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Heritage, Volume 6, Issue 12 (December 2023) – 27 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The paper evaluates the impact of using ChatGPT-3.5 in remote sensing studies applied to archaeological research (RSA). It assesses the model’s abilities in several aspects, such as answering questions, providing references, recommending tools, and generating code. The study follows a multi-level approach based on three levels: entry, medium, and advanced. The results show that GPT can provide correct and relevant information, generate code, and interact with different tools and libraries for RSA. The AI can have a significant impact on remote sensing for archaeology flowcharts, as it can assist users in various tasks and processes and facilitate the use of open-source tools and data. However, the study also acknowledges the limitations and challenges of using ChatGPT-3.5, such as the reliability of the information and the ethical issues. View this paper
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13 pages, 304 KiB  
Article
Addressing Sustainability in Portuguese Museums and Heritage: The Role of Cultural Policies
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7742-7754; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120407 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1098
Abstract
The Future Museums Project Group was created under the Portuguese Ministry of Culture with the mission of proposing recommendations for a 10-year public policy for museums, palaces, and monuments, considering sustainability, accessibility, and innovation issues and their relevance in society. Against this background, [...] Read more.
The Future Museums Project Group was created under the Portuguese Ministry of Culture with the mission of proposing recommendations for a 10-year public policy for museums, palaces, and monuments, considering sustainability, accessibility, and innovation issues and their relevance in society. Against this background, museums were understood as agents of change with a role to play in achieving a more sustainable future, and culture as a fundamental pillar for democracy and sustainable development. This study discusses the findings of the project, focusing on three features that highlight the approach adopted to sustainability, which included collections management, participation, and mediation. Drawn from empirical research, a series of concrete recommendations, both for policy makers and museums, are discussed. The study concludes by arguing that cultural policies must place sustainability at the core of their strategy in order to function as a framework to drive and implement sustainable development practices in museums and heritage. Furthermore, within the scope of post-pandemic recovery plans, climate emergency, and the energy crisis, it is even more pressing that cultural policies provide support for museums and heritage and ensure that they have the conditions and resources to be able to move forward in a more integrated manner, thus contributing to a sustainable future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Museums for Heritage Preservation and Communication—2nd Edition)
15 pages, 5018 KiB  
Article
Predicted Dynamic of Biodeterioration in Cultural Heritage Stones Due to Climate Changes in Humid Tropical Regions—A Case Study on the Rhodotorula sp. Yeast
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7727-7741; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120406 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1146
Abstract
The recent global warming started at the end of the 19th century, causing an increase in the average temperature of Earth and posing environmental, social, economic, and cultural repercussions. Much tangible cultural heritage is composed of natural stones, which decay due to the [...] Read more.
The recent global warming started at the end of the 19th century, causing an increase in the average temperature of Earth and posing environmental, social, economic, and cultural repercussions. Much tangible cultural heritage is composed of natural stones, which decay due to the combination of chemical, physical, and biological factors. Biodeterioration leads to a loss of the performance requirements and socio-economic value of stone building materials. In the future, the dynamics of biodeterioration will hypothetically vary. This study aims to shed light on this variation by comparing biodeterioration under historical climatic conditions (1995–2014) with a future scenario defined by the IPCC SSP5-8.5 for the reference period 2080–2099. The material tested is Pedra de Ançã (PA), a candidate for World Heritage Stone. Climatic chambers were used to simulate the historical and predicted environmental conditions. The scope of this investigation is to understand the growth dynamic of the biodeteriogen Rhodotorula sp. and to study the morphological and aesthetic variations of stone surfaces. Biochemical and micro-topographic analyses highlighted the metabolic activity of the population proliferating under distinct environmental conditions, revealing better adaptability of Rhodotorula sp. and higher biocorrosion in the historical climate status with respect to the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges to Heritage Conservation under Climate Change)
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21 pages, 6922 KiB  
Article
Exploring Vulnerability Indicators: Tourist Impact on Cultural Heritage Sites in High Arctic Svalbard
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7706-7726; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120405 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 940
Abstract
This article reports findings from two research projects that aimed to understand the vulnerabilities of cultural heritage sites in Svalbard and investigated factors that influence tourism-induced pressures and site degradation. It draws upon fieldwork conducted at ten selected historic locations, including interviews with [...] Read more.
