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Gastrointest. Disord., Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 11 articles

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3 pages, 210 KiB  
Editorial
How the Gut Microbiome Is Altered in COVID-19
by Giuseppe Merra
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(1), 112-114; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5010011 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1364
Abstract
Microbioma and Viral Infections Respiratory infections are some of the main causes of hospitalization and mortality in older patients, especially [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Gut Microbiome Alteration in COVID-19)
10 pages, 2526 KiB  
Review
Scoping Review of Acupuncture and Moxibustion in the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
by Affifa Farrukh and John Francis Mayberry
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(1), 102-111; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5010010 - 03 Mar 2023
Viewed by 3237
Abstract
Acupuncture and moxibustion are complementary therapies used by a significant number of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. There is limited research evidence of their effectiveness in the management of ulcerative colitis and, albeit less limited, in the case of Crohn’s disease. However, due [...] Read more.
Acupuncture and moxibustion are complementary therapies used by a significant number of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. There is limited research evidence of their effectiveness in the management of ulcerative colitis and, albeit less limited, in the case of Crohn’s disease. However, due to a lack of knowledge, their use as additional supportive therapy by gastroenterologists and specialist nurses is uncommon. Current evidence would indicate that they have a place as additional supportive treatments for patients with inflammatory bowel disease and their efficacy should be assessed through appropriately powered trials. In days of shared care and responsibilities between patients and clinicians, there is a need to share such information with patients so that they can make informed decisions. Full article
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15 pages, 650 KiB  
Review
Cognitive Impairment in Celiac Disease Patients: Scoping Review Exploring Psychological Triggers in a Chronic Condition
by Alberto Caruso and Dina Di Giacomo
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(1), 87-101; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5010009 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2299
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD), also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an inflammatory autoimmune reaction triggered by ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed subjects. Celiac disease is often associated with a wide range of disorders, caused by immune responses and by malabsorption with subsequent nutritional [...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD), also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an inflammatory autoimmune reaction triggered by ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed subjects. Celiac disease is often associated with a wide range of disorders, caused by immune responses and by malabsorption with subsequent nutritional deficiencies. Prevalent neurologic manifestations are ataxia, epilepsy, cerebral calcification, cerebral white matter lesions, peripheral neuropathy and myopathy, but also cognitive impairment. The study aimed to identify emerging and urgent research domains in order to establish a CD-specific patient-tailored protocol that includes both psychological and neuropsychological evaluations. We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Cochrane library in November 2022. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the characteristics of the included literature. Based on the exclusion/inclusion criteria, a total of seven articles were included in the scoping review process. This review demonstrated the lack of research on CD-related cognitive impairment key features and tries to focus on both cognitive and psychological manifestations as well as their two-way interaction. We tried to establish the specific areas involved, in order to have a comprehensive view of this condition and trying to determine a correct way of assessing CD cognitive impairment and its correlations with psychological distress and personal coping skills to a chronic condition. Nevertheless, research on this topic is progressively increasing and future studies should address specific key points. Full article
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12 pages, 281 KiB  
Review
Evaluation and Management of Pediatric Feeding Disorder
by Rajmohan Dharmaraj, Rasha Elmaoued, Razan Alkhouri, Pankaj Vohra and Ricardo O. Castillo
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(1), 75-86; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5010008 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6434
Abstract
Feeding disorders are increasingly common in children, especially as medical advancements improve the life expectancy of children born with prematurity and complex medical conditions. The most common symptoms include malnutrition, refusal to eat and drink, food pocketing, disruptive feeding behavior, slow feeding, food [...] Read more.
Feeding disorders are increasingly common in children, especially as medical advancements improve the life expectancy of children born with prematurity and complex medical conditions. The most common symptoms include malnutrition, refusal to eat and drink, food pocketing, disruptive feeding behavior, slow feeding, food selectivity or rigid food preferences, limited appetite, and delayed feeding milestones. A unifying diagnostic definition of pediatric feeding disorder has been proposed by a panel of experts to improve the quality of health care and advance research. Referral to specialized care should be considered when feeding problems are complex or difficult to resolve. In this review, we provide an overview of the evaluation and management of pediatric feeding disorders and information that may be useful when considering whether referral to specialized care may be beneficial. Full article
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7 pages, 6293 KiB  
Case Report
Percutaneous Biliary Rendez-Vous to Treat Complete Hepatic-Jejunal Anastomosis Dehiscence after Duodeno-Cephalo-Pancreasectomy
by Flavio Andresciani, Giuseppina Pacella, Eliodoro Faiella, Andrea Buoso, Carlo Altomare and Rosario Francesco Grasso
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(1), 68-74; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5010007 - 06 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Hepaticojejunostomy is an essential component of many surgical procedures, including pancreaticoduodenectomy. Biliary leaks after HJS represent a major complication leading to relevant clinical problems: the postoperative mortality rate could reach 70% for surgical re-intervention, whereas endoscopic management is technically difficult due to the [...] Read more.
