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Heritage, Volume 6, Issue 7 (July 2023) – 36 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Terahertz Time-Domain (THz-TD) imaging is revolutionizing the study of solid-state materials, and it is now making significant advancements in the conservation field. This contactless and non-ionizing technique allows for the simultaneous mapping of surface topography and spectroscopic signals in the far-infrared region. However, when applied to works of art in reflection configuration, several challenges arise, such as weak signal intensity and surface distortion. This study proposes a practical solution to overcome these limitations for conducting an integrated imaging and spectroscopic analysis of painted fresco surfaces. The advantages and limitations of THz-TD imaging emphasize its immense potential to become the new reference technique for investigating and preserving cultural heritage objects. View this paper
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24 pages, 4895 KiB  
Article
The Non-Invasive Characterization of Iron Age Glass Finds from the “Gaetano Chierici” Collection in Reggio Emilia (Italy)
by Oleh Yatsuk, Giacomo Fiocco, Marco Malagodi, Alessandro Re, Alessandro Lo Giudice, Cristiano Iaia and Monica Gulmini
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5583-5606; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070294 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1366
Abstract
This work reports the results of the analyses performed on a set of glass finds from the “Gaetano Chierici” collection in the Civic Museums of Reggio Emilia. Forty-eight typologically heterogeneous glass finds were included in the list of the analyzed objects, dating from [...] Read more.
This work reports the results of the analyses performed on a set of glass finds from the “Gaetano Chierici” collection in the Civic Museums of Reggio Emilia. Forty-eight typologically heterogeneous glass finds were included in the list of the analyzed objects, dating from the fifth century BCE to the first century CE. The objects primarily consisted of glass beads; however, bangles, pinheads, and one vessel fragment were also included in the set. The items were analyzed using non-invasive spectroscopic methods that were implemented with portable equipment on the museum’s premises. Fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy was used to identify the coloring species in the glass matrix, while X-ray fluorescence spectrometry provided compositional information. Both techniques allowed for a discussion of the mechanisms of coloring and opacification, as well as the raw materials used for this purpose. The results provided a complex picture of the various colorants used to manipulate the appearance of the glass, which was a crucial aspect in the creation of the personal adornments represented by these glass items. The data revealed evidence of different sources of raw glass and colorants. Most of the samples were colored with cobalt, but iron and copper also influenced the color of many of them. Both white and yellow were utilized for the glass decorations, and these colors were achieved with the addition of either antimony-containing crystals or tin-containing ones. This finding suggests that the transition from antimonate to stannate started as early as the second century BCE. The “Gaetano Chierici” collection contains representative objects distributed throughout the investigated period. The results obtained here are a starting point for future studies of glass technology and provenance in the area. Full article
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24 pages, 14508 KiB  
Article
Interdisciplinary Analysis of Roman Floor Types in the Villa of Diomedes in the Archaeological Park of Pompeii
by Giuseppina De Martino, Marco Di Ludovico, Hélène Dessales and Andrea Prota
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5559-5582; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070293 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
The present work presents and discusses an analysis of the floor types of the Villa of Diomedes (Pompeii archaeological park in the Campania region, Italy) from an architectural, archaeological, and structural point of view. In particular, the geometrical-structural parameters of different floor types [...] Read more.
The present work presents and discusses an analysis of the floor types of the Villa of Diomedes (Pompeii archaeological park in the Campania region, Italy) from an architectural, archaeological, and structural point of view. In particular, the geometrical-structural parameters of different floor types and the rules used by ancient builders to design them are investigated by means of interdisciplinary research. The links between structural assumptions, archival sources, geometric survey, in situ visual inspections, and archaeological information make it possible to define the geometrical-structural parameters of eleven barrel vaults, three wooden floors, and three sloped wooden roofs (buried and collapsed during the Vesuvius eruption). A specific study of the barrel vaults is presented to investigate the relationships between the structural parameters of the main vaults. Furthermore, a comparison between the vaults’ dimensions obtained from surveys and those produced by formulations in the literature between the 15th and 20th centuries concerning masonry vault designs is presented and discussed. These analyses, carried out within the framework of the Villa of Diomedes interdisciplinary project, were very useful for interpreting the fabrication of the villa and making a 3D reconstruction model of how the villa probably looked in the fateful year of 79 A.D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Archaeological Heritage)
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21 pages, 6496 KiB  
Article
Load Testing of Cultural Heritage Structures and Sculptures: Unconventional Methods for Assessing Safety
by Miloš Drdácký and Shota Urushadze
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5538-5558; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070292 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 865
Abstract
The paper presents the results of static and dynamic experimental tests conducted on historical heritage structures and sculptures. In recent years, there was an increasing need to address the behaviour of these types of structures due to several reasons. Diagnosing the actual condition [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of static and dynamic experimental tests conducted on historical heritage structures and sculptures. In recent years, there was an increasing need to address the behaviour of these types of structures due to several reasons. Diagnosing the actual condition of a historical structure involves not only identifying the cause of a detected defect, but also determining its impact and assessing whether the structure can continue to perform safely. This article utilises unconventional loading methods to generate measurable mechanical responses. In one case, a lifting procedure is employed to study strains in a composite structure, while in another example, the mass and movement of people are used as a form of loading. Proof load tests conducted on a monumental sculpture allowed for the determination of load distribution among its heterogeneous structural components, namely a bronze shell and an iron reinforcing frame. Furthermore, the static and dynamic loading of a ceiling supported by a masonry vault demonstrated its ability to withstand anticipated loads resulting from unconventional use as a temporary exhibition space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring of Historical Buildings)
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14 pages, 3113 KiB  
Article
The Ability of the EPR MOUSE to Study Underpaintings
by Stanley E. Liang, Olivia R. Kuzio, Matthew Pupko, Max Robbins and Joseph P. Hornak
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5524-5537; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070291 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 711
Abstract
The possibility of using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) mobile universal surface explorer (MOUSE) to study underpaintings is validated. The depth sensitivity of the EPR MOUSE is measured using an EPR standard, and is verified using three paramagnetic pigments in an acrylic binder [...] Read more.
