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Reports, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 14 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Usually, the diagnosis of breast carcinoma histologic type is made by a pathologist after biopsy and, in most cases, is subsequently confirmed after surgical resection. Very rarely, the two may differ, especially in the presence of characteristic features such as osteoclast-like giant cells. In our study, we reported a case of a 45-year-old woman, who underwent a core biopsy because of a breast mass, which showed a malignant epithelial lesion intermingled with many stromal osteoclast-like giant cells. On the core biopsy specimen, a diagnosis of breast cancer with osteoclast-like giant cells was made. Curiously, these cells disappeared in the surgical specimen. View this paper
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8 pages, 1009 KiB  
Case Report
Dent Disease Type 1: Still an Under-Recognized Renal Proximal Tubulopathy: A Case Report
by Monika Vitkauskaitė, Agnė Čerkauskaitė and Marius Miglinas
Reports 2022, 5(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5040050 - 5 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1894
Abstract
Dent disease is a rare renal tubular disorder that appears almost exclusively in males. The diagnosis is still challenging, and therefore Dent disease is occasionally misdiagnosed. We report a case of a 45-year-old man with Dent disease who developed renal failure. Since the [...] Read more.
Dent disease is a rare renal tubular disorder that appears almost exclusively in males. The diagnosis is still challenging, and therefore Dent disease is occasionally misdiagnosed. We report a case of a 45-year-old man with Dent disease who developed renal failure. Since the age of 7 months, he persistently exhibited proteinuria. At the age of 24 years, he underwent kidney biopsy, which revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The patient’s brother was found to have proteinuria since he was 2 years old. At the age of 45 years, the patient was transferred to a tertiary care nephrologist, and Dent disease was suspected. Genetic testing revealed a CLCN5 mutation. We highlight the broad spectrum of clinical manifestations in Dent disease and the importance of having a high clinical suspicion to attain a definitive diagnosis. Furthermore, future research regarding the clinical course of the disease, prognosis, and effective treatment options is needed. Full article
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9 pages, 857 KiB  
Brief Report
Liver Transplantation from a Human Leukocyte Antigen-Matched Sibling Donor: Effectiveness of Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy against Hepatitis C Virus Infection
by Tatsuo Kanda, Naoki Matsumoto, Tomotaka Ishii, Shuhei Arima, Shinji Shibuya, Masayuki Honda, Reina Sasaki-Tanaka, Ryota Masuzaki, Shini Kanezawa, Masahiro Ogawa, Shintaro Yamazaki, Osamu Aramaki, Hirofumi Kogure and Yukiyasu Okamura
Reports 2022, 5(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5040049 - 4 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1599
Abstract
Through living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor, it may be possible to stop the use of immunosuppressants. It is possible that acute antibody-mediated rejection and chronic active antibody-mediated rejection through the positivity of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies and/or [...] Read more.
Through living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor, it may be possible to stop the use of immunosuppressants. It is possible that acute antibody-mediated rejection and chronic active antibody-mediated rejection through the positivity of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies and/or T cell-mediated rejection may affect the prognosis of liver transplantation. The etiologies of liver diseases of the recipient may also affect the post-transplantation course. Herein, we report on the successful re-treatment with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a patient who underwent a LDLT from HLA-matched sibling donor. After liver transplantation for HCV-related liver diseases, it is easy for HCV to re-infect the graft liver under a lack of immunosuppressants. DAA therapy against HCV re-infection immediately after transplantation should be commenced, and it is important to eradicate HCV for better prognosis of the recipients in LDLT for HCV-related liver diseases. Full article
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6 pages, 517 KiB  
Brief Report
Good Immunogenicity of Delayed Second Dose of BNT162b2 Vaccine in Individuals with Acute Allergic-like Reactions after the First Dose
by Kazuhiro Araki, Nobuaki Shimizu, Misa Iijima, Hisashi Hosaka and Yasuhiro Yanagita
Reports 2022, 5(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5040048 - 1 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1095
Abstract
We assessed SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike immunoglobulin G (anti-S-IgG) levels among healthcare workers (HCWs) after BNT162b2 vaccination. The anti-S-IgG titers of study participants were measured every three months, a week before, and three weeks after each vaccination. This study compared the short-term immune response to [...] Read more.