Hepaticojejunostomy is an essential component of many surgical procedures, including pancreaticoduodenectomy. Biliary leaks after HJS represent a major complication leading to relevant clinical problems: the postoperative mortality rate could reach 70% for surgical re-intervention, whereas endoscopic management is technically difficult due to the postoperative anatomy. Interventional Radiology plays a pivotal role for these patients. The case of a percutaneous biliary rendez-vous procedure performed to treat an HJA dehiscence after duodeno-cephalo-pancreasectomy is presented, which is successfully guaranteed to avoid a new surgical approach. Full article
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16 pages, 966 KiB  
Review
Gastrointestinal Involvement in Primary Antibody Deficiencies
by Tomas Milota, Jitka Smetanova and Iveta Klojdova
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(1), 52-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5010006 - 29 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2557
Abstract
Primary antibody deficiencies (PADs) are the most frequent group of inborn errors of immunity. Impaired B-cell development, reduced production of immunoglobulins (mainly IgG and IgA), and specific antibodies resulting in recurrent infections are their hallmarks. Infections typically affect the respiratory tract; however, gastrointestinal [...] Read more.
Primary antibody deficiencies (PADs) are the most frequent group of inborn errors of immunity. Impaired B-cell development, reduced production of immunoglobulins (mainly IgG and IgA), and specific antibodies resulting in recurrent infections are their hallmarks. Infections typically affect the respiratory tract; however, gastrointestinal involvement is also common. These include infection with Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella, Campylobacter species, Giardia, and noroviruses. Impaired IgA production also contributes to dysbiosis and thereby an increase in abundance of species with proinflammatory properties, resulting in immune system dysregulation. Dysregulation of the immune system results in a broad spectrum of non-infectious manifestations, including autoimmune, lymphoproliferative, and granulomatous complications. Additionally, it increases the risk of malignancy, which may be present in more than half of patients with PADs. Higher prevalence is often seen in monogenic causes, and gastrointestinal involvement may clinically mimic various conditions including inflammatory bowel diseases and celiac disease but possess different immunological features and response to standard treatment, which make diagnosis and therapy challenging. The spectrum of malignancies includes gastric cancer and lymphoma. Thus, non-infectious manifestations significantly affect mortality and morbidity. In this overview, we provide a comprehensive insight into the epidemiology, genetic background, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations of infectious and non-infectious complications. Full article
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2 pages, 185 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Gastrointestinal Disorders in 2022
by Gastrointestinal Disorders Editorial Office
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(1), 50-51; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5010005 - 28 Jan 2023
Viewed by 873
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
13 pages, 308 KiB  
Article
Heterogeneity in the Utilization of Fecal Occult Blood Testing and Colonoscopy among Migrants and Non-Migrants in Austria: Results of the Austrian Health Interview Survey
by Diana Wahidie, Yüce Yilmaz-Aslan and Patrick Brzoska
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(1), 37-49; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5010004 - 27 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Many European studies report lower participation in colorectal cancer screening among migrants than non-migrants. A major limitation of these studies is that usually, the heterogeneity of migrants cannot be accounted for. The aim of this investigation was to examine differences in the utilization [...] Read more.
Many European studies report lower participation in colorectal cancer screening among migrants than non-migrants. A major limitation of these studies is that usually, the heterogeneity of migrants cannot be accounted for. The aim of this investigation was to examine differences in the utilization of fecal occult blood testing and colonoscopy between non-migrants and the five largest migrant groups residing in Austria using data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey 2019. The two outcomes were compared between non-migrants and migrants using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for socioeconomic and health variables. Migrants from a Yugoslav successor state (OR = 0.61; 95%-CI: 0.44–0.83), Turkish (OR = 0.35; 95%-CI: 0.22–0.55), Hungarian (OR = 0.37; 95%-CI: 0.16–0.82) and German migrants (OR = 0.70; 95%-CI: 0.51–0.98) were less likely to have used a fecal occult blood test compared to non-migrants. Participation in colonoscopy was lower among Turkish migrants (OR = 0.42; 95%-CI: 0.27–0.67) and migrants from a Yugoslav successor state (OR = 0.56; 95%-CI: 0.42–0.75) than among non-migrants. The findings are consistent with studies from other countries and highlight barriers migrants face in accessing the health care system. To address these barriers, the heterogeneity of the population must be taken into account when developing educational materials in order to promote informed decisions about whether or not to participate in colorectal cancer screening. Full article
9 pages, 2690 KiB  
Article
The Usefulness of Tissue Calprotectin in Pediatric Crohn’s Disease—A Pilot Study
by Edyta Szymanska, Sylwia Szymanska, Agnieszka Karkucińska-Więckowska, Aldona Wierzbicka, Jaroslaw Kierkus and Maciej Dadalski
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(1), 28-36; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5010003 - 12 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1553
Abstract