The possibility of using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) mobile universal surface explorer (MOUSE) to study underpaintings is validated. The depth sensitivity of the EPR MOUSE is measured using an EPR standard, and is verified using three paramagnetic pigments in an acrylic binder under opaque acrylic layers of titanium white and lead white. The ability to distinguish and identify two layers of EPR signal-bearing pigments is shown using pairwise sets of ultramarine, Egyptian, and Han blue pigments in an acrylic binder. And finally, the spatial imaging capability is demonstrated using a printed design of magnetite black covered with a solid second layer of the pigment. These studies demonstrate that EPR spectroscopy with the EPR MOUSE is a viable method for studying paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic underlayers of pigments. Full article
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8 pages, 265 KiB  
Editorial
Tuning and Effectiveness in Heritage Models
by Jenny Richards and Peter Brimblecombe
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5516-5523; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070290 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Modelling can explore heritage responses to environmental pressures over wide spatial and temporal scales, testing both theory and process. However, compared to other fields, modelling approaches are not yet as common in heritage management. Some heritage models have become well known, though they [...] Read more.
Modelling can explore heritage responses to environmental pressures over wide spatial and temporal scales, testing both theory and process. However, compared to other fields, modelling approaches are not yet as common in heritage management. Some heritage models have become well known, though they struggle to have an impact beyond academia, with limited practical applications. Successful models appear to be adaptable to multiple sites or objects, intuitive to use, run using widely available software and produce output translatable into practical actions. Model tuning is also vital for the model to be effective. A specific purpose should be determined from the outset to enable tuning in the earliest design stages. Heritage models can be developed to explore theories or processes that affect or interact with heritage. Input should also be tuned to relevant temporal and spatial scales and consider duration and location. Additionally, it is important to account for materials and elements specific to heritage. Models need to be useful and usable if they are to be effective. User-friendly programs and interfaces help practical use. However, success can create problems, as input and output could become socially or commercially sensitive. The wider use of models may require broader discussion among heritage professionals and the provision of training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Models in Heritage Science)
16 pages, 12781 KiB  
Article
Artificial Cavities in the Northern Campania Plain: Architectural Variability and Cataloging Challenge
by Marco Vigliotti, Maria Assunta Fabozzi, Carla Buffardi and Daniela Ruberti
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5500-5515; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070289 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 866
Abstract
In Campania (southern Italy), the widespread presence of anthropogenic cavities in the subsoil of the Neapolitan and Caserta provinces is well known. In these towns, the underground quarrying activities were performed for centuries to extract volcanic tuffs for buildings. The urban developments have [...] Read more.
In Campania (southern Italy), the widespread presence of anthropogenic cavities in the subsoil of the Neapolitan and Caserta provinces is well known. In these towns, the underground quarrying activities were performed for centuries to extract volcanic tuffs for buildings. The urban developments have sealed many signals of the presence of cavities and their real extent is almost unknown, thus representing a geological hazard and contributing to the subsoil instability of many places. This contribution will show the main cavity typologies recognized across an area north of Naples according to the geological characteristics of the subsoil. The main aim of the study is the cataloging of the cavities and the analysis of the city subsoil as their presence may easily trigger the collapse of the shallow or deeper soils. Moreover, the recognition and sustainable reuse of cavities contributes to enhancing the cultural and touristic promotion of a territory. In this study, a database framework was elaborated that includes all the possible architectural, geological and geotechnical elements of the cavities. Data were managed in a GIS environment in order to provide a useful tool for monitoring and managing the cavities for risk mitigation and tourism enhancement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection of Cultural Heritage from Natural and Manmade Hazards)
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31 pages, 33689 KiB  
Article
Urban Environment of Disappeared Heritage: Graphic Analysis of Puerta Real in Seville
by Antonio Gámiz-Gordo, Daniel Antón and Pedro Barrero-Ortega
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5469-5499; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070288 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1956
Abstract
The city of Seville experienced a remarkable rise in the 16th century thanks to trade with America. Based on a report by the architect Hernán Ruiz, it was decided to renovate the gates of the walled city. The Puerta Real, also called Puerta [...] Read more.
The city of Seville experienced a remarkable rise in the 16th century thanks to trade with America. Based on a report by the architect Hernán Ruiz, it was decided to renovate the gates of the walled city. The Puerta Real, also called Puerta de Goles, was remodelled between 1560 and 1566, and King Philip II entered through it in 1570. However, it was demolished around 1864, and only the remains of the adjacent wall stand today. This research aims to graphically analyse the gate and its immediate surroundings to gain a more profound knowledge of it and to promote its heritage value. To this end, an extensive collection and analysis of historical images has been carried out, which are essential for understanding the transformations of the site. A photograph by Masson (c. 1855–1860) was next used to support the virtual reconstruction of the gate. A 3D laser scanner was also used to document the existing archaeological remains and, via game-engine technology, to recreate rigorously, for the first time, this 16th-century gate in its current environment. This research could be useful for future scientific reconstruction to promote the heritage revitalisation of this city area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes as Cultural Heritage: Contemporary Perspectives)
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27 pages, 7189 KiB  
Article
A Critical Assessment of the Current State and Governance of the UNESCO Cultural Heritage Site in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia
by Manuel Saba, Gabriel Elías Chanchí Golondrino and Leydy Karina Torres-Gil
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5442-5468; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070287 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1310
Abstract
The port, fortresses, and monuments of Cartagena were included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1984. Nevertheless, since 2017 they are threatened to be categorized as “in Danger” by UNESCO. This research analyzes two main critical aspects, governance and the current state [...] Read more.