We assessed SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike immunoglobulin G (anti-S-IgG) levels among healthcare workers (HCWs) after BNT162b2 vaccination. The anti-S-IgG titers of study participants were measured every three months, a week before, and three weeks after each vaccination. This study compared the short-term immune response to the second vaccination in four HCWs who received the first two doses six months apart (due to acute allergic-like adverse events after the first dose), with that of six HCWs who received the first two doses three weeks apart, according to the standard schedule. The four HCWs who experienced acute allergic-like adverse events after the first vaccination took antihistamines before the second vaccination. None of them experienced an allergic-like reaction after the second vaccination, and the short-term immune response to the second vaccination was similar in both groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Aspects of COVID-19 after a Four-Year Pandemic)
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10 pages, 2219 KiB  
Case Report
Fatal Case of Autochthonous Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection in an Immunosuppressed Calabrian Patient
by Manuela Colosimo, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Antonella Caruso, Filippo Luciani, Erika Cione, Giusy Talarico, Virginia Vescio, Giovambattista De Sarro, Pasquale Minchella and Salvatore Nisticò
Reports 2022, 5(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5040047 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2538
Abstract
Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode that can induce disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients. It is most commonly acquired in tropical and subtropical countries; however, foci of the infection have also been reported in temperate geographic areas. In non-endemic areas, the diagnosis of [...] Read more.
Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode that can induce disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients. It is most commonly acquired in tropical and subtropical countries; however, foci of the infection have also been reported in temperate geographic areas. In non-endemic areas, the diagnosis of an S. stercoralis infection is challenging due to the variety of clinical symptoms. Herein, we report the case of a patient, born and raised in the Calabria region of Southern Italy, who presented with melanoma and S. stercoralis hyperinfection, which is characterized by dyspnea, productive cough, inappetence, marked asthenia, weight loss, and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia. He worked as a farmer and never traveled to another country known to be endemic for S. stercoralis. Despite the prompt identification of the parasite with sputum microscopy and the initiation of therapy with ivermectin and piperacillin–tazobactam, the patient later died. This case underscores the continued risk for S. stercoralis infection even in geographic areas that were previously considered non-endemic for the nematode and indicates that the geographic distribution of S. stercoralis may be expanding in Italy. Full article
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13 pages, 2498 KiB  
Case Report
Tubo-Ovarian Abscess with Actinomyces odontolyticus: Case Report and Brief Review of Literature
by Adrian Gabriel Pană, Vlad Neculicioiu, Dan Alexandru Toc, Gheorghe Dan Sprinjan, Mara Cristina Rusu and Carmen Costache
Reports 2022, 5(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5040046 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2164
Abstract
Actinomyces odontolyticus is a strictly anaerobic species, a member of the Actinomyces genus and of the commensal flora, especially oral flora, which can trigger severe infections through breaches in healthy tissue or necrotic tissue that are often hard to diagnose clinically and microbiologically. [...] Read more.
Actinomyces odontolyticus is a strictly anaerobic species, a member of the Actinomyces genus and of the commensal flora, especially oral flora, which can trigger severe infections through breaches in healthy tissue or necrotic tissue that are often hard to diagnose clinically and microbiologically. Most infections with this species are pulmonary or pleural, which might hint at a connection with poor dental hygiene, but other locations have been documented. We present a case of a tubo-ovarian abscess with a difficult identification of the etiological agent in a woman with multiple admissions, no significant comorbidities, and a longstanding use of an IUD (intrauterine device). To our knowledge, no previous case of tubo-ovarian abscess with an accurate A. odontolyticus microbiological species identification has been reported so far. This case also highlights the importance of considering an anaerobic species as an etiologic agent in an infectious process concerning a previously damaged tissue and the importance of appropriate harvesting and culturing in the accurate diagnosis of such species. Full article
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19 pages, 361 KiB  
Case Report
Nutritional, Health and Lifestyle Status of a Highly Physically Active and Health-Conscious Long-Term Vegan Man: A Case Report from Slovenia
by Boštjan Jakše and Stanislav Pinter
Reports 2022, 5(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5040045 - 3 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2425
Abstract
Adopting a vegan diet as a long-term diet has recently become a new global trend among healthy and physically active adult populations. Unfortunately, scarce scientific data are available on the nutritional and health status and lifestyle patterns of long-term highly physically active vegan [...] Read more.