Background: Fecal calprotectin (FCP) is a highly sensitive biomarker of intestinal inflammation widely used in diagnostics and monitoring of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Immunohistochemical assessment of calprotectin in the bowel mucosa is not a diagnostic standard. Therefore, the aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Background: Fecal calprotectin (FCP) is a highly sensitive biomarker of intestinal inflammation widely used in diagnostics and monitoring of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Immunohistochemical assessment of calprotectin in the bowel mucosa is not a diagnostic standard. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate tissue calprotectin (TCP) as a potential marker providing added insight for pediatric patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Methods: Fecal and tissue calprotectin were measured in children with CD. The values were correlated with disease activity and histopathological changes of the patients’ endoscopic biopsies. Disease activity was assessed using the Pediatric Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (PCDAI); fecal calprotectin (FCP) was measured with the ELISA test. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for calprotectin antigen was performed on the biopsy samples from six bowel segments, and the number of TCP cells was counted per high power field (HPF). Non-parametric statistical tests were used for data analysis. Results: Fifty-seven children with CD with a median age of 10.5 (1–17) years (yrs) were examined for fecal and tissue calprotectin. The patients’ median PCDAI score was 10 (0–63.5), while median FCP was 535 (30–600) μg/g. We observed a correlation between disease activity (PCDAI) and FCP, TCP in inflammatory lesions and in crypts. There was no association either between FCP and TCP or between TCP in epithelium and PCDAI. Conclusion: It seems that IHC detection of calprotectin in bowel mucosa to assess disease behavior may be useful. FCP is a gold-standard biomarker in the diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of IBD, and its levels correlated well with clinical activity in our study group. Full article
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13 pages, 2851 KiB  
Article
The Frequency and Characteristics of Severe Liver-Related Adverse Events in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases after Vaccination against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2: A Retrospective Study
by Oyunjargal Bat-Erdene, Kouichi Miura, Hiroshi Maeda, Shunji Watanabe, Mamiko Tsukui, Yoshinari Takaoka, Hiroaki Nomoto, Rie Goka, Naoki Morimoto and Hironori Yamamoto
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(1), 15-27; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5010002 - 05 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2022
Abstract
Background: Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is recommended for patients with chronic liver diseases as the vaccine can prevent and/or reduce the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, we have little information on the often-reported liver-related adverse events (LrAEs) caused [...] Read more.
Background: Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is recommended for patients with chronic liver diseases as the vaccine can prevent and/or reduce the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, we have little information on the often-reported liver-related adverse events (LrAEs) caused by the mRNA vaccine. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the frequency and details of severe LrAEs and changes in liver function tests in patients with chronic liver diseases. Results: Among 431 patients with chronic liver diseases, 416 (96.5%) had received the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine ≥ 2 times. Among the 345 patients included in the analysis, 6 (1.7%) had severe LrAEs; 3 ascites, 2 increases in transaminases, and 1 an increase in total bilirubin. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that cirrhosis and autoimmune disease were risk factors for severe LrAEs. In contrast, the liver function reserve assessed by the Child–Pugh and ALBI scores did not markedly change after vaccination in patients with cirrhosis and/or autoimmune diseases despite a small increase in transaminase levels. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines, which were used in most of our patients, are safe in patients with chronic liver diseases, but the frequency of severe LrAEs is slightly increased in patients with cirrhosis and/or autoimmune diseases. Full article
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14 pages, 1907 KiB  
Article
Self-Reported Reasons for Inconsistent Participation in Colorectal Cancer Screening Using FIT in Flanders, Belgium
by Sarah Hoeck and Thuy Ngan Tran
Gastrointest. Disord. 2023, 5(1), 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord5010001 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
Background: In Flanders, the uptake in the population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program (using fecal immunochemical test, FIT) is suboptimal (~50%). This study explored the reasons for inconsistent participation in FIT screening among irregular participants in Flanders. Methods: An online survey [...] Read more.
Background: In Flanders, the uptake in the population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program (using fecal immunochemical test, FIT) is suboptimal (~50%). This study explored the reasons for inconsistent participation in FIT screening among irregular participants in Flanders. Methods: An online survey with both open questions and fixed statements was sent to irregular participants (2016–2018) in the Flemish CRC screening program. A reminder email followed eight weeks after the first email. Data analysis used both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Post-stratification weights based on gender, age group, and the first two digits of the postcode were employed to reduce non-response bias. Results: In total, 5328 out of 19,592 irregular participants responded to the survey. While the main reasons not to participate were related to ‘postponing participation’ and ‘having other priorities’, the main reasons to participate were related to the importance of (preventive) health checks. The role of general practitioners (GPs) in promoting CRC screening also emerged as an important theme among the respondents’ answers (based on fixed statements). Conclusions: The study reported the main reasons for inconsistent participation in FIT screening for CRC in Flanders. The findings are helpful in guiding tailored interventions to increase FIT screening uptake in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorectal Cancer Screening and Prevention)
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