The port, fortresses, and monuments of Cartagena were included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1984. Nevertheless, since 2017 they are threatened to be categorized as “in Danger” by UNESCO. This research analyzes two main critical aspects, governance and the current state of the site. This study applies an innovative interdisciplinary methodology that merges empirical and scientific approaches to evaluate the governance of Cartagena’s heritage (causes) and its impact on the current state of the tangible cultural heritage (effects). Methodologically, secondary information is used to study governance. The study aims to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in the UNESCO site governance. Exemplary heritage management systems are studied to propose an adaptable management approach specifically for Cartagena. Over the past five years, qualitative data collected through field observations, along with a photographic report, have revealed significant issues stemming from insufficient heritage management. These problems have rarely been addressed in the existing literature. Furthermore, a quantitative approach was taken by analyzing hyperspectral images obtained from a previous study to identify vegetation and asbestos-cement roofs within the cultural heritage site. It takes a unique perspective by investigating the root causes rather than superficial issues. The study comprehensively analyzes various factors, including material degradation, vehicular traffic, environmental elements, urban structure, and architectural integrity, forming an interconnected framework with governance problems. This research offers a broader perspective that considers complex reality and goes beyond isolated problems and solutions. The study reveals that the ambiguity surrounding decision-making authority for heritage management, distributed between the Mayor’s Office and the Ministry of Culture, is a primary challenge. The lack of coordinated action significantly compromises the conservation and protection of the cultural heritage Site. Moreover, twelve current shortcomings of cultural heritage in Cartagena are identified through the authors’ five-year on-site regular visits, photographic reports, and observation. To address the prevailing concerns, a new line of command for cultural heritage management is proposed as the most effective means of tackling these challenges. Additionally, general recommendations are presented to mitigate the existing problems and prevent the classification of Cartagena’s heritage as “at risk” by UNESCO in the near future. Although, each problem identified would need a research project ad hoc to be fully addressed. This research provides a scientific perspective, drawing upon years of experience studying heritage and residing in the city, devoid of political influences or conflicts of interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preservation and Revitalisation of Built Heritage)
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18 pages, 6253 KiB  
Article
Reflections on the Forms and Arrangements of Surface Images in the Art of Barniz de Pasto, from the 16th to the 19th Century
by María del Pilar López Pérez
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5424-5441; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070286 - 17 Jul 2023
Viewed by 804
Abstract
Flowers, branches, birds, animals, a diversity of geometric combinations and varied scenes create, with great care, an exquisite and delightfully ornamented world. Among symmetries, proportions, chromatic sense, and repeated figures, themes between the sacred and the profane are set and arranged in the [...] Read more.
Flowers, branches, birds, animals, a diversity of geometric combinations and varied scenes create, with great care, an exquisite and delightfully ornamented world. Among symmetries, proportions, chromatic sense, and repeated figures, themes between the sacred and the profane are set and arranged in the artistic surfaces of barniz de Pasto. My reflection is aimed at knowing in greater depth the marvelous creations that the barniz de Pasto painters elaborated in the cultural environment of San Juan de Pasto and San Francisco de Quito, by exploring that visual world, which is part of a group of objects made by overlapping layers of membrane to define figures with the presence of silver leaf, in which a significant relief is generally evident. Understanding how the figures were arranged on the surface of the objects, how they were organized, and what system of composition and other possible artistic resources to control the surfaces existed, leads me to consider that the craftsmen had a similar training to that given in the field of the Spanish painter in several of its modalities. Some of the most noted examples of this neogranadino art will be used as examples. I reflect on three examples from different periods and very different in their configuration: a casket, a cabinet, and a tray, all decorated with barniz de Pasto and with different compositional challenges for the artist. Rather than the physical–mechanical use of materials and supports, I focus on the syntax of the image and the techniques used in the organizational structure and its processes, finding that there were ways of organizing the elements in a specific space and that these came from professional practices associated mainly with painting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lacquer in the Americas)
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14 pages, 328 KiB  
Article
NFTs and the Danger of Loss
by Andreia Nogueira, Célio Gonçalo Marques, António Manso and Paula Almeida
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5410-5423; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070285 - 15 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4024
Abstract
This research contributes to the discussion around the importance of the long-term preservation of non-fungible tokens (NFTs) and minted digital artworks. The paper is based on a review of the literature on blockchain in art and heritage management and conservation, with particular attention [...] Read more.
This research contributes to the discussion around the importance of the long-term preservation of non-fungible tokens (NFTs) and minted digital artworks. The paper is based on a review of the literature on blockchain in art and heritage management and conservation, with particular attention to references related to the production, marketing, maintenance, and distribution of NFT-based digital art. The aims of this paper involve anticipating potential problems in the oversight of NFTs and setting out good long-term management principles and practices as well as specific preservation strategies. Despite the fact that it also discusses issues over authorship, copyright, creative commons, and open access, the paper is particularly devoted to raising concerns about the high energy consumption associated with blockchain technology and its impact on climate change. It also highlights how the preservation of NFTs cannot be neglected, despite the belief that they last forever. Most studies dedicated to analysing the impact of blockchain technology on the cultural heritage sector ignore the most important issue: preserving not only the minted digital artworks themselves but also the respective blockchain networks. Overall, this paper seeks to foster a collective awareness of the need to reflect on blockchain-related art practices and their implications for the long-term protection of cultural property. Full article
17 pages, 6502 KiB  
Article
The Book of Uí Mhaine: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of the Materiality of the Gaelic Manuscript Tradition
by Veronica Biolcati, Meghan Wilson, Sarah Fiddyment, Richard Unitt, Cynthia Connelly Ryan, Anna Grace Hoffmann, John Gillis, Fenella France, Pádraig Ó Macháin and Daniela Iacopino
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5393-5409; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070284 - 15 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1153
Abstract
This paper presents the findings of the first multi-analytical investigation of the Book of Uí Mhaine, one of the largest Gaelic Books surviving from the medieval vernacular period. A combination of protein analysis, point X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), multispectral imaging (MSI), point Fiber-Optic [...] Read more.
This paper presents the findings of the first multi-analytical investigation of the Book of Uí Mhaine, one of the largest Gaelic Books surviving from the medieval vernacular period. A combination of protein analysis, point X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), multispectral imaging (MSI), point Fiber-Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) and point Raman spectroscopy was used to perform a systematic investigation of the Book of Uí Mhaine’s constituent materials, including parchment, inks and pigments. The analysis revealed that the parchment was made of calfskin, both blunt tools and Pb-containing materials were used for ruling the pages throughout the manuscript, and iron-based inks were used to write the content of the book. The decoration was restricted to the initial letters and rubrication across the body text. The decoration color palette was limited to yellow and red, comprising arsenic-, mercury- and lead-based pigments. A copper-based green pigment was found only on one folio. The scientific knowledge acquired through this multi-analytical approach complemented a substantial corpus of knowledge already built by Gaelic scholars, paleographers, codicologists and conservators. This work not only allowed for the consolidation of existing information on methods and materials used for the production of medieval Gaelic manuscripts but also laid the basis for future comparative work with other contemporary traditions in Ireland and Europe. Full article
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19 pages, 3913 KiB  
Article
Formation of Calcium Oxalate Patinas as Protective Layer on Basaltic Stone Surfaces of 17th Century Raigad Hill Fort, India
by Manager Rajdeo Singh and Rajendra Yadav
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5374-5392; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070283 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
This work reports calcium oxalate film formation on basaltic stone surfaces of the 17th-century western India Raigad Hill Fort. Nine stone samples extracted from the exterior surfaces of different historical structures of the fort were investigated under FTIR, optical microscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDX. [...] Read more.
