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Particles, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The compressed baryonic matter experiment (CBM) at FAIR aims to study the area of the QCD phase diagram at high net baryon densities and moderate temperatures with collisions of heavy ions. The anisotropic transverse flow is one of the most important observable phenomena in a study of the properties of matter created in such collisions. Flow measurements require the knowledge of the collision symmetry plane, which can be determined from the deflection of the collision spectators. The CBM performance for projectile spectator symmetry plane estimation is studied with GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations using collisions of gold ions. Different data-driven methods to extract the correction factor in flow analysis for the resolution of the spectator symmetry plane are investigated. View this paper.
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6 pages, 260 KiB  
Conference Report
Direct-Channel Option of the Forward Slope Increase
by Sergey Troshin and Nikolai Tyurin
Particles 2021, 4(3), 391-396; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4030033 - 9 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2284
Abstract
The LHC data on the elastic scattering indicate that the forward slope increase is not consistent with the contributions of the simple Regge poles only with the linear Regge trajectories. The dynamics might be associated with unitarization in the direct channel of reaction. [...] Read more.
The LHC data on the elastic scattering indicate that the forward slope increase is not consistent with the contributions of the simple Regge poles only with the linear Regge trajectories. The dynamics might be associated with unitarization in the direct channel of reaction. We discuss the problems of the Regge model and provide a respective illustration of the direct-channel option. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection High Energy Physics)
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10 pages, 468 KiB  
Article
On the Shape of Nucleons at High Energies
by Maksim L. Nekrasov
Particles 2021, 4(3), 381-390; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4030032 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2447
Abstract
A scenario of the evolution of the shape of nucleons with increasing energy is described in the framework of an extended parton model, which consistently takes into account the transverse motion of the partons. At the energy E up to LHC, the nucleons [...] Read more.
A scenario of the evolution of the shape of nucleons with increasing energy is described in the framework of an extended parton model, which consistently takes into account the transverse motion of the partons. At the energy E up to LHC, the nucleons have the form of a spheroid which expands as lnE in the transverse directions and grows linearly in E in the longitudinal direction. With a further increase in the energy, a mode of correlated behavior of the partons is established, which stops the longitudinal growth. Simultaneously, the expansion in the transverse directions changes to lnE, and a hollow mostly free of partons is formed inside the nucleons along the central axis in the direction of their motion. Numerical estimates of the corresponding parameters are obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection High Energy Physics)
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20 pages, 1405 KiB  
Article
Some Examples of Calculation of Massless and Massive Feynman Integrals
by Anatoly V. Kotikov
Particles 2021, 4(3), 361-380; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4030031 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2707
Abstract
We show some examples of calculations of massless and massive Feynman integrals. Full article
7 pages, 1370 KiB  
Article
Data-Driven Methods for Spectator Symmetry Plane Estimation in CBM Experiment at FAIR
by Oleg Golosov, Ilya Selyuzhenkov and Evgeny Kashirin
Particles 2021, 4(3), 354-360; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4030030 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2575
Abstract
The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment (CBM) at FAIR aims to study the area of the QCD phase diagram at high net baryon densities and moderate temperatures with collisions of heavy ions at sNN=2.8–4.9 GeV. The anisotropic transverse flow is [...] Read more.