This article reports findings from two research projects that aimed to understand the vulnerabilities of cultural heritage sites in Svalbard and investigated factors that influence tourism-induced pressures and site degradation. It draws upon fieldwork conducted at ten selected historic locations, including interviews with tourists and guides, consultations with regional and central cultural heritage management authorities, on-site observations, and condition assessments. The primary goal was to explore indicators rendering cultural heritage sites susceptible to the impacts of tourism and human visitors. These indicators were common denominators and encompassed the sites’ physical state/degree of decay, legibility, accessibility, and quantity and quality of objects at the sites. This article seeks to enhance the understanding of these sites’ vulnerabilities and provide insights for effective heritage site management and sustainable tourism development. The principal findings highlight key factors contributing to cultural heritage sites’ vulnerability. These factors encompass intensity and frequency of visitor traffic, suboptimal visitor management strategies, tourists’ limited awareness of proper site behaviour and conservation practices, and restricted resources for site maintenance and protection. These findings can guide policymakers, site managers, and tourism stakeholders in formulating strategies to balance tourism promotion with site conservation, ensuring the long-term preservation of cultural heritage in this unique and vulnerable environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Heritage, Tourism and Communication: Theory and Practice)
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32 pages, 6164 KiB  
Article
A Dialogue between the Humanities and Social Sciences: Cultural Landscapes and Their Transformative Potential for Social Innovation
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7674-7705; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120404 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Throughout the last decades, engaging with cultural landscapes has been a scientific, social, ethical, political, and economic imperative that calls for novel theoretical approaches, effective strategies and, above all, participatory action. Facing this multifarious challenge, academic disciplines have to redefine their traditional methods [...] Read more.
Throughout the last decades, engaging with cultural landscapes has been a scientific, social, ethical, political, and economic imperative that calls for novel theoretical approaches, effective strategies and, above all, participatory action. Facing this multifarious challenge, academic disciplines have to redefine their traditional methods and aims, and demonstrate an openness towards new and risky paths of scientific pursuits. The present paper arose from interdisciplinary cooperation between the humanities and social sciences with the main objective to explore the potential of cultural landscapes as resources for social innovation in rural regions, addressing issues such as out-migration of original inhabitants, unemployment, and an overaging population. Based on an overview of landscape semantics and theoretical approaches, the paper first analyzes (cultural) landscape and social innovation as applied concepts. In a second step, both disciplinary angles mingle into a joint approach. Moving from methodologies to challenges, the authors discuss the Social Grid Model, which allows for an integrated analysis of social networks, institutions, and cognitive frames. They also delve into the Structured Democratic Dialogue as a tool for the revitalization of ‘active’ and ‘inactive’ cultural landscapes by reinforcing the role of local communities. Finally, the authors investigate how such novel ideas for the promotion of tangible and intangible heritage in rural habitats can be employed by example of two intervention regions in Greece (Koumasa) and the People’s Republic of China (Honghe Hani Rice Terraces), and as part of an orchestrated collective action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes as Cultural Heritage: Contemporary Perspectives)
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14 pages, 668 KiB  
Review
The Evolution of the Concept of Underwater Cultural Heritage in Europe: A Review of International Law, Policy, and Practice
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7660-7673; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120403 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 983
Abstract
Underwater cultural heritage (UCH) is a diverse and valuable resource that includes shipwrecks, sunken cities, and other submerged archaeological sites. It is an important part of human history and culture and can significantly benefit society. However, various factors often neglect and threaten UCH, [...] Read more.
Underwater cultural heritage (UCH) is a diverse and valuable resource that includes shipwrecks, sunken cities, and other submerged archaeological sites. It is an important part of human history and culture and can significantly benefit society. However, various factors often neglect and threaten UCH, including climate change, pollution, and human activities. Several factors, including technological advances, the development of international law, and the growing awareness of the importance of cultural heritage, have influenced the evolution of the concept of UCH. In the early days of underwater archaeology, the focus was on recovering artifacts and treasures from shipwrecks. However, over time, there has been a shift towards a more holistic approach to the management of UCH, which emphasizes the importance of in situ preservation and the involvement of local communities. This review provides a chronological analysis of the evolution of the concept of UCH over the past 70 years and examines the main international conventions and charters developed to protect UCH. The review also discusses the relationship between UCH and marine protected areas (MPAs), the marine environment, and the coastal landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Underwater Heritage)
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20 pages, 5228 KiB  
Article
Potential Impact of Using ChatGPT-3.5 in the Theoretical and Practical Multi-Level Approach to Open-Source Remote Sensing Archaeology, Preliminary Considerations
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7640-7659; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120402 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1864
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of using an AI model, specifically ChatGPT-3.5, in remote sensing (RS) applied to archaeological research. It assessed the model’s abilities in several aspects, in accordance with a multi-level analysis of its usefulness: providing answers to both [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of using an AI model, specifically ChatGPT-3.5, in remote sensing (RS) applied to archaeological research. It assessed the model’s abilities in several aspects, in accordance with a multi-level analysis of its usefulness: providing answers to both general and specific questions related to archaeological research; identifying and referencing the sources of information it uses; recommending appropriate tools based on the user’s desired outcome; assisting users in performing basic functions and processes in RS for archaeology (RSA); assisting users in carrying out complex processes for advanced RSA; and integrating with the tools and libraries commonly used in RSA. ChatGPT-3.5 was selected due to its availability as a free resource. The research also aimed to analyse the user’s prior skills, competencies, and language proficiency required to effectively utilise the model for achieving their research goals. Additionally, the study involved generating JavaScript code for interacting with the free Google Earth Engine tool as part of its research objectives. Use of these free tools, it was possible to demonstrate the impact that ChatGPT-3.5 can have when embedded in an archaeological RS flowchart on different levels. In particular, it was shown to be useful both for the theoretical part and for the generation of simple and complex processes and elaborations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XR and Artificial Intelligence for Heritage)
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16 pages, 6093 KiB  
Article
Industrial Heritage in Malaga (Spain): Research and Education via Four Key Design Concepts
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7624-7639; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120401 - 10 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1047
Abstract
The industrial heritage in Spain, despite important advancements in the past decades, remains under-recognized, vulnerable, and inadequately appreciated. Its potential for contributing to local resilience and sustainability in the face of deindustrialization challenges is one of the best assets it has. This paper [...] Read more.