This work reports calcium oxalate film formation on basaltic stone surfaces of the 17th-century western India Raigad Hill Fort. Nine stone samples extracted from the exterior surfaces of different historical structures of the fort were investigated under FTIR, optical microscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDX. The FTIR spectroscopy revealed intense peaks for Ca-oxalate patinas on basaltic stone surfaces. Observation under optical microscopy clearly showed milky white oxalate films, and peaks for crystalline calcium oxalate, including rock silicates, were prominently observed through XRD investigations. The surface morphology, the origin of the oxalate film, and the state of conservation of the basalt rock were investigated through SEM-EDX. The massive structures at Raigad, at a height of about 800 m, have hardly been chemically cleaned or coated with preservatives in the past. The presence of organic filaments in SEM photomicrographs indicated the biological origin of the oxalate patina due to the thick growth of microbiota on the monument stone during very heavy monsoons. The oxalic acid secreted by microbes dislodged the Ca-rich plagioclase of the stone, ensuring Ca-ions’ availability for film formation. The optical and mineralogical analyses suggest that the film is not the result of simple deposition but of the surface transformation of basaltic stone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decay and Conservation Studies of Building Mortars and Stones)
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27 pages, 2883 KiB  
Article
Intangible Heritage of the Dehesa: The Educational and Tourist Potential of Traditional Trades
by Rebeca Guillén-Peñafiel, Ana María Hernández-Carretero and José Manuel Sánchez-Martín
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5347-5373; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070282 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
Dehesas constitute one of the most relevant and traditional landscapes of the Extremadura region. However, the supremacy given to the economic–productive functionality of agricultural territories over environmental and cultural sustainability leads to the devaluation and neglect of the heritage manifestations of the rural [...] Read more.
Dehesas constitute one of the most relevant and traditional landscapes of the Extremadura region. However, the supremacy given to the economic–productive functionality of agricultural territories over environmental and cultural sustainability leads to the devaluation and neglect of the heritage manifestations of the rural world. Based on this premise, this study aimed to understand the current situation of some of the traditional trades of the Extremadura pasture, assessing the benefits of their conservation and determining the possible threats that hinder their preservation. In addition, it sought to articulate a proposal for solutions aimed at safeguarding them. To this end, the Delphi method was used, and 20 experts were interviewed in depth, mainly cork and charcoal extractors. The results corroborate the existence of various problems faced by the traditional trades, which compromise the conservation of the identity of the rural population and the sustainability of the dehesa. To mitigate these tensions, it was concluded that there is a need to disseminate the heritage of the dehesa through educational and agrotourism experiences to promote an increase in tourist awareness, revalue ancestral knowledge, and contribute to the conservation of intangible assets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes as Cultural Heritage: Contemporary Perspectives)
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18 pages, 4674 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Bone Quality in Middle Ages and Late Modern Period Human Skeletons from Latvia
by Ksenija Šerstņova, Edgars Edelmers, Maksims Zolovs and Māra Pilmane
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5329-5346; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070281 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
The analysis of bone microstructure and histological examination currently provides valuable insights into various facets of bone biology, ancient human existence, and bone-related diseases. This study aims to scrutinize the microstructure of historic Latvian bones, with three bone element groups selected (humerus, radius, [...] Read more.
The analysis of bone microstructure and histological examination currently provides valuable insights into various facets of bone biology, ancient human existence, and bone-related diseases. This study aims to scrutinize the microstructure of historic Latvian bones, with three bone element groups selected (humerus, radius, and ulna) from a skeletal collection spanning from the Middle Ages to the Late Modern Period, procured through an archaeological excavation at St. George’s Church in Riga. To evaluate the changes in bone samples over time, two methods are utilized: (i) micro-computed tomography, used for measuring and calculating bone volume/trabecular volume (BV/TV), cortical bone and trabecular thickness, and trabecular pore diameter; (ii) immunohistochemistry (IHC) is employed to detect the presence of Runx2, OPG, OC, MMP2, TIMP2, BFGF, IL-1, IL-10, OPN, defensin-2, BMP 2/4, TGFβ factor in bone cells—specifically osteocytes. Archaeological human bone remains from the Middle Ages period in Latvia display a decline in the average bone volume to trabecular volume ratio when compared with the Late Modern Period, indicating a potential reduction in bone quality in the skeletons, potentially associated with a lower living standard during the earlier era. Comparing factors between the periods reveals a higher value of TIMP2 (p = 0.047) in samples from the Late Modern Period group, while IL-1 is higher (p = 0.036) in the Middle Ages group, which may suggest the presence of disease and diminished bone quality in the skeletons from the Middle Ages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Archaeology and Anthropology of the Ancient World)
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24 pages, 1494 KiB  
Article
A Roadmap for Craft Understanding, Education, Training, and Preservation
by Xenophon Zabulis, Nikolaos Partarakis, Ioanna Demeridou, Paraskevi Doulgeraki, Emmanouil Zidianakis, Antonis Argyros, Maria Theodoridou, Yannis Marketakis, Carlo Meghini, Valentina Bartalesi, Nicolò Pratelli, Christian Holz, Paul Streli, Manuel Meier, Matias Katajavaara Seidler, Laura Werup, Peiman Fallahian Sichani, Sotiris Manitsaris, Gavriela Senteri, Arnaud Dubois, Chistodoulos Ringas, Aikaterini Ziova, Eleana Tasiopoulou, Danai Kaplanidi, David Arnaud, Patricia Hee, Gregorio Canavate, Marie-Adelaide Benvenuti and Jelena Krivokapicadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5305-5328; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070280 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
A roadmap is proposed that defines a systematic approach for craft preservation and its evaluation. The proposed roadmap aims to deepen craft understanding so that blueprints of appropriate tools that support craft documentation, education, and training can be designed while achieving preservation through [...] Read more.