Adopting a vegan diet as a long-term diet has recently become a new global trend among healthy and physically active adult populations. Unfortunately, scarce scientific data are available on the nutritional and health status and lifestyle patterns of long-term highly physically active vegan populations. In the present case study, we present the results of the nutritional, health and lifestyle status of a highly physically active and health-conscious long-term vegan man. The following research methods were used to assess overall health and lifestyle status: (i) analysis of blood serum (selected cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and homocysteine), safety markers (e.g., insulin-like growth factor 1, total testosterone, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, uric acid, and creatinine), and micronutrients (e.g., vitamin B12, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, iron and ferritin); (ii) erythrocyte membranes analysis (omega-3 index); (iii) urine sample analysis (creatinine and iodine); (iv) blood pressure measurement; (v) bioimpedance and densitometry measurement (initial and current anthropometric variables and body composition); (vi) seven-day weighted dietary records (energy and nutrient intake from regular foods only were compared with the recommended daily intake); and (vii) standardized questionnaires (sociodemographic status, economic status and lifestyle status). The most remarkable results related to dietary intake were high energy (4420 kcal/d) and fibre intake (143 g/d) and nutritional sufficiency from foods only compared with dietary recommendations, with the exception of eicosapentaenoic omega-3 fatty acids and docosahexaenoic omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12 and vitamin D. Overall dietary acid load (DAL) scores, calculated from the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAPF), were rated as lower compared to those of other dietary patterns. In addition, we found that the overall health and lifestyle status of the subject was satisfactory, with some minor deviations that we interpreted. Full article
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11 pages, 864 KiB  
Article
Nurses’ Beliefs and Barriers of Delivering Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation for Heart Failure Patients in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Eidan M. Alzahrani
Reports 2022, 5(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5040044 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) may benefit greatly from cardiopulmonary rehabilitation (CR), which is provided by a team of healthcare professionals that often includes nurses. There has been no research on how nurses perceive providing CR or the hurdles that may affect [...] Read more.
Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) may benefit greatly from cardiopulmonary rehabilitation (CR), which is provided by a team of healthcare professionals that often includes nurses. There has been no research on how nurses perceive providing CR or the hurdles that may affect referrals. Methods: All registered nurses in Saudi Arabia’s Eastern Province were given access to a cross-sectional online survey consisting of nine multiple-choice questions that address attitudes, beliefs, and barriers to CR for HF patients in Saudi Arabia. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the respondents. Results: Altogether, 439 registered nurses participated in the online survey, with men making up 194 (44%) and women 245 (56%). The mean and SD of years of clinical experience in caring for patients with HF were 6 ± 5 years. Out of 439 nurses, 107 (24%) strongly agree, and 255 (58%) agree that CR will enhance the physical fitness of patients. However, 94 (21.1%) strongly agree, and 248 (56.4%) agree that CR might alleviate dyspnea in HF patients. The vast majority of the nurses either strongly agree (90 (20.5%)) or agree (240 (55%)), that CR would help reduce palpitations and fatigue in HF patients. Indeed, 87 (19.81%) strongly agree, and 262 (59.68%) agree that CR would help improve HF patients’ ability to perform daily activities, while 51 (11.6%) strongly agree and 223 (51%) agree that CR would help in reducing hospital readmission. It was shown that 360 (82%) of the 439 nurses favored the delivery of CR programs in hospital-supervised programs, while 368 (83.8%) ranked information on HF disease as the most important aspect of the CR program, followed by information about medications at 305 (69.4%). The availability of CR facilities (36%), the cost of therapy (35%), and the absence of an established standardized referring strategy (34%) were identified as the most significant barriers affecting the referral of patients with HF for CR by nurses. Conclusion: Generally, nurses believed CR helped improve desired clinical outcomes in HF patients. Although a hospital-based program with close supervision is optimal for administering CR, few such options exist. Referrals of patients with HF were hampered by the lack of CR facilities, the cost of intervention, and the lack of a systematic approach to referrals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advancement in Cardiovascular Diseases)