The industrial heritage in Spain, despite important advancements in the past decades, remains under-recognized, vulnerable, and inadequately appreciated. Its potential for contributing to local resilience and sustainability in the face of deindustrialization challenges is one of the best assets it has. This paper highlights the analysis of two case studies focused on the restoration of industrial heritage sites, namely the Sugar Mill “El Tarajal” in Malaga and the Trapiche del Prado in Marbella, conducted in collaboration between the University G. d’Annunzio of Chieti and Pescara and the University of Malaga. Four key concepts are identified: historical analysis and its impact on industrial evolution, production system transformations and their influence on buildings, the relationship between industry and its surroundings, and the impact of rehabilitation on the urban context. The recovery of industrial heritage goes beyond architectural preservation, emphasizing the importance of adapting these spaces for contemporary purposes and integrating modern technologies and sustainability approaches to drive socioeconomic revitalization. To address the vulnerabilities and lack of recognition faced by industrial heritage, a connection between research and education is discussed to disseminate knowledge among students and professionals in training. This approach aims to provide a more comprehensive and informed restoration process that considers the territorial scale, thereby translating assessment indicators into the design and preservation of industrial heritage sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptive Reuse of Heritage Buildings)
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13 pages, 1779 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Status of Didactic Models for Heritage Education: A Systematic Review
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7611-7623; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120400 - 08 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
Heritage education is very important because it implies a holistic and transdisciplinary approach, where teachers must use resources and educational proposals that promote the conservation, appreciation, and care of heritage. The objective of this study is to analyze heritage education from a global [...] Read more.
Heritage education is very important because it implies a holistic and transdisciplinary approach, where teachers must use resources and educational proposals that promote the conservation, appreciation, and care of heritage. The objective of this study is to analyze heritage education from a global perspective to identify didactic models, areas of educational action, categories, and typologies used in teaching and learning processes. A systematic review of the literature is proposed using the PRISMA methodology in three multidisciplinary databases by carrying out an exhaustive search with inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results highlight that teachers develop learning experiences focused on didactic models with pedagogical intervention in the classroom with formal action, focusing mainly on intangible heritage related to festive acts and rituals; so, they only achieve identity levels and do not reach the heritage levels necessary to create a legacy and promote the appreciation of cultural heritage. The use of digital educational strategies and resources is required to integrate real and simulated spaces with new educational and didactic approaches using virtual technologies. Consequently, this study implies that teachers need to develop digital skills to achieve more effective and meaningful heritage education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research in Heritage Education: Transdisciplinary Approaches)
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22 pages, 3616 KiB  
Article
Transimperial Eyes: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Colonial Narratives about the Dutch Expedition to Southern Chile (1643)
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7589-7610; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120399 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
The review of historical archives that allow us to know the observations and experiences of those who recorded scarcely explored territories in the past, especially in the context of European colonization of vast areas of the world in the seventeenth century is crucial [...] Read more.
The review of historical archives that allow us to know the observations and experiences of those who recorded scarcely explored territories in the past, especially in the context of European colonization of vast areas of the world in the seventeenth century is crucial for heritage studies. The following article analyzes how the Dutch expedition to southern Chile during the 17th century (1642–1643) was narrated, both in Dutch and in its translations into German, English, and Spanish, considering the interests of empires and the discursive differences that translational variations reveal. This transdisciplinary analysis, combining historiography, translation studies, and historical geography, consists of a critical reading of the original narration and a comparative reading of the aforementioned translations, and within them ethnographic representations made about the Mapuche-Huilliche people and the city of Valdivia and changes introduced by different translations are identified. These changes are then related to imperial contexts and discourses that shape these translations. In terms of our findings, we note that, in general, Chilean translations tend to exaggerate the representations of indigenous people as barbaric, inferior, and uncivilized. These representations are present in the European versions, but the shifts that we identified indicate an intensification of this discourse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes as Cultural Heritage: Contemporary Perspectives)
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11 pages, 8194 KiB  
Case Report
Unveiling the Hidden Secrets of Bomarzo Cathedral: New Evidence from Last Ground-Penetrating Radar Survey
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7578-7588; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120398 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
The Bomarzo Cathedral, also known as the Duomo di Bomarzo, is a remarkable historical and architectural masterpiece situated in Bomarzo (VT), Italy. Constructed in the 16th century under the sponsorship of the Orsini family, the cathedral’s design is a harmonious blend of Renaissance [...] Read more.