A roadmap is proposed that defines a systematic approach for craft preservation and its evaluation. The proposed roadmap aims to deepen craft understanding so that blueprints of appropriate tools that support craft documentation, education, and training can be designed while achieving preservation through the stimulation and diversification of practitioner income. In addition to this roadmap, an evaluation strategy is proposed to validate the efficacy of the developed results and provide a benchmark for the efficacy of craft preservation approaches. The proposed contribution aims at the catalyzation of craft education and training with digital aids, widening access and engagement to crafts, economizing learning, increasing exercisability, and relaxing remoteness constraints in craft learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
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35 pages, 14300 KiB  
Article
What Actually Is a Heritage Conservation Area? A Management Critique Based on a Systematic Review of New South Wales (Australia) Planning Documents
by Dirk H. R. Spennemann
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5270-5304; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070279 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
While the community of Australian planning professionals is familiar with the identification, interpretation and application of heritage conservation areas, this is not a concept that is familiar to the general public. Yet, none of the official publications issued by the New South Wales [...] Read more.
While the community of Australian planning professionals is familiar with the identification, interpretation and application of heritage conservation areas, this is not a concept that is familiar to the general public. Yet, none of the official publications issued by the New South Wales state heritage authorities provide a definition of the purpose of heritage conservation areas that goes beyond the declaring them to be a spatially bounded area containing heritage items. It is left to the local planning authorities to provide their own interpretations and definitions. This paper provides a systematic review of the definitions contained in NSW local heritage studies and planning documents. It presents the first ever comprehensive definition of the purpose of heritage conservation areas as well as of the nature and characteristics of an area’s constituent, contributory or detracting components. Based on this, the paper then explores the role of heritage conservation areas as part of the public heritage domain focussing on the importance of isovists and commensurate curtilages when discussing permissible alterations and new developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage Management and Preservation Policies)
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28 pages, 30968 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Hybrid Lime Mortars for Historic Building Conservation: Incorporating Wood Biomass Ash as a Low-Carbon Secondary Binder
by Jelena Šantek Bajto, Nina Štirmer and Ana Baričević
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5242-5269; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070278 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1004
Abstract
Renewables-based power grid expansion has increased the use of wood biomass as a low-carbon fuel, resulting in the generation of predominantly inorganic wood biomass ash (WBA) as waste during biomass combustion. The conservation of historically valuable, damaged, and energy-inefficient buildings can help downsize [...] Read more.
Renewables-based power grid expansion has increased the use of wood biomass as a low-carbon fuel, resulting in the generation of predominantly inorganic wood biomass ash (WBA) as waste during biomass combustion. The conservation of historically valuable, damaged, and energy-inefficient buildings can help downsize carbon emissions and energy consumption, while promoting the use of alternative repair materials, including unavailing materials such as WBA, and implementing zero-waste measures. This study aims to underscore the importance of a proactive approach in managing WBA and its application in artificial hydraulic lime (AHL) mortars. Hybrid lime mortars were prepared by combining natural hydraulic lime (NHL) as the primary binder with fly wood biomass ash (WBA) as the secondary substitute, using different mass ratios of NHL to WBA (100:0, 80:20, and 70:30). The experimental framework encompassed interconnected analytical steps, ranging from binder analysis to paste and mortar preparation. The chemical and mineralogical composition, physical properties, and reactivity of WBA were evaluated to determine the appropriate proportion of WBA for low-carbon AHL binder formulation. Prior to mortar mixing, the water demand, setting time, and soundness of the AHL pastes were assessed. The effects of each AHL binder blend on the mechanical properties of the AHL mortars were analyzed based on compressive and flexural strength measurements after 28 days of curing under different CO2 and moisture conditions (CO2~400 ppm at 70% RH and 95% RH; CO2~30,000 ppm at 60% RH). Additionally, changes in the porous structure were studied. Notwithstanding the greatly prolonged setting time, the results indicate that the mechanical properties of AHL mortars can be enhanced by the addition of WBA in a moderate ratio, empowering the development of environmentally friendly lime mortars suitable for conservation purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Progress of Inorganic Materials in Heritage Science)
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29 pages, 45198 KiB  
Article
Minerva in Colours: First Results on a Polychrome Roman Sculpture from Carnuntum (Pannonia)
by Gabrielle Kremer, Robert Linke, Georg Plattner, Eduard Pollhammer, Marina Brzakovic, Robert Krickl, Nirvana Silnovic and Václav Pitthard
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5213-5241; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070277 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2952
Abstract
This paper presents the first results of a current interdisciplinary research project on the polychromy of Roman provincial stone artefacts in selected areas of the Danubian provinces (PolychroMon). The statuary group of Minerva and the Genius immunium from Carnuntum (Archaeological Museum Carnuntinum inv. [...] Read more.
This paper presents the first results of a current interdisciplinary research project on the polychromy of Roman provincial stone artefacts in selected areas of the Danubian provinces (PolychroMon). The statuary group of Minerva and the Genius immunium from Carnuntum (Archaeological Museum Carnuntinum inv. CAR-S-48) is dated to the second half of the second century AD and still retains traces of the original polychromy. The aim was to focus on non-invasive techniques and to employ micro-invasive methods for necessary cross-checking and gaining information otherwise not accessible. The investigation revealed that paint was applied on a layer of white lime wash. Additionally, the object shows several traces of Egyptian blue, which was mainly detected in Minerva’s and the Genius’ clothes. Other pigments whose traces were found on the sculpture include green earth, yellow and red ochre, as well as red lead and carbon black. Microscopic analysis confirms the presence of modern-age compounds as well (barium sulphate and zinc oxide) used for modern retouches. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry revealed the use of egg as the major proteinaceous binding medium in the red lead polychromy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polychromy in Ancient Sculpture and Architecture)
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11 pages, 5085 KiB  
Article
Integrated Imaging and Spectroscopic Analysis of Painted Fresco Surfaces Using Terahertz Time-Domain Technique
by Alessia Artesani, Francesco Abate, Raffaella Lamuraglia, Maria Antonietta Baldo, Federica Menegazzo and Arianna Traviglia
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5202-5212; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070276 - 10 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Terahertz time-domain (THz-TD) imaging plays an increasingly significant role in the study of solid-state materials by enabling the simultaneous extraction of spectroscopic composition and surface topography in the far-infrared region (3–300 cm−1). However, when applied to works of art in reflection [...] Read more.