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9 pages, 1114 KiB  
Case Report
Intrathecal Cell Therapy with Autologous Bone Marrow Stromal Cells as a New Tool for Neurologic Sequels after Spinal Cord Surgery: A Report of Two Cases
by Mercedes Zurita, Celia Bonilla, Concepción Aguayo, Cecilia Fernández-Mateos, Paula Martínez, Silvia De La Calle, Nieves Repollés and Esther Moñivas
Reports 2022, 5(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5040043 - 26 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1521
Abstract
Background aims: The possibility of permanent neurological sequels after surgery of benign lesions affecting the spinal cord is well known. Frequently, they are irreversible, with no effective treatment other than rehabilitation. However, in recent years, intrathecal cell therapy with autologous bone marrow stromal [...] Read more.
Background aims: The possibility of permanent neurological sequels after surgery of benign lesions affecting the spinal cord is well known. Frequently, they are irreversible, with no effective treatment other than rehabilitation. However, in recent years, intrathecal cell therapy with autologous bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) in patients with incomplete paraplegia has shown benefits for diverse sequels of spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: We present two patients with chronic spinal cord sequels after a surgery, who underwent cell therapy treatment with NC1 medicament (repeated intrathecal administrations of MSCs). Results: In both cases, cell therapy achieved a clear improvement in neurological sequels, such as recovery of gait disturbances, bowel dysfunction, or neuropathic pain. Conclusion: Intrathecal cell therapy with autologous MSCs offers a new approach for neurological sequels after spinal cord surgery. Full article
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12 pages, 1811 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Extent of Insulin Resistance in Patients That Cleared Viral Hepatitis C Infection and the Role of Pre-Existent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis
by Marian-Sorin Popescu, Andrei Ioan Drocas, Andrei Osman, Dan-Mihai Firu, Vlad Pădureanu, Cristina Maria Mărginean, Daniel-Cristian Pîrvu, Radu Mitruț, Dragoș Nicolae Mărgăritescu, Antonia Radu, Daniela Calina, Anca Oana Docea and Paul Mitruț
Reports 2022, 5(4), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5040042 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
A high risk of developing insulin resistance (IR) and, eventually, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Multiple mechanisms can account for the development of IR in chronic HCV patients, steatosis or fatty liver that can lead [...] Read more.
A high risk of developing insulin resistance (IR) and, eventually, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Multiple mechanisms can account for the development of IR in chronic HCV patients, steatosis or fatty liver that can lead to metabolic syndrome, and the inflammatory process associated with the presence of HCV infection. In this article, we analyze the reported values of homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) before and after successful direct-acting agents (DAAs) treatment in the literature (23 studies) at certain intervals, respectively 12, 24, and 52 weeks depending on the presence of T2DM among patients. The meta-analysis showed improvement of IR in most cases except for three studies that presented a minimal increase in HOMA-IR value for the non-T2DM group at the 12- and 24-week check-ups possibly hinting at a prediabetes group. All other studies showed an important decrease in HOMA-IR post-DAA treatment specifically for the T2DM group. The most significant change in HOMA-IR values was noticed after 24 weeks in all categories. Our meta-analysis showed that clearance of HCV leads to improvement of IR, especially in the case of patients with T2DM. Full article
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14 pages, 995 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Outcomes in a US Cohort of Persons Living with HIV (PLWH)
by Amanda Blair Spence, Sameer Desale, Jennifer Lee, Princy Kumar, Xu Huang, Stanley Evan Cooper, Stephen Fernandez and Seble G. Kassaye
Reports 2022, 5(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5040041 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2076
Abstract
Reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes in persons living with HIV (PLWH) vary across cohorts. We examined clinical characteristics and outcomes of PLWH with COVID-19 compared with a matched HIV-seronegative cohort in a mid-Atlantic US healthcare system. Multivariate logistic regression was used to [...] Read more.
Reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes in persons living with HIV (PLWH) vary across cohorts. We examined clinical characteristics and outcomes of PLWH with COVID-19 compared with a matched HIV-seronegative cohort in a mid-Atlantic US healthcare system. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with hospitalization and death/mechanical ventilation among PLWH. Among 281 PLWH with COVID-19, the mean age was 51.5 (SD 12.74) years, 63% were male, 86% were Black, and 87% had a HIV viral load <200 copies/mL. Overall, 47% of PLWH versus 24% (p < 0.001) of matched HIV-seronegative individuals were hospitalized. Rates of COVID-19 associated cardiovascular and thrombotic events, AKI, and infections were similar between PLWH and HIV-seronegative individuals. Overall mortality was 6% (n = 18/281) in PLWH versus 3% (n = 33/1124) HIV-seronegative, p < 0.0001. Among admitted patients, mortality was 14% (n = 18/132) for PLWH and 13% (n = 33/269) for HIV-seronegative, p = 0.75. Among PLWH, hospitalization associated with older age aOR 1.04 (95% CI 1.01, 1.06), Medicaid insurance aOR 2.61 (95% CI 1.39, 4.97) and multimorbidity aOR 2.98 (95% CI 1.72, 5.23). Death/mechanical ventilation associated with older age aOR 1.06 (95% CI 1.01, 1.11), Medicaid insurance aOR 3.6 (95% CI 1.36, 9.74), and multimorbidity aOR 4.4 (95% CI 1.55, 15.9) in adjusted analyses. PLWH were hospitalized more frequently than the HIV-seronegative group and had a higher overall mortality rate, but once hospitalized had similar mortality rates. Older age, multimorbidity and insurance status associated with more severe outcomes among PLWH suggesting the importance of targeted interventions to mitigate the effects of modifiable inequities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Aspects of COVID-19 after a Two-Year Pandemic)
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5 pages, 1993 KiB  
Case Report
Apple Watch for Pulse Rate Assessment Detects Unidentified Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation
by Kiichi Hirota and Maretoshi Hirai
Reports 2022, 5(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5040040 - 7 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3242
Abstract
Consumer rhythm-monitoring devices, such as the Apple Watch, are becoming more readily available. Irregular pulses can be detected using an optical sensor that is built into the wearable device. The Apple Watch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA) is a class II medical device [...] Read more.
Consumer rhythm-monitoring devices, such as the Apple Watch, are becoming more readily available. Irregular pulses can be detected using an optical sensor that is built into the wearable device. The Apple Watch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA) is a class II medical device with pulse rate and electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring capabilities. Here, we report a case in which an arrhythmia that was conventionally perceived but undiagnosed was identified as an atrial fibrillation by the self-acquisition of the ECG data using an Apple Watch. Full article
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8 pages, 705 KiB  
Article
Cardiac-Device Implantation and Pneumothorax—A Symptom-Based Approach: Experience from a District General Hospital
by Grace George and Avinash Aujayeb
Reports 2022, 5(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5040039 - 4 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1996
Abstract
In patients undergoing cardiac-device implantation, pneumothorax incidence occurs in 1–6%, and is more common in women over 80 years of age with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to do a service review to identify ways to improve [...] Read more.