The Bomarzo Cathedral, also known as the Duomo di Bomarzo, is a remarkable historical and architectural masterpiece situated in Bomarzo (VT), Italy. Constructed in the 16th century under the sponsorship of the Orsini family, the cathedral’s design is a harmonious blend of Renaissance and Baroque styles. Despite enduring numerous challenges, including damage from the Italian Wars, extensive restoration efforts were undertaken to preserve its cultural legacy. Driven by a deep appreciation of the cathedral’s historical context, a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) investigation was deployed to gain insights into its foundations and potentially uncover buried remains beneath the floor and altar. The GPR investigation focused on the cathedral’s interior, specifically the central and left naves, altar, and oratory. This revealed the presence of disclosed rectangular chambers beneath the floor and altar, along with unique foundation structures. These findings, coupled with historical insights and architectural understanding, emphasize the cathedral’s cultural importance. Full article
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19 pages, 5057 KiB  
Article
The Typology of Dubrovnik Summer Residences as a Spatial Planning Tool for Developing the Coexistence of Privacy and Sociality: A Case Study of the Gruž Area
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7559-7577; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120397 - 03 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1343
Abstract
The architecture of summer residences in the Dubrovnik region from the 15th and 16th centuries represents elements of cultural and historical heritage that both enhance the landscape and bear witness to the rich legacy rooted in the native Mediterranean ambience. By learning about [...] Read more.
The architecture of summer residences in the Dubrovnik region from the 15th and 16th centuries represents elements of cultural and historical heritage that both enhance the landscape and bear witness to the rich legacy rooted in the native Mediterranean ambience. By learning about the specific spatial characteristics that define Dubrovnik’s summer residences, this research aimed to comprehend their urban and architectural essence and determine the possibilities of using the typology of these residences as a tool for planning the balanced development of both the private and societal aspects of the city. This study identified indicators of the spatial parameters of existing historic Dubrovnik summer residences in Gruž and then analyzed them according to types of spatial planning conditions to guide the construction and development of building plots. The research was conducted using a model representation of the spatial indicators of the summer residences. The analysis of the model data revealed the characteristics of the typology of Dubrovnik summer residences, highlighting the urban and architectural features of the plots, houses, and gardens, the use of technological innovations, and the coexistence of privacy and sociality. The recognized specificities led to the conclusion that the typology of Dubrovnik summer residences can serve as an exceptionally valuable spatial planning tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptive Reuse of Heritage Buildings)
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12 pages, 6224 KiB  
Article
Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Leather Conservation: Exploring the Potential of Hydroxypropyl Cellulose/Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite as a Leather Consolidation Agent
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7547-7558; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120396 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1387
Abstract
This research presents a comprehensive study on the application of hydroxypropyl cellulose/zinc oxide nanocomposite (HPC/ZnO NC) as an effective consolidant in leather conservation. The critical focus is to prevent photooxidative degradation, a significant challenge in preserving historical leather artifacts. The nanocomposite was evaluated [...] Read more.
This research presents a comprehensive study on the application of hydroxypropyl cellulose/zinc oxide nanocomposite (HPC/ZnO NC) as an effective consolidant in leather conservation. The critical focus is to prevent photooxidative degradation, a significant challenge in preserving historical leather artifacts. The nanocomposite was evaluated for its protective capabilities against environmental stressors like UV radiation and moisture, mechanical robustness, and potential to stabilize acid-damaged leather. The uniform dispersion of ZnO NPs in the HPC matrix was revealed as crucial for improving leather properties, which was confirmed through SEM imaging. The HPC/ZnO NC coating effectively prevented UV-induced microcracks, surface degradation and collagen denaturation. It also demonstrated enhanced mechanical resistance, inhibiting the reduction in leather’s maximum tolerable force and increasing the elongation index, even after aging. Additionally, it exhibited improved water-repellent properties and increased the pH of the leather, offering potential benefits for the treatment of acid-degraded leathers. Overall, the findings affirm that the application of HPC/ZnO NC significantly augments the physical and mechanical properties of leather, providing enhanced resistance to environmental degradation. Full article
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17 pages, 9110 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Exposure Condition on the Composition of the Corrosion Layers of the San Carlone of Arona
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7531-7546; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120395 - 30 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
The Colossus of San Carlo Borromeo, named San Carlone for its large dimensions, represents a unique opportunity to study the long-term effects of atmospheric corrosion on patina formation on historic copper sheets. The sculpture’s large dimensions, complex geometry, direct visitor interaction, and exposure [...] Read more.
The Colossus of San Carlo Borromeo, named San Carlone for its large dimensions, represents a unique opportunity to study the long-term effects of atmospheric corrosion on patina formation on historic copper sheets. The sculpture’s large dimensions, complex geometry, direct visitor interaction, and exposure conditions generate different microclimates. The purpose of this study is to understand how and to what extent these microclimates affect the formation of the copper patinas. The results show that microclimates play a key role in patina formation: in external surfaces exposed to rain, the main constituent is brochantite, whereas a wider variety of corrosion products have been found in sheltered and internal surfaces, such as antlerite, atacamite, copper oxalate, posnjakite, and anglesite. Full article
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23 pages, 15192 KiB  
Article
Query Model Framework Design for Conservation History and Endowments Database: A Case Study on the Digitization of the Sumedang Larang Kingdom’s History and Endowments in Indonesia
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7508-7530; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120394 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
The use of structured query formulation languages is a method for gaining access to data in information management systems. Writing structured queries is a powerful method of data retrieval, and end users can generate complex database queries by becoming proficient in a particular [...] Read more.