Terahertz time-domain (THz-TD) imaging plays an increasingly significant role in the study of solid-state materials by enabling the simultaneous extraction of spectroscopic composition and surface topography in the far-infrared region (3–300 cm−1). However, when applied to works of art in reflection configuration, significant challenges arise, including weak signal intensity, multiple signal losses, and surface distortion. This study proposes a practical solution to overcome these limitations and conducts an integrated imaging and spectroscopic analysis on painted fresco surfaces, allowing for the retrieval of surface thicknesses, material distribution, and pigment spectroscopic signals. The study addresses the issue of surface geometrical distortion, which hampers the accurate determination of the THz phase signal. By tackling this challenge, this work successfully determines the absorption coefficient for each point on the surface and retrieves spectroscopic signatures. Additionally, the temporal deconvolution technique is employed to separate different layers of the sample and differentiate between outer and inner surface topography. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of THz-TD imaging in determining surface thicknesses, material distribution, and pigment spectroscopic signals. The results obtained highlight the potential of THz-TD imaging in investigating painted works of art, offering new possibilities for routine analysis in the field of cultural heritage preservation. Full article
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15 pages, 452 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Impact of Chinese Domestic Tourists’ Participation on Their Post-Travel Behaviors in Traditional Chinese Villages
by Jun Lei and Sid Suntrayuth
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5187-5201; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070275 - 08 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
According to attitude–behavior theory, the emotions generated by tourists’ travel experiences can influence their subsequent behavioral intentions. This quantitative study analyzed 398 survey questionnaires using a structural equation model to explore the multiple chain mediating effects between tourists’ participation, perceived value, place attachment, [...] Read more.
According to attitude–behavior theory, the emotions generated by tourists’ travel experiences can influence their subsequent behavioral intentions. This quantitative study analyzed 398 survey questionnaires using a structural equation model to explore the multiple chain mediating effects between tourists’ participation, perceived value, place attachment, and loyalty. The results show that the innovation and interaction dimensions of tourist participation significantly influence the generation of perceived value and place attachment, which is far greater than that of the information exchange dimension. Perceived value significantly affects the formation of place attachment, and the self-enhancement dimension of perceived value significantly influences tourists’ recommendations. Compared to ordinary perceived value, the emotional connection between tourists and the destination is more profound and important, and place attachment plays a crucial role in the formation of tourists’ loyalty. This study confirms the relevance of the attitude–behavior theory in the context of traditional village tourism and extends the theory’s application to encompass the emotional connection between individuals and places. It thoroughly investigates the mechanisms through which tourists’ participation, perceived value, and place attachment impact customer loyalty. The findings of this research hold significant importance in comprehending tourists’ behavioral intention and decision-making processes within destination settings, providing a theoretical basis for exploring and expanding diverse value activities in traditional village tourism. Full article
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36 pages, 7314 KiB  
Article
How Could Increasing Temperature Scenarios Alter the Risk of Terrorist Acts in Different Historical Squares? A Simulation-Based Approach in Typological Italian Squares
by Enrico Quagliarini, Gabriele Bernardini and Marco D’Orazio
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5151-5186; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070274 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 939
Abstract
Squares in the urban historical built environment are public open spaces prone to the risk of terrorist acts, essentially because they are ideal soft targets and attract significant user densities. Risk assessment methods should consider how users behave in them, both before and [...] Read more.
Squares in the urban historical built environment are public open spaces prone to the risk of terrorist acts, essentially because they are ideal soft targets and attract significant user densities. Risk assessment methods should consider how users behave in them, both before and during an accident (i.e., the evacuation process). In addition to squares’ morphology and layout, and considering that urban areas are more and more prone to the effects of increasing temperatures, outdoor climate conditions can alter the initial scenario. In fact, such conditions can lead users to gather in specific outdoor areas, where they can look for shadows and shelter. This work hence proposes a simulation-based approach to assess how differences in users’ behaviours in response to increasing temperatures and squares’ morphology can alter the risk of terrorist acts in an emergency evacuation. An agent-based model is developed to simulate the interactions between users, hazards and the historical built environment. The work considers four typological squares prone to terrorist acts since they host a special building attracting users in front of it. These squares are derived from the analysis of Italian historical contexts within the BE S2ECURe project. Users are generated in the public open space (thus, before the terrorist act) depending on the intended uses of the square and on the outdoor temperature, which is affected by the square’s morphology. Three different users’ behaviours are modelled to consider (or not) the effects of the outdoor temperature on users’ thermal acceptability levels in an increasing temperature situation. Then, two evacuation scenarios are simulated: (a) a general evacuation process, without attackers, as the baseline for the risk assessment; and (b) an armed assault with cold weapons, to define one of the most probable attack situations in open spaces. Evacuation performance indicators are developed to assess users’ risk. Preliminary verifications demonstrate the capabilities of the approach. The results show that higher differences in evacuation indicators are noticed in large and asymmetric squares, since their conditions highly affect the variability of users’ behaviours in response to increasing temperatures. At the same time, stronger safety behaviours in response to increasing temperatures could reduce emergency issues because they allow users to be more dispersed and initially placed farther from the attack area. Decision-makers could take advantage of the proposed approach and simulation tool, moving towards an effectiveness analysis of solutions to increase the thermal comfort of users in respect of the risk levels during an evacuation. Finally, applications to real-world scenarios are thus encouraged to compare such idealized results with effective conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection of Cultural Heritage from Natural and Manmade Hazards)
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21 pages, 30044 KiB  
Article
Documentation and Virtualisation of Vernacular Cultural Heritage: The Case of Underground Wine Cellars in Atauta (Soria)
by Tomás Ramón Herrero-Tejedor, Miguel Ángel Maté-González, Enrique Pérez-Martín, Serafín López-Cuervo, Juan López de Herrera, Luis Javier Sánchez-Aparicio and Paula Villanueva Llauradó
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5130-5150; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070273 - 05 Jul 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
The cultural heritage associated with rural systems is extremely valuable and is a sign of identity for cultures that are disappearing or undergoing transformation. This paper explains and illustrates the series of procedures that have been carried out to document and subsequently virtualise [...] Read more.
