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Gastrointest. Disord., Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 11 articles

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14 pages, 900 KiB  
Article
Ileocolic Anastomosis Dehiscence in Colorectal Cancer Surgery
by Sara Lima Gomes, Pedro Miguel Dias dos Santos, Joaquim Costa Pereira and Sandra F. Martins
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(2), 273-286; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5020022 - 12 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1404
Abstract
Background: Anastomotic leakage (AL) is one of the most feared complications in colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. Although many series have reported the general risk factors for AL, published studies focusing on ileocolic anastomosis are scarce. The main aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Background: Anastomotic leakage (AL) is one of the most feared complications in colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. Although many series have reported the general risk factors for AL, published studies focusing on ileocolic anastomosis are scarce. The main aim of this study was to identify potential risk factors associated with ileocolic anastomosis dehiscence in surgery for CRC. Methods: A total of 188 patients who underwent primary ileocolic anastomosis after elective CRC surgery in Braga’s Hospital from November of 2018 to February of 2022 were included. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify independent risk factors for AL. Results: AL occurred in 13 patients (6.9%), and about three-fourths of these patients required surgical re-intervention. The mortality rate was 5.3%. Diabetes mellitus, ASA score of ≥3, laparotomy or conversion to laparotomy approach, postoperative blood transfusion, and postoperative hypoalbuminemia were associated with an increased risk of AL. In the multivariable analysis, postoperative hypoalbuminemia (p = 0.018; OR: 0.281; CI: 0.098; 0.806) and shorter operating time (p = 0.038; OR: 0.985; CI: 0.972; 0.999) were independent risk factors for AL. Conclusions: Postoperative hypoalbuminemia and shorter operating time are independent risk factors for AL after ileocolic anastomosis. Full article
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12 pages, 1127 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (Rome IV Criteria) among a Cohort of New Zealand Children
by Angharad Vernon-Roberts, India Alexander and Andrew S. Day
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(2), 261-272; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5020021 - 09 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2117
Abstract
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterised by recurring gastrointestinal symptoms that are not secondary to organic disease. FGIDs may cause reduced quality of life, with approximately 22% of children experiencing at least one FGID. This study aimed to assess FGID prevalence among children [...] Read more.
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterised by recurring gastrointestinal symptoms that are not secondary to organic disease. FGIDs may cause reduced quality of life, with approximately 22% of children experiencing at least one FGID. This study aimed to assess FGID prevalence among children attending a tertiary care hospital in New Zealand (NZ). Methods: Children aged ≥ four years were prospectively recruited from Christchurch Hospital, NZ. Data were collected on demographics, medical history, gastrointestinal symptoms (Rome IV), and quality of life (EQ-5D-Y). An analysis was carried out using analysis of variance and the chi-squared test of independence. Results: The cohort included 156 children, with a mean age of 9.5 years (SD 3.3), 56% male. According to the Rome IV criteria, 29% experienced at least one FGID, most commonly functional constipation and functional dyspepsia. FGID symptoms were associated with Māori ethnicity (p = 0.012) and parental FGID (p < 0.001). Quality of life was lower in the FGID group in the domain ‘Feeling worried, sad, or unhappy’ (p = 0.002). Conclusion: the association of FGIDs with worse quality of life, in particular relating to worry and sadness, should highlight the importance of providing support to school age children experiencing FGID symptoms. Full article
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18 pages, 864 KiB  
Review
Molecular Mechanisms and Mediators of Hepatotoxicity Resulting from an Excess of Lipids and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
by Carmine Finelli
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(2), 243-260; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5020020 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
The paper reviews some of the mechanisms implicated in hepatotoxicity, which is induced by an excess of lipids. The paper spans a wide variety of topics: from the molecular mechanisms of excess lipids, to the therapy of hyperlipidemia, to the hepatotoxicity of lipid-lowering [...] Read more.
The paper reviews some of the mechanisms implicated in hepatotoxicity, which is induced by an excess of lipids. The paper spans a wide variety of topics: from the molecular mechanisms of excess lipids, to the therapy of hyperlipidemia, to the hepatotoxicity of lipid-lowering drugs. NAFLD is currently the leading cause of chronic liver disease in Western countries; the molecular mechanisms leading to NAFLD are only partially understood and there are no effective therapeutic interventions. The prevalence of liver disease is constantly increasing in industrialized countries due to a number of lifestyle variables, including excessive caloric intake, unbalanced diet, lack of physical activity, and abuse of hepatotoxic medicines. Considering the important functions of cell death and inflammation in the etiology of the majority, if not all, liver diseases, one efficient therapeutic treatment may include the administration of hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory drugs, either alone or in combination. Clinical trials are currently being conducted in cohorts of patients with different liver diseases in order to explore this theory. Full article
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10 pages, 305 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Selective Decontamination of the Digestive Tract (SDD) on Pulmonary Secondary Infections in Patients with COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Retrospective Single Centre Experience
by Giorgio Berlot, Edoardo Moro, Stefano Zio, Silvia Zanchi, Anna Randino and Ariella Tomasini
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(2), 233-242; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5020019 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Definitive data on the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in COVID-19 are still lacking, ranging from 29 to 58%. To date, most of the existing literature refers to patients who are not subjected to VAP prevention with selective decontamination of the digestive [...] Read more.