The use of structured query formulation languages is a method for gaining access to data in information management systems. Writing structured queries is a powerful method of data retrieval, and end users can generate complex database queries by becoming proficient in a particular query language. Digitization of database information systems, history and endowment, and technology conservation are some examples of database conservation techniques in the process of displaying data that require optimal query techniques. Historical and endowment properties comply with a certain set of laws governing waqf recipients, which sets them apart from heritage and cultural assets. Trusted property typically comprises real estate, valuables, or both and has an infinite preservation term so long as it may still be put to use. A solid information technology infrastructure is essential for ensuring comprehensive data security. Given the availability of knowledge and the quick development of information technology, ensuring its sustainability is a challenge. This research is aimed at preserving historical and waqf databases based on the case study of the Kingdom of Sumedang Larang (KSL), Indonesia, through examination of the database, synchronization of digital data with physical data, as well as looking at its relationship with organizations and management. The proposed method, namely the Design and Analysis of Database Query Model for Preservation Information System (DAQMP), creates a recurring query model from the original tabular data placed in the next table as a special table check for data specifications containing important data. The results must be accurately aligned between digital and physical records regularly to serve as a record of any changes and as evidence to determine whether data has been corrupted, altered, or lost. Full article
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13 pages, 28404 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Analysis of the Mortars of the Church of San Francisco of Quito (Ecuador)
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7495-7507; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120393 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1496
Abstract
The relevance of the Franciscan community is reflected in the San Francisco church in Quito, which was built between 1535 and 1755. This architectural work belonging to the Franciscan complex was implanted on a plot of land with an area of 3.5 hectares [...] Read more.
The relevance of the Franciscan community is reflected in the San Francisco church in Quito, which was built between 1535 and 1755. This architectural work belonging to the Franciscan complex was implanted on a plot of land with an area of 3.5 hectares and was one of the first buildings in the Audience of Quito. Eleven mortar samples that covered the walls of the central nave and side chapels were taken from the church’s main temple. The procedure proposed by the authors is based on a combined methodology following the standards and protocols for the less-invasive extraction of heritage samples. Tests included X-ray diffraction, petrography, and scanning electron microscopy with a microanalysis of the samples. Mortars with a rustic composition and rough manufacturing were identified to differentiate two types of mortar, one of earthen with volcanic aggregates and another of lime with volcanic aggregates. The mining data validated the existing historical documentation, the imaginary process, and the stages of the established constructions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decay and Conservation Studies of Building Mortars and Stones)
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13 pages, 1081 KiB  
Article
Experimenting with Training a Neural Network in Transkribus to Recognise Text in a Multilingual and Multi-Authored Manuscript Collection
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7482-7494; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120392 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 993
Abstract
This work aims at developing an optimal strategy to automatically transcribe a large quantity of uncategorised, digitised archival documents when resources include handwritten text by multiple authors and in several languages. We present a comparative study to establish the efficiency of a single [...] Read more.
This work aims at developing an optimal strategy to automatically transcribe a large quantity of uncategorised, digitised archival documents when resources include handwritten text by multiple authors and in several languages. We present a comparative study to establish the efficiency of a single multilingual handwritten text recognition (HTR) model trained on multiple handwriting styles instead of using a separate model for every language. When successful, this approach allows us to automate the transcription of the archive, reducing manual annotation efforts and facilitating information retrieval. To train the model, we used the material from the personal archive of the Dutch glass artist Sybren Valkema (1916–1996), processing it with Transkribus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XR and Artificial Intelligence for Heritage)
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16 pages, 6981 KiB  
Article
Yellow Dyes of Historical Importance: A Handful of Weld Yellows from the 18th-Century Recipe Books of French Master Dyers Antoine Janot and Paul Gout
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7466-7481; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120391 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1115
Abstract
Antoine Janot and Paul Gout were 18th-century master dyers who specialised in the piece-dyeing of fine wool broadcloths manufactured in Languedoc (southern France) for exportation to the Levant. They wrote treatises, similarly entitled Mémoires de Teinture (Memoirs on Dyeing), illustrated with dozens of [...] Read more.