The cultural heritage associated with rural systems is extremely valuable and is a sign of identity for cultures that are disappearing or undergoing transformation. This paper explains and illustrates the series of procedures that have been carried out to document and subsequently virtualise the ethnological site of the “El Plantío” underground wine cellars in Atauta. The ensembles of underground wine cellars are located immediately outside the village of Atauta, from which they are separated by the stream of Arroyo de la Laguna or Golbán, thus giving rise to two environments that are characterised by the perfect interrelation between their natural and architectural heritage. The visual and scenic relations between both these elements make this area a prime example of a cultural heritage that is associated with wine production systems. This documentation was obtained through a combination of different geomatic techniques. The results are organised on a web platform to enable their digital visualisation (2D/3D). This platform provides a virtual environment such that users can understand these underground heritage assets in an integrated way together with the immaterial cultural heritage and the cultural landscape—all of which converge on this ethnological site. The project offers different types of audiences, both real and virtual, access to all of the documentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes as Cultural Heritage: Contemporary Perspectives)
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14 pages, 3387 KiB  
Article
Methodologies for the Characterization and Identification of Natural Atacamite as a Pigment in Andean Colonial Painting
by Andrea De Haro, Milagros Córdova, Carlos Rua Landa, Cristián Huck-Iriart, Gabriela Siracusano, Marta S. Maier and Eugenia Tomasini
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5116-5129; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070272 - 03 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Painting materials used in Spanish American Colonial art comprised pigments and binders from European origin as well as those that were already known in pre-Hispanic times. In recent years, we have identified for the first time the mineral atacamite, a basic copper chloride [...] Read more.
Painting materials used in Spanish American Colonial art comprised pigments and binders from European origin as well as those that were already known in pre-Hispanic times. In recent years, we have identified for the first time the mineral atacamite, a basic copper chloride (Cu2Cl(OH)3), in Andean Colonial art pieces (Viceroyalty of Peru, 16th–18th centuries). This work proposes a methodology based on a multitechnical approach to identify and establish the origin (natural or synthetic) of the atacamite pigment in Andean cultural heritage objects. Optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (pXRF), attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) were applied to analyse green pigments from the altarpiece of the Church of Ancoraimes, atacamite mineral samples from Chile, and atacamite obtained as a secondary product from traditional recipes used to produce verdigris, a copper acetate. Viride salsum by Teófilo Presbítero (SXII) and the Spanish translation by Andrés de Laguna (1566) of “De Materia Médica” from Dioscorides are both texts that include recipes involving the use of metallic copper as a starting material. These studies will contribute to the history of Spanish American Colonial art and to the knowledge on technological capacities and skills in the Andean region during this period. Full article
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9 pages, 3004 KiB  
Editorial
Dyes in History and Archaeology 41: Reflections on the Conference and Its Assembly of Articles
by Jo Kirby, Marei Hacke, Sara Norrehed, Joanne Dyer, Art Proaño Gaibor, Ilaria Degano, Zvi Koren and Edith Sandström
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5107-5115; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070271 - 01 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1184
Abstract
In 1982, eight people—archaeologists, colour scientists and analysts—met in a room in King’s Manor, York University, to discuss a subject of significance to them all: the analysis of dyes on archaeological and historical textiles [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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14 pages, 30103 KiB  
Article
The Watermark Imaging System: Revealing the Internal Structure of Historical Papers
by Elisa Ou, Paul Messier, Ruixue Lian, Andrew Messier and William Sethares
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5093-5106; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070270 - 01 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1598
Abstract
This paper introduces the Watermark Imaging System (WImSy) which can be used to photograph, document, and study sheets of paper. The WImSy provides surface images, raking light images, and transmitted light images of the paper, all in perfect alignment. We develop algorithms that [...] Read more.
This paper introduces the Watermark Imaging System (WImSy) which can be used to photograph, document, and study sheets of paper. The WImSy provides surface images, raking light images, and transmitted light images of the paper, all in perfect alignment. We develop algorithms that exploit this alignment by combining several images together in a process that mimics both the “surface image removal” technique and the method of “high dynamic range” photographs. An improved optimization criterion and an automatic parameter selection procedure streamline the process and make it practical for art historians and conservators to extract the relevant information to study watermarks. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated in several experiments on images taken with the WImSy at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and at the Getty Museum in Los Angeles, and the results are compared with manually optimized images. Full article
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11 pages, 4277 KiB  
Technical Note
Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of a Mid-19th Century Reredos by Sir George Gilbert Scott
by Christopher Brooke, Howell Edwards, Peter Vandenabeele, Sylvia Lycke and Michelle Pepper
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5082-5092; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070269 - 30 Jun 2023
Viewed by 772
Abstract
A painted stone reredos in the Priory Church of St Cuthbert, Worksop, Nottinghamshire, UK, was analysed before recent conservation to determine the pigment scheme employed. The screen was created by the eminent British architect Sir George Gilbert Scott in the middle decade of [...] Read more.
A painted stone reredos in the Priory Church of St Cuthbert, Worksop, Nottinghamshire, UK, was analysed before recent conservation to determine the pigment scheme employed. The screen was created by the eminent British architect Sir George Gilbert Scott in the middle decade of the 19th Century. The results help inform the wider range of palettes employed by British architects and craftspeople working in the 19th and early 20th centuries which have previously been little studied. The pigments generally were high-quality vermilion (red), chrome yellow (yellow), and ultramarine (blue), and several alternatives were also evident such as red lead and haematite for red, bone black, and carbon black for black. Lightening and darkening agents were incorporated as lead white, barytes, and carbon, and pigment mixtures were used to achieve the colours dark blue-red, and green. Full article
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16 pages, 2558 KiB  
Article
Straightforward Stereoscopic Techniques for Archaeometric Interpretation of Archeological Artifacts
by Dubravko Gajski, Robert Župan, Ivana Racetin and Ružica Krstić
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5066-5081; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070268 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1115
Abstract
Stereoscopic visualization plays a significant role in the detailed and accurate interpretation of various geometric features on the surface of archaeological artifacts, which can be challenging to perceive using conventional two-dimensional visualizations. Moreover, virtual 3D models can be shared with other archaeologists for [...] Read more.
