaterials to provide a breakthrough in sound attenuation has been unlocked in recent times due to advancements in additive manufacturing techniques. These materials allow the targeting of specific frequencies for sound attenuation. To date, acoustic metamaterials have not been demonstrated in a commercial automotive silencer for performance enhancement. A significant obstacle to the practical use of acoustic metamaterials is the need for low cost and efficient modelling strategies in the design phase. This study investigates the effect of acoustic metamaterials within a representative automotive silencer. The acoustic metamaterial design is achieved using a combination of analytical and finite element models, validated by experiment. The acoustic metamaterial is then compared with commonly used techniques in the silencer industry to gauge the effectiveness of the acoustic metamaterials. COMSOL simulations were used to validate the developed test rig and were compared to experimental results which were obtained using the two-load transmission loss test method. Through this testing method, the implementation of a labyrinthine metamaterial cylinder proved to be a significant improvement in transmission loss within the silencer, with an increase in transmission loss of 40 dB at 1500 Hz. The research has successfully shown that acoustic metamaterials can be used in practical settings, such as an automotive silencer, to improve the overall sound attenuating performance. The described analytical model demonstrates the potential for industrially relevant low cost design tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustical Materials)
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16 pages, 864 KiB  
Article
Dual-Axis MEMS Resonant Scanner Using 128Y Lithium Niobate Thin-Film
by Yaoqing Lu, Kangfu Liu and Tao Wu
Acoustics 2022, 4(2), 313-328; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4020019 - 1 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3975
Abstract
The micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) resonant scanners are in great demand for numerous light scanning applications. Recently, the development of LiDAR in micro-robotics and mobile devices has led to the requirement of ultra-small systems with low driving voltage, low power, compact size and high [...] Read more.
The micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) resonant scanners are in great demand for numerous light scanning applications. Recently, the development of LiDAR in micro-robotics and mobile devices has led to the requirement of ultra-small systems with low driving voltage, low power, compact size and high performance. We have first proposed the dual-axis MEMS scanner using the lithium niobate (LN) thin-film platform, which is expected to fulfill the requirement. This paper describes the actuation principle and scanner structure, meanwhile develops the analytical model for the scanner. The analytical model is later validated by the finite element analysis. The performance of the proposed scanner is improved with the optimization of the orientation of LN and layer thickness. The proposed scanner achieves the θopt·D·f up to 937.8·mm·kHz in simulation. The simulated optical angle in the x-axis and y-axis are 50 and 42 at 1 V, corresponding to resonant frequencies of 79.9 kHz and 558.2 kHz, respectively. With the superior performance of large deflection, high scanning frequency, high figure of merit and low voltage, the proposed MEMS scanner is a promising candidate for fast scanner applications (e.g., wavelength-selective switches and submicron biomedical system), especially the application of LiDAR in mobile devices or micro-robotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resonators in Acoustics)
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16 pages, 3072 KiB  
Article
UAV Noise Emission—A Combined Experimental and Numerical Assessment
by Kai Cussen, Simone Garruccio and John Kennedy
Acoustics 2022, 4(2), 297-312; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics4020018 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6558
Abstract
Noise emission will be a significant obstacle to the widespread uptake of unmanned aerial vehicles or UAVs. The assessment and mitigation of UAV noise will require validated modelling approaches. The European Union has recently mandated an UAV sound power measurement procedure based on [...] Read more.
Noise emission will be a significant obstacle to the widespread uptake of unmanned aerial vehicles or UAVs. The assessment and mitigation of UAV noise will require validated modelling approaches. The European Union has recently mandated an UAV sound power measurement procedure based on a procedure for measuring machinery or equipment. It is not clear if this legally mandated noise assessment will provide useful data for environmental noise modelling of UAVs. This research aimed to determine the sound power level of a UAV according to the legally mandated ISO 3744 and to investigate the suitability of commercial implementations of ISO 9613 for modelling noise emission from UAVs. A class C1 UAV was used for the investigation which also included controlled flyover tests. Several different operating conditions were measured and modelled and the results compared. The small scale UAV used had a sound power of 86.8 dB (A) and modelled flyover tests agreed with experimental values within ±2.1 decibels at distances up to 30 m and within angles of 45–90° of the receiver. The validated model was then used for a case study of UAV noise emission in an urban setting. The model demonstrated the potential for UAV noise emission to significantly exceed urban background noise levels by up to 10 dB. It was found that flight altitude relative to building height had a significant impact on the number of allowable UAV operations within WHO LDEN guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noise Control for Healthy and Enhanced Acoustic Environments)
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