Antoine Janot and Paul Gout were 18th-century master dyers who specialised in the piece-dyeing of fine wool broadcloths manufactured in Languedoc (southern France) for exportation to the Levant. They wrote treatises, similarly entitled Mémoires de Teinture (Memoirs on Dyeing), illustrated with dozens of dyed textile samples. Janot’s is dated 1744, and Gout’s is dated 1763. These books are full of extremely valuable information, which is unique to its time: the books are composed of carefully described recipes for every colour, each originally preceded by a sample swatch. The yellows of both master dyers made from weld (Reseda luteola L.), belonging to recipes described as Jaune (yellow), were reproduced. The influence of the ingredients, in both the mordanting and dyeing baths, was assessed, and the timings for both baths, which in many recipes are not clear, were tested. This provided key knowledge on the technological processes for dyeing with weld from these 18th c. French masters. The resulting reference samples were preliminarily analysed by a multi-analytical approach. Their chromatic specifications, expressed in the CIEL*a*b*, were compared with those in the Mémoires. Moreover, the influence of the recipe on the percentages of the chromophores was assessed by HPLC-DAD. It was found that the bran and tartar in the mordanting bath influence the final obtained colour and that lime is essential to obtain a bright yellow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pigment Identification of Cultural Heritage Materials)
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20 pages, 3541 KiB  
Article
Climate Adaptation Planning: Developing a Methodology for Evaluating Future Climate Change Impacts on Museum Environments and Their Collections
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7446-7465; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120390 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1006
Abstract
As organisations, museums are responsible for conserving, protecting, and displaying artwork and artefacts. Museum buildings must deliver an environment that will continue to provide this facility for both current and future generations. This research focused on presenting a museum with quantifiable and measurable [...] Read more.
As organisations, museums are responsible for conserving, protecting, and displaying artwork and artefacts. Museum buildings must deliver an environment that will continue to provide this facility for both current and future generations. This research focused on presenting a museum with quantifiable and measurable data to help with climate adaptation planning. A methodology was developed using monitored data. Subhourly data for both indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity spanning the years 2012–2021 was used to produce a daily maximum, daily minimum, and daily average dataset. A sensitivity analysis determined which years to use to derive the indoor-outdoor relationships used in climate modelling. Future impacts were calculated using UK Climate Projections 2018 (UKCP18) data (12 models on a 2.2 km scale), as published by the Met Office Hadley Centre. The data contained within the 12 models was overlayed with the relationships derived to calculate the projected indoor temperature and humidity conditions within the museum. The results presented indicate that temperature and humidity conditions are projected to exceed design conditions more frequently in the coming decades. Consequently, adaptation plans must consider the potential impacts that include indoor environmental deterioration, leading to discomfort and health implications, increased energy costs, and system upgrade costs, as well as the potential for accelerated degradation of artwork and artefacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preservation and Revitalisation of Built Heritage)
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19 pages, 387 KiB  
Article
An Attempt to Estimate the Social Value Resulting from Making Cultural Heritage Available in the Form of a Tourist Product
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7427-7445; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120389 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1212
Abstract
Cultural heritage tourism is a multidimensional tourist activity because, apart from the advantages associated with practicing tourist activity, it is particularly associated with cognitive motives when it comes to practicing it, and even with discovering cultural identity. Such an activity has a specific [...] Read more.
Cultural heritage tourism is a multidimensional tourist activity because, apart from the advantages associated with practicing tourist activity, it is particularly associated with cognitive motives when it comes to practicing it, and even with discovering cultural identity. Such an activity has a specific value in relation to the adopted perspective. Researchers often attempt to determine the value that a tourism-related product has for the customer (tourist). Sometimes, it is defined as the value captured by the entity providing the tourism product. However, it is extremely rare for research to assess the social value of tourism. The aim of this work is to identify issues that can be used in measuring the social value resulting from cultural heritage made available in the form of a tourist product. The authors review the literature on cultural heritage and cultural identity, and then use a particular methodology to develop a tool for assessing social value. To develop their own research tool, the authors use the results of research conducted in 2021/2022 among managers of 70 cultural heritage tourism facilities in Europe. As a result, a tool was created that includes six statements that can contribute to the assessment of the social value resulting from the provision of material cultural heritage in the form of a tourist product. The reliability of the tool was estimated at 0.69 and its standardized rating at 0.71. The social value of cultural heritage, in the opinion of experts, achieved an average rating of 4.06 (on a scale from 1 to 5), with the 6-item version of the tool attaining an average rating of 4.10. Taking into account the usefulness of the proposed solutions, remember that the paper reflects only the European vision, which is one of many possible views. Full article
27 pages, 25148 KiB  
Article
A Deformed Muqarnas Dome at the Sala de los Reyes in the Alhambra: Graphic Analysis of Architectural Heritage
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7400-7426; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120388 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1757
Abstract
The muqarnas are small pieces grouped together, adopting surprising three-dimensional forms. They are a symbol of identity of the 14th century Nasrid architecture at Alhambra in Granada. This research’s aim is to graphically analyze the plaster muqarnas dome located to the south of [...] Read more.