In patients undergoing cardiac-device implantation, pneumothorax incidence occurs in 1–6%, and is more common in women over 80 years of age with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to do a service review to identify ways to improve care delivery. Caldicott approval was gained. Those complicated by a pneumothorax were further analysed regarding basic demographics and pleural interventions and outcomes. Continuous variables are presented as mean (range) or median (with interquartile ranges) and categorical variables are presented as percentages where appropriate. A total of 2056 implantation episodes from January 2010 to December 2020 occurred with 70 pneumothoraxes (3.4%), which were all related to pacemaker insertion. The mean age was 68.1 years (17–97), 39 were female, and 31 were male. A total of 36 pneumothoraxes were small and were 34 large according to British Thoracic Society (BTS) criteria. We initially observed 56 patients with minimal or no symptoms (30 were large pneumothoraxes), with five requiring intercostal drainage (ICD). A total of 14 pneumothoraxes were treated with ICD as a first-line treatment: the mean age was 78 years (69–89) and eight patients had COPD. Five pneumothoraxes were large. All had significant symptoms. All pneumothoraxes resolved within six weeks with no associated mortality. Full article
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8 pages, 5035 KiB  
Case Report
When Histological Tumor Type Diagnosed on Core Biopsy Changes Its Face after Surgery: Report of a Deceptive Case of Breast Carcinoma
by Antonio d’Amati, Marta Mariano, Francesca Addante, Giovanna Giliberti, Giovanni Tomasicchio and Mauro Giuseppe Mastropasqua
Reports 2022, 5(4), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5040038 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2298
Abstract
The presence of stromal osteoclast-like giant cells is a distinctive feature of some rare breast tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer cases. Although the presence of stromal osteoclast-like giant cells may be encountered in different breast tumors, some authors [...] Read more.
The presence of stromal osteoclast-like giant cells is a distinctive feature of some rare breast tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer cases. Although the presence of stromal osteoclast-like giant cells may be encountered in different breast tumors, some authors still describe them as a specific tumor type. Usually, a histological diagnosis of breast carcinoma is made by a pathologist through a biopsy, which is then confirmed through a surgical specimen: it is rare for the two to differ, particularly when there are pathognomonic morphological markers, such as osteoclast-like giant cells. Herein, we report a case of a 45-year-old pre-menopausal woman, who was found to have a single solid mass in her right breast on screening mammogram. She underwent a core biopsy, which showed a malignant epithelial lesion arranged in tubules, glands, and papillae, intermingled with numerous stromal osteoclast-like giant cells. Therefore, a diagnosis of breast cancer with osteoclast-like giant cells was rendered. Curiously, these cells were no longer detectable in the surgical specimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Clinical Research in Oncology)
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9 pages, 574 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Behavioral Restrictions on the Spread of COVID-19
by Kenji Sasaki, Yoichi Ikeda and Takashi Nakano
Reports 2022, 5(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports5040037 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2045
Abstract
Several measures, including behavioral restrictions for individuals, have been taken throughout the world to control the spread of COVID-19. The aim of these measures is to prevent infected persons from coming into contact with susceptible persons. Since the behavioral restrictions for all citizens, [...] Read more.
Several measures, including behavioral restrictions for individuals, have been taken throughout the world to control the spread of COVID-19. The aim of these measures is to prevent infected persons from coming into contact with susceptible persons. Since the behavioral restrictions for all citizens, such as city-wide lockdowns, were directly linked to the stagnation of economic activities, the assessment of such measures is crucial. In order to evaluate the effects of behavioral restrictions, we employed the broken-link model to compare the situation of COVID-19 in Shanghai, where a lockdown was implemented from March to June 2022, with the situation in Taiwan, where the spread of COVID-19 has been well controlled so far. The results show that the small link-connection probability was achieved by the substantial isolation of infected persons, including the lockdown measures. Although the strict measures for behavioral restrictions were effective to reduce the total number infected people, the daily reported cases per one million people followed the curve evaluated by the broken-link model. This result considers that infections are unavoidable for the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Aspects of COVID-19 after a Four-Year Pandemic)
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