The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment (CBM) at FAIR aims to study the area of the QCD phase diagram at high net baryon densities and moderate temperatures with collisions of heavy ions at sNN=2.8–4.9 GeV. The anisotropic transverse flow is one of the most important observable phenomena in a study of the properties of matter created in such collisions. Flow measurements require the knowledge of the collision symmetry plane, which can be determined from the deflection of the collision spectators in the plane transverse to the direction of the moving ions. The CBM performance for projectile spectator symmetry plane estimation is studied with GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations using collisions of gold ions with beam momentum of 12A GeV/c generated with the DCM-QGSM-SMM model. Different data-driven methods to extract the correction factor in flow analysis for the resolution of the spectator symmetry plane estimated with the CBM Projectile Spectator Detector are investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Techniques and Physics Performance Studies for FAIR and NICA)
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11 pages, 1169 KiB  
Article
Directional Dark Matter Searches with CYGNO
by Fernando Domingues Amaro, Elisabetta Baracchini, Luigi Benussi, Stefano Bianco, Cesidio Capoccia, Michele Caponero, Gianluca Cavoto, André Cortez, Igor Abritta Costa, Emiliano Dané, Giorgio Dho, Emanuele Di Marco, Giulia D’Imperio, Flaminia Di Giambattista, Robert R. M. Gregorio, Francesco Iacoangeli, Herman Pessoa Lima Júnior, Amaro da Silva Lopes Júnior, Giovanni Maccarrone, Rui Daniel Passos Mano, Michela Marafini, Giovanni Mazzitelli, Alasdair G. McLean, Andrea Messina, Cristina Maria Bernardes Monteiro, Rafael Antunes Nobrega, Igor Fonseca Pains, Emiliano Paoletti, Luciano Passamonti, Sandro Pelosi, Fabrizio Petrucci, Stefano Piacentini, Davide Piccolo, Daniele Pierluigi, Davide Pinci, Atul Prajapati, Francesco Renga, Rita Joana da Cruz Roque, Filippo Rosatelli, Andrea Russo, Joaquim Marques Ferreira dos Santos, Giovanna Saviano, Neil Spooner, Roberto Tesauro, Sandro Tomassini and Samuele Torelliadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Particles 2021, 4(3), 343-353; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4030029 - 6 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3897
Abstract
The CYGNO project aims at developing a high resolution Time Projection Chamber with optical readout for directional dark matter searches and solar neutrino spectroscopy. Peculiar CYGNO’s features are the 3D tracking capability provided by the combination of photomultipliers and scientific CMOS camera signals, [...] Read more.
The CYGNO project aims at developing a high resolution Time Projection Chamber with optical readout for directional dark matter searches and solar neutrino spectroscopy. Peculiar CYGNO’s features are the 3D tracking capability provided by the combination of photomultipliers and scientific CMOS camera signals, combined with a helium-fluorine-based gas mixture at atmospheric pressure amplified by gas electron multipliers structures. In this paper, the performances achieved with CYGNO prototypes and the prospects for the upcoming underground installation at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of a 50-L detector in fall 2021 will be discussed, together with the plans for a 1-m3 experiment. The synergy with the ERC consolidator, grant project INITIUM, aimed at realising negative ion drift operation within the CYGNO 3D optical approach, will be further illustrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from "New Horizons in Time Projection Chambers")
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10 pages, 3536 KiB  
Article
A Compact Muon Tracker for Dynamic Tomography of Density Based on a Thin Time Projection Chamber with Micromegas Readout
by Ignacio Lázaro Roche
Particles 2021, 4(3), 333-342; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4030028 - 1 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3313
Abstract
Tomography based on cosmic muon absorption is a rising technique because of its versatility and its consolidation as a geophysics tool over the past decade. It allows us to address major societal issues such as long-term stability of natural and man-made large infrastructures [...] Read more.
Tomography based on cosmic muon absorption is a rising technique because of its versatility and its consolidation as a geophysics tool over the past decade. It allows us to address major societal issues such as long-term stability of natural and man-made large infrastructures or sustainable underwater management. Traditionally, muon trackers consist of hodoscopes or multilayer detectors. For applications with challenging available volumes or the wide field of view required, a thin time projection chamber (TPC) associated with a Micromegas readout plane can provide a good tradeoff between compactness and performance. This paper details the design of such a TPC aiming at maximizing primary signal and minimizing track reconstruction artifacts. The results of the measurements performed during a case study addressing the aforementioned applications are discussed. The current works lines and perspectives of the project are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from "New Horizons in Time Projection Chambers")
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