The muqarnas are small pieces grouped together, adopting surprising three-dimensional forms. They are a symbol of identity of the 14th century Nasrid architecture at Alhambra in Granada. This research’s aim is to graphically analyze the plaster muqarnas dome located to the south of the Sala de los Reyes, in the Palacio de los Leones. The methodology followed combines historical images analysis and modern digital graphic techniques. First, a compilation of unpublished drawings and photographs documenting architectural transformations and significant alterations in the roof structures since the 16th century is provided. Although these muqarnas were drawn by Jones and Goury in the 19th century, the current research identifies and draws, digitally for the first time, its nearly two thousand pieces of this dome. Additionally, metric data of the current state has been collected using 3D laser scanning, revealing significant deformations. In this way, the knowledge of these fragile architectural elements is achieved to promote their heritage dissemination and to facilitate the conservation of a monumental site included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Full article
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19 pages, 10829 KiB  
Article
A Web-Based Platform for 3D Visualization of Multimodal Imaging Data in Cultural Heritage Asset Documentation
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7381-7399; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120387 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1349
Abstract
Complex demands in the field of cultural heritage preservation often require a multidisciplinary approach and substantial volumes of multimodal data integration and management. The conventional approach to tackling these issues revolves around using different H-BIM (historical building information model) solutions. This paper presents [...] Read more.
Complex demands in the field of cultural heritage preservation often require a multidisciplinary approach and substantial volumes of multimodal data integration and management. The conventional approach to tackling these issues revolves around using different H-BIM (historical building information model) solutions. This paper presents a prototype for a web platform that moves closer to the idea of a digital twin for physical cultural assets. Based on a light development framework, it is designed for online open access and features a versatile custom 3D viewer for intuitive interaction with the presented data. The concept requires a workflow similar to the video-game industry’s 3D asset optimization to generate highly detailed 3D models and to facilitate the display of multilayered imaging data. The technological stack features a minimal MVC architecture framework and front-end stylesheets. It is designed to be independent of specific databases, enhancing portability for potential future open-source releases. Moreover, the platform employs WebGL libraries to create a dynamic 3D environment interaction. The capabilities of the web platform were tested in a case study regarding the documentation of an important 17th-century church in Romania. Further developments and current limitations of the platform are also discussed. Full article
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15 pages, 5677 KiB  
Article
An Outport for Gedi?—Archaeological Survey in Mida Creek, Kenya
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7366-7380; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120386 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Communities of the East African coast have had a long history of international interaction. Swahili maritime networks linked African port towns across the Indian Ocean seaboard, thus enabling merchandise to reach the hinterlands of the continent. One of these Swahili towns is the [...] Read more.
Communities of the East African coast have had a long history of international interaction. Swahili maritime networks linked African port towns across the Indian Ocean seaboard, thus enabling merchandise to reach the hinterlands of the continent. One of these Swahili towns is the ancient city of Gedi, located on the central Kenyan coast near the medieval town of Malindi. Located inshore, 6 km from the main ocean to the southeast and 3 km from Mida Creek to the southwest, Gedi’s lack of seaward connectivity has perplexed scholars. To effectively function within the vibrant Indian Ocean maritime trade networks of the 10th to 16th centuries CE, Gedi needed access to the sea. Inevitably goods had to be transported overland from a port or landing place. The ‘MUCH to Discover in Mida Creek’ project carried out an archaeological survey around the Creek to form a broader understanding of the region’s maritime past. The study identified a range of sites that evidence past coastal activity. In particular, a concentration of contemporary house sites at Chafisi near the closest point on the Creek to Gedi would suggest it may have acted as an outport for the stone town. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Historic Landscapes, Seascapes and Maritime Heritage)
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23 pages, 2627 KiB  
Article
Heritage Tourism, Retail Revival and City Center Revitalization: A Case Study of Koper, Slovenia
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7343-7365; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120385 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1291
Abstract
The focus of this paper is the revitalization of a heritage city center and the significance of retail trade and cruise ship tourism within this context. Fundamental concepts are presented in the literature review and the factors contributing to the decline of old [...] Read more.
The focus of this paper is the revitalization of a heritage city center and the significance of retail trade and cruise ship tourism within this context. Fundamental concepts are presented in the literature review and the factors contributing to the decline of old city centers explored. The empirical section of the paper comprises a case study that highlights a specific municipality’s efforts to revive its heritage city center. The main attraction in Koper is its well-preserved medieval city center with five-centuries-old Venetian architecture. An analysis of the municipality’s initiatives is performed and a qualitative study that investigates the perceptions and experiences of stakeholders regarding the situation and the municipality’s actions to preserve commercial activity in the city center. The results of the semi-structured interviews conducted with three distinct stakeholder groups are analyzed using the qualitative content analysis method. The findings reveal that the chosen municipality has achieved relative success in revitalizing its heritage city center. Concurrently, stakeholders’ perspectives are utilized to identify potential drawbacks and explore opportunities for mitigating them. This paper concludes by presenting its theoretical and methodological contributions to the field of heritage city center revitalization, not only in the selected municipality but also beyond. These insights can inform the appropriate sustainable policy development and marketing strategy. Full article
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27 pages, 42016 KiB  
Article
Advancing Cultural Heritage Structures Conservation: Integrating BIM and Cloud-Based Solutions for Enhanced Management and Visualization
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7316-7342; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120384 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1332
Abstract
Preserving and managing historical cultural heritage necessitates innovative approaches that harmonize technology with historical documentation. This paper presents a case study showcasing an adaptable online database tailored for the incorporation of Building Information Modeling (BIM) models and associated historical records. Notably, this approach [...] Read more.