Definitive data on the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in COVID-19 are still lacking, ranging from 29 to 58%. To date, most of the existing literature refers to patients who are not subjected to VAP prevention with selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD). We retrospectively collected data on all COVID-19 patients admitted to our ICU during the second phase of the pandemic with the aim of assessing the occurrence of VAP and the related mortality at 30 days and comparing our findings with the available literature. Of 213 patients, only 74 were eligible for the analysis. An incidence of 6.90 VAP per 1000 days of mechanical ventilation was detected. Apart from a smoking habit (0% vs. 10%, p < 0.005) and diabetes (14% vs. 54%, p = 0.026), patients who developed VAP did not differ significantly from those who did not regarding comorbidities, steroid use, and the severity of COVID-19. VAP were predominantly caused by mono-microbial Gram-negative or fungal infections. Mortality was significantly higher in those who developed VAP (86 vs. 33%, p = 0.002). Our evidence aligned with the available literature in assuming a possible role of SDD in reducing the incidence of VAP in COVID-19 patients, with a possible impact on related mortality and costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Gut Microbiome Alteration in COVID-19)
24 pages, 1919 KiB  
Review
On the Inheritance of Microbiome-Deficiency: Paediatric Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, the Immune System and the Gut–Brain Axis
by David Smith, Sohan Jheeta, Georgina I. López-Cortés, Bernadette Street, Hannya V. Fuentes and Miryam Palacios-Pérez
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(2), 209-232; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5020018 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
Like the majority of non-communicable diseases that have recently gained attention, functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders (FGID) in both children and adults are caused by a variety of medical conditions. In general, while it is often thought that common conditions such as obesity may [...] Read more.
Like the majority of non-communicable diseases that have recently gained attention, functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders (FGID) in both children and adults are caused by a variety of medical conditions. In general, while it is often thought that common conditions such as obesity may cause other problems, for example, asthma or mental health issues, more consideration needs to be given to the possibility that they could both be brought on by a single underlying problem. Based on the variations in non-communicable disease, in recent years, our group has been revisiting the exact role of the intestinal microbiome within the Vertebrata. While the metabolic products of the microbiome have a role to play in the adult, our tentative conclusion is that the fully functioning, mutualistic microbiome has a primary role: to transfer antigen information from the mother to the neonate in order to calibrate its immune system, allowing it to survive within the microbial environment into which it will emerge. Granted that the microbiome possesses such a function, logic suggests the need for a robust, flexible, mechanism allowing for the partition of nutrition in the mature animal, thus ensuring the continued existence of both the vertebrate host and microbial guest, even under potentially unfavourable conditions. It is feasible that this partition process acts by altering the rate of peristalsis following communication through the gut–brain axis. The final step of this animal–microbiota symbiosis would then be when key microbes are transferred from the female to her progeny, either live offspring or eggs. According to this scheme, each animal inherits twice, once from its parents’ genetic material and once from the mother’s microbiome with the aid of the father’s seminal microbiome, which helps determine the expression of the parental genes. The key point is that the failure of this latter inheritance in humans leads to the distinctive manifestations of functional FGID disorders including inflammation and gut motility disturbances. Furthermore, it seems likely that the critical microbiome–gut association occurs in the first few hours of independent life, in a process that we term handshaking. Note that even if obvious disease in childhood is avoided, the underlying disorders may intrude later in youth or adulthood with immune system disruption coexisting with gut–brain axis issues such as excessive weight gain and poor mental health. In principle, investigating and perhaps supplementing the maternal microbiota provide clinicians with an unprecedented opportunity to intervene in long-term disease processes, even before the child is born. Full article
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11 pages, 595 KiB  
Article
Urinary Tract Infections in Patients Hospitalized in a Gastroenterology Department—Study from a Tertiary Regional Hospital in South-East Poland
by Jolanta Gruszecka and Rafał Filip
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(2), 198-208; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5020017 - 06 May 2023
Viewed by 1627
Abstract
A retrospective analysis of urine culture results was conducted for adult patients treated between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2021 at the Department of Gastroenterology in Rzeszow (southern Poland). A total of 102 patients were sampled for microbiological tests during the analyzed [...] Read more.