Stereoscopic visualization plays a significant role in the detailed and accurate interpretation of various geometric features on the surface of archaeological artifacts, which can be challenging to perceive using conventional two-dimensional visualizations. Moreover, virtual 3D models can be shared with other archaeologists for interpretation and the exchange of opinions. The hardware requirements for rendering stereoscopic 3D models are often readily available on desktop computers, or require only a minimal investment for implementation. This article focuses on creating stereoscopic visualizations of a stylized dove-shaped cult vessel for a virtual museum project. The term “visualization” is defined, emphasizing its significance and everyday applications. The camerawork techniques and processes involved in stereoscopic image production, including anaglyph imaging and polarization, are described. Blender (community-driven project under the GNU General Public License (GPL), Blender Foundation is a member of Open Invention Network, Khronos, Linux Foundation and the Academy Software Foundation) and StereoPhoto Maker (Muttyan, Japan) are reviewed as they relate to the production process of stereoscopic visualizations using open-source software. A series of static stereoscopic visualizations, along with two dynamic stereoscopic examples, are created, one using the anaglyph process, and the other using polarization. Lastly, the article discusses the contribution of stereoscopic visualizations to the interpretation of archaeological artifacts and suggests the optimal parameters for creating stereoscopic visualizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling for Cultural Heritage and Applications)
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15 pages, 4584 KiB  
Article
Still on UNESCO’s “Tentative List of World Heritage”? Heritage, Tourism, and Stunted Growth in Sarnath (Varanasi), India
by Kiran Shinde and Rana P. B. Singh
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5051-5065; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070267 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2610
Abstract
It is not unusual for a place to wait for years before being inscribed on the World Heritage List, but Sarnath—the place where the Buddha delivered his first sermon—has been on UNESCO’s “tentative list” for close to 25 years. As a sacred place [...] Read more.
It is not unusual for a place to wait for years before being inscribed on the World Heritage List, but Sarnath—the place where the Buddha delivered his first sermon—has been on UNESCO’s “tentative list” for close to 25 years. As a sacred place for Buddhist pilgrimages, Sarnath continues to attract thousands of visitors annually and yet, remains under-developed, unlike other pilgrim towns or religious tourism destinations. This paper examines the reasons for the stunted growth of Sarnath. The findings are based on fieldwork conducted in Sarnath in 2019. The analysis of stakeholder interviews suggests several reasons for Sarnath not being able to capitalize on its religious and cultural heritage for tourism-led development. It was found that the protection of the site as an archaeological park by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), which has been controlling development surrounding the park as well as prohibiting the performance of any rituals, have been the key endogenous factors that have contributed to the relative under-development of a Buddhist pilgrimage economy in the town. A handful of monasteries are where Buddhist followers stay and perform their pilgrimage rituals, rendering them as enclaves. Private-sector accommodation is also limited to around 15 hotels and guesthouses. Administratively, Sarnath does not have an independent governance structure. It is governed as just one ward (an electoral constituency) by the Municipal Corporation of Varanasi and is, thus, always under the shadow of Varanasi city. Varanasi is one of the most significant Hindu sacred cities and, hence, visitors stay there for much longer durations to soak in cultural offerings, including religious ceremonies around the Ganga River; a visit to Sarnath is secondary and often limited to a half-day tour. Moreover, the archaeological park at Sarnath serves a recreational purpose as a picnic site for domestic visitors. The exogenous factors mean that the interests of Sarnath (as a Buddhist site) are hardly acknowledged by the Hindu city of Varanasi. This paper argues that the multi-layered contestations that exist at the site level, the town–ward level, and between visitors and managers have further contributed to the poor state of heritage and tourism in Sarnath. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing Heritage in Asian Cities)
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21 pages, 13730 KiB  
Article
Quantification of Moisture in Masonry via AI-Evaluated Broadband Radar Reflectometry
by Daniel Frenzel, Oliver Blaschke, Christoph Franzen, Felix Brand, Franziska Haas, Alexandra Troi and Klaus Stefan Drese
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 5030-5050; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070266 - 26 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Humidity, salt content, and migration in building materials lead to weathering and are a common challenge. To understand damage phenomena and select the right conservation treatments, knowledge on both the amount and distribution of moisture and salt load in the masonry is crucial. [...] Read more.
Humidity, salt content, and migration in building materials lead to weathering and are a common challenge. To understand damage phenomena and select the right conservation treatments, knowledge on both the amount and distribution of moisture and salt load in the masonry is crucial. It was shown that commercial portable devices addressing moisture are often limited by the mutual interference of these values. This can be improved by exploiting broadband radar reflectometry for the quantification of humidity in historic masonry. Due to the above-mentioned limitations, today’s gold standard for evaluating the moisture content in historic buildings is still conducted by taking drilling samples with a subsequent evaluation in a specially designed laboratory, the so-called Darr method. In this paper, a new broadband frequency approach in the range between 0.4 and 6 GHz with improved artificial-intelligence data analysis makes sure to optimize the reflected signal, simplify the evaluation of the generated data, and minimise the effects of variables such as salt contamination that influence the permittivity. In this way, the amount of water could be determined independently from the salt content in the material and an estimate of the salt load. With new machine learning algorithms, the analysis of the permittivity is improved and can be made accessible for everyday use on building sites with minimal intervention by the user. These algorithms were trained with generated data from different drying studies on single building bricks from the masonries. The findings from the laboratory studies were then validated and evaluated on real historic buildings at real construction sites. Thus, the paper shows a spatially resolved and salt-independent measurement system for determining building moisture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decay and Conservation Studies of Building Mortars and Stones)
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37 pages, 40370 KiB  
Article
Specific Design Approach of Croatian Architect Dinko Kovačić: The Coexistence of Modernism and Tradition in the Second Half of the 20th Century
by Vesna Perković Jović and Neda Mrinjek Kliska
Heritage 2023, 6(7), 4993-5029; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6070265 - 25 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1329
Abstract
Dinko Kovačić is a prominent Croatian architect and university professor. His design approach is characterised by exceptional empathy that results in architectural works of intense connection with the environment as well as with that of their future users. Although many of Kovačić’s works [...] Read more.
Dinko Kovačić is a prominent Croatian architect and university professor. His design approach is characterised by exceptional empathy that results in architectural works of intense connection with the environment as well as with that of their future users. Although many of Kovačić’s works have been published in the daily press and professional publications, the complete oeuvre of this architect has so far not been the subject of scientific research. The aim of this scientific work is to look at his specific design approach based on the analysis of representative examples. Research methods in this paper include the analysis of primary and secondary sources and on-site observation. The article gives a systematic presentation of Dinko Kovačić’s work as related to his specific approach, which integrates the modernism of the second half of the 20th century and the Mediterranean tradition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Heritage)
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