Preserving and managing historical cultural heritage necessitates innovative approaches that harmonize technology with historical documentation. This paper presents a case study showcasing an adaptable online database tailored for the incorporation of Building Information Modeling (BIM) models and associated historical records. Notably, this approach offers distinctive integration with historical data, enabling users to contextualize heritage assets historically. The study delves into the database’s capabilities, focusing on its role in cultural heritage structure management. It explores interactive exploration, semantic querying, and attachment features, highlighting BIM’s potential in digital conservation, documentation, and archival efforts for historical structures. Additionally, the paper underscores the database’s significance as a valuable tool for education, research, and collaboration among heritage professionals and the public. While addressing specific modeling challenges, it emphasizes the importance of enhancing software solutions to elevate historical asset management. Historical BIM emerges as a powerful resource bridging the gap between historical structures’ conservation and modern technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architectural Heritage Management in Earthquake-Prone Areas)
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23 pages, 1474 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Transportation Networks on Heritage Tourism and New Urbanization—Empirical Research Based on Rich Heritage Sites in a Chinese Province
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7293-7315; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120383 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1014
Abstract
Accelerating the construction of transportation networks has become an important bridge to promote the urbanization of heritage tourism destinations. Based on the development dilemma of tourism towns in northwestern China, this study collected the panel data of 10 cities in Shaanxi Province from [...] Read more.
Accelerating the construction of transportation networks has become an important bridge to promote the urbanization of heritage tourism destinations. Based on the development dilemma of tourism towns in northwestern China, this study collected the panel data of 10 cities in Shaanxi Province from 2006 to 2019 and used a panel error correction model to investigate the long-term and short-term relationships between heritage tourism and new urbanization. In addition, this paper establishes a regression model of the transportation network’s regulatory effect, revealing the extent of the impact of the transportation network on heritage tourism and new urbanization. The results show that (1) in the short term, the influence of heritage tourism on new urbanization is not remarkable, but in the long term, heritage tourism plays a positive role in facilitating new urbanization; (2) the short-term contribution elasticity of new urbanization to heritage tourism is less than that in the long term; (3) the regulatory effect of the transportation network rectifies the deviation caused by overdeveloped urbanization to moderate development in heritage tourism destinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Museums for Heritage Preservation and Communication)
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16 pages, 7938 KiB  
Article
Mural Paintings Characterisation Using X-ray Fluorescence and Raman Spectroscopy—A Case Study: Nossa Senhora das Neves Chapel, Vilar de Perdizes, Galicia—North Portugal Euroregion
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7277-7292; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120382 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1074
Abstract
Sixteenth-century mural paintings of Nossa Senhora das Neves in Vilar de Perdizes (Galicia—North Portugal Euroregion) were analysed. An iconographic study has allowed us to understand the meaning of the seven scenes that constitute the mural painting. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectroscopies determined [...] Read more.
Sixteenth-century mural paintings of Nossa Senhora das Neves in Vilar de Perdizes (Galicia—North Portugal Euroregion) were analysed. An iconographic study has allowed us to understand the meaning of the seven scenes that constitute the mural painting. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectroscopies determined the compounds used in this mural painting, both in the original and in later repaintings. The black paint was bone black. Hydroxyapatite characteristic bands and those of the associated phosphates have been identified. White lime was used as white paint. Lepidocrocite and goethite were used to make yellows, and hematite was used to make red shades. Cinnabar has been used for a later red repaint. Carbon-based compounds and rutile were used to create different tonalities by darkening or lightening colours. It is of great significance to obtain accurate and reliable mural painting information through scientific means, since preservation, restoration, and repainting without detailed information can be harmful to mural paintings. Full article
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16 pages, 4894 KiB  
Article
Integration of NDT to Assess Composite Contemporary Artworks Made on Photosensitized Cement
Heritage 2023, 6(12), 7261-7276; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6120381 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1027
Abstract
Non-destructive techniques (NDT) have enhanced their usefulness in the field of cultural heritage protection and have become valuable tools for the investigation of composing materials, as well as for the detection of alteration and degradation of various structures. In the current study, non-destructive [...] Read more.
Non-destructive techniques (NDT) have enhanced their usefulness in the field of cultural heritage protection and have become valuable tools for the investigation of composing materials, as well as for the detection of alteration and degradation of various structures. In the current study, non-destructive techniques, based on digital photography processing and analysis (digital photography-Vis/UVF, portable digital optical microscopy, colorimetry, infrared thermography), are used for the examination of three composite contemporary artworks created on photosensitized cement. This approach was applied to a series of composite works (photosensitized cement surfaces) in order to understand the craftmanship of the artist, document the materials used and assess the overall condition of the artworks. The techniques and methods applied can be used as a benchmark for the study of similarly complex artworks and for conservation and restoration planning. This comparative study has shown that, although the three artworks under examination are composed of alike materials (cement mortar, plaster, photosensitive emulsion), they exhibit distinct condition states, which can be attributed to variations in the artist technique and application, as well as to their exposure to different environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials and Heritage)
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