A retrospective analysis of urine culture results was conducted for adult patients treated between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2021 at the Department of Gastroenterology in Rzeszow (southern Poland). A total of 102 patients were sampled for microbiological tests during the analyzed period, with microbial growth found in 30 samples. The purpose of our study was to determine the predominant bacterial species present in the urine of patients hospitalized in the Department of Gastroenterology, as well as their drug susceptibility. The data obtained from medical records included, for example, urine culture results and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated microorganisms. The material for the study was collected according to the current procedures. During the analyzed period, urine was collected from a total of 102 patients, and 30 positive samples were found. The predominant pathogen was Escherichia coli (n = 10 (33.33% of all positive results), p < 0.001); the second most common microorganism was Enterococcus faecalis (n = 5 (16.67% of all positive results), p < 0.001). In vitro susceptibility testing showed E. coli, ESBL (ESBL strain with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase) (n = 2 (6.67% of all positive results), p = 0.055) and Klebsiella pneumoniae, ESBL (n = 3 (10% of all positive results), p = 0.005). Urinary tract infection (UTI) was an extremely common problem. Full article
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11 pages, 1972 KiB  
Article
Italian Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Knowledge Assessment Tool (IBD-KID2) for Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
by Angharad Vernon-Roberts, Francesca Musto, Marina Aloi and Andrew S. Day
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(2), 187-197; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5020016 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1088
Abstract
Background: For children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), understanding their condition may lead to better outcomes. Knowledge assessment is imperative to identify where education may be required. An IBD knowledge assessment tool (IBD-KID2) is available in English; the aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Background: For children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), understanding their condition may lead to better outcomes. Knowledge assessment is imperative to identify where education may be required. An IBD knowledge assessment tool (IBD-KID2) is available in English; the aim of this study was to translate IBD-KID2 in to Italian and assess its validity/reliability among children with IBD. Methods: IBD-KID2 has fifteen items, scoring one point per correct answer. IBD-KID2 items were assessed for cultural comprehension/relevance by Italian gastroenterologists using a content validity index; those items with a maximum score proportion <0.78 were reviewed. IBD-KID2 was then translated using ‘forward–backward’ process and reviewed for content/meaning. A prospective study among Italian children with IBD enabled score comparisons with established populations (z test), and reliability was assessed using test–retest completion (Pearson correlation (r), paired t-test). Results: Twenty-five children participated: 16 (64%) male, mean age 14.9 years (SD2.4), Crohn’s disease 13 (52%). The mean IBD-KID2 score was 8.8 (SD2.8), with no association with independent variables. Test–retest showed strong correlation between scores (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), with no mean difference (p = 0.39). Comparison with other pediatric IBD populations (NZ/Australia/Canada) showed no score difference (p = 0.62, CI −0.9 to 1.5). Conclusions: The translation of IBD-KID2 to Italian used a rigorous methodology. Scores showed the translated tool has equivalence and generalizability to Italian children with IBD. Full article
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20 pages, 1478 KiB  
Review
The Role of TGF-β, Activin and Follistatin in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
by Nasim Hatamzade Esfahani and Andrew S. Day
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(2), 167-186; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5020015 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2719
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an immune-mediated inflammatory condition predominantly affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. An increasing prevalence of IBD has been observed globally. The pathogenesis of IBD includes a complex interplay between the intestinal microbiome, diet, genetic factors and immune responses. The [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an immune-mediated inflammatory condition predominantly affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. An increasing prevalence of IBD has been observed globally. The pathogenesis of IBD includes a complex interplay between the intestinal microbiome, diet, genetic factors and immune responses. The consequent imbalance of inflammatory mediators ultimately leads to intestinal mucosal damage and defective repair. Growth factors, given their specific roles in maintaining the homeostasis and integrity of the intestinal epithelium, are of particular interest in the setting of IBD. Furthermore, direct targeting of growth factor signalling pathways involved in the regeneration of the damaged epithelium and the regulation of inflammation could be considered as therapeutic options for individuals with IBD. Several members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily, particularly TGF-β, activin and follistatin, are key candidates as they exhibit various roles in inflammatory processes and contribute to maintenance and homeostasis in the GI tract. This article aimed firstly to review the events involved in the pathogenesis of IBD with particular emphasis on TGF-β, activin and follistatin and secondly to outline the potential role of therapeutic manipulation of these pathways. Full article
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23 pages, 844 KiB  
Review
Comprehensive Review of Acute Pancreatitis Pain Syndrome
by Jacob Beiriger, Adnan Khan, Brian Yan, Heather Ross, Makala Wang, Michael Carducci, Natalia Salinas Parra, Salil Chowdhury, Ryan Erwin, Paul Forrest, Sarah Chen and Alexis Gerber
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(2), 144-166; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5020014 - 10 Apr 2023
Viewed by 5343
Abstract
Pancreatitis is a condition that causes inflammation in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. This condition often presents as neuropathic, inflammatory, and/or visceral pain. Acute pancreatitis is typically characterized by sudden and severe abdominal pain, often in the upper right part [...] Read more.
Pancreatitis is a condition that causes inflammation in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. This condition often presents as neuropathic, inflammatory, and/or visceral pain. Acute pancreatitis is typically characterized by sudden and severe abdominal pain, often in the upper right part of the abdomen. The pain from pancreatitis can be caused by different mechanisms, such as abnormal activation of pancreatic zymogens or NF-κB mediated inflammation in the pancreas. The treatment of pancreatitis depends on its type, severity, and underlying cause. Hospitalization and medications are typically necessary, while in others, surgery may be required. Proper management of pancreatitis is essential, as it can help reduce the risk of complications and improve the patient’s quality of life. The literature on pancreatitis pain management evaluates systematic approaches and the effectiveness of various treatments, such as lidocaine, opioid agonists, ketamine, magnesium, endoscopic methods, spinal cord stimulation, and other novel treatments present opportunities for exploration in pancreatitis pain management. Full article
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17 pages, 1062 KiB  
Review
Crosstalk between Gut Microbiota and Hepatocellular Carcinoma
by Chencheng Xie and Christine Pocha
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(2), 127-143; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5020013 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2694
Abstract
In recent decades, gut microbiota have received emerging attention regarding their integral role in chronic liver disease progression, given the anatomic connection and the gut–liver axis. Emerging evidence has indicated a complex link between gut microbiota and hepatocellular carcinoma. This review explores the [...] Read more.
In recent decades, gut microbiota have received emerging attention regarding their integral role in chronic liver disease progression, given the anatomic connection and the gut–liver axis. Emerging evidence has indicated a complex link between gut microbiota and hepatocellular carcinoma. This review explores the pathophysiological crosstalk between gut dysbiosis and hepatocarcinogenesis. The metabolic and immunologic effects mediated by gut-microbiota-derived metabolites, such as bile acids, short-chain fatty acids, and alcohol, could impact the aberrant biological behavior of hepatocellular carcinoma. This review also investigates the value of gut microbiota as novel non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma, and summarizes the changes in the gut microbiota spectrum in patients with liver cancer. The current literature and studies on the role of the gut microbiota as adjuvant agents in liver cancer immunotherapy are reviewed. Full article
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12 pages, 435 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Structured, Semi-Structured, and Free-Text Electronic Health Record Data to Classify Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection
by Allan Fong, Justin Hughes, Sravya Gundapenini, Benjamin Hack, Mahdi Barkhordar, Sean Shenghsiu Huang, Adam Visconti, Stephen Fernandez and Dawn Fishbein
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(2), 115-126; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5020012 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1644
Abstract
Evaluation of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-defined HCV-related risk factors are not consistently performed as part of routine care, rendering risk-based testing susceptible to clinician bias and missed diagnoses. This work uses natural language processing (NLP) and machine [...] Read more.
Evaluation of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-defined HCV-related risk factors are not consistently performed as part of routine care, rendering risk-based testing susceptible to clinician bias and missed diagnoses. This work uses natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning to identify patients who are at high risk for HCV infection. Models were developed and validated to predict patients with newly identified HCV infection (detectable RNA or reported HCV diagnosis). We evaluated models with three types of variables: structured (structured-based model), semi-structured and free-text notes (text-based model), and all variables (full-set model). We applied each model to three stratifications of data: patients with no history of HCV prior to 2020, patients with a history of HCV prior to 2020, and all patients. We used XGBoost and ten-fold C-statistic cross-validation to evaluate the generalizability of the models. There were 3564 unique patients, 487 with HCV infection. The average C-statistics on the structured-based, text-based, and full-set models for all the patients were 0.777 (95% CI: 0.744–0.810), 0.677 (95% CI: 0.631–0.723), and 0.774 (95% CI: 0.735–0.813), respectively. The full-set model performed slightly better than the structured-based model and similar to text-based models for patients with no history of HCV prior to 2020; average C-statistics of 0.780, 0.774, and 0.759, respectively. NLP was able to identify six more risk factors inconsistently coded in structured elements: incarceration, needlestick, substance use or abuse, sexually transmitted infections, piercings, and tattoos. The availability of model options (structured-based or text-based models) with a similar performance can provide deployment flexibility in situations where data is limited